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Full chapter in a single perfect format 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Introduction1. INTRODUCTION1.1 WHAT IS GREEN COMPUTING?Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. Theprimary objective of such a program is to account for the triple bottom line, anexpanded spectrum of values and criteria for measuring organizational (and societal)success. The goals are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials,maximize energy efficiency during the products lifetime, and promote recyclability orbiodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Modern IT systems rely upon acomplicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computinginitiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems.Elements of such as solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction,management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste,telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use, thin client solutions, andreturn on investment (ROI) [R1].Today, data volumes are doubling every 18 months, and enterprises want to keep moredata online and provide access to more users. The impact is huge increases in theamount of hardware infrastructure needed; resulting in corresponding increases inpower, cooling and data center space needs [6].The recycling of old computers raises an important privacy issue. The old storagedevices still hold private information, such as emails, passwords and credit cardnumbers, which can be recovered simply by someone using software that is availablefreely on the Internet. Deletion of a file does not actually remove the file from the harddrive. Before recycling a computer, users should remove the hard drive or hard drives ifthere is more than one, and physically destroy it or store it somewhere safe. There are1|Page
  2. 2. some authorized hardware recycling companies to whom the computer may be given forrecycling, and they typically sign a non-disclosure agreement [6].Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, andhexavalent chromium out of landfills, and can also replace equipment that otherwisewould need to be manufactured, saving further energy and emissions. Computersystems that have outlived their particular function can be re-purposed, or donated tovarious charities and non-profit organizations. However, many charities have recentlyimposed minimum system requirements for donated equipment. Additionally, partsfrom outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets andmunicipal or private recycling centers. Computing supplies, such as printer cartridges,paper, and batteries may be recycled as well [R1].A drawback too many of these schemes is that computers gathered through recyclingdrives are often shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are lessstrict than in North America and Europe. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimatesthat 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad tocountries such as China and Pakistan [R1].As 21st century belongs to computers, gizmos and electronic items, energy issues willget a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, globalwarming and climate change gets hotter. Taking into consideration the popular use ofinformation technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in amanner no industry has ever done before.1.2 ORIGINIn 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntarylabelling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency inmonitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. This resulted in thewidespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. The term "greencomputing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began; there areseveral USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner.Concurrently, the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCOCertification program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-2|Page
  3. 3. based computer displays; this program was later expanded to include criteria on energyconsumption, ergonomics, and the use of hazardous materials in construction.1.3 HOW YOUR DEVICES HARM THE ENVIRONMENT?Your computer and peripherals draw significant amounts of energy in sleep and standbymodes. They contribute to harmful CO2 emissions. These days everyone seems to betalking about global warming and ways to protect the environment. Unconsciously, allof us are contributing to unwanted CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions from home, throughthe careless use of our electrical devices. The sheer amount of energy wasted by deviceslike PCs, televisions, and most other electronic appliances, even when they are instandby mode, is enormous. According to reports from the German FederalEnvironment Office, devices consume around 17 billion kilowatts hours (kWh) in a yearwhen they are in the standby mode. This mode is also responsible for CO2 emissions;the CO2 dissipated from ‗sleeping‘ devices amounts to about one-seventh the CO2emitted by an automobile. Manufacturers do not provide a proper shut-off button indevices. DVD players, DVD recorders or even multifunctional printers continue to drawelectricity because of the absence of an ‗Off‘ button. If you press ‗Power off‘ on theremote, these devices go into standby mode. The situation is even more serious in thecase of PCs. Windows Vista never shuts down or powers off the PC completely. Rather,the default shut down mode is a deep sleep mode that requires power. It‘s only whenyou switch off the mains switch at the back of the computer that the power supply unitstops drawing power.1.4 WHY GREEN COMPUTING?In a world where business is transacted 24/7 across every possible channel available,companies need to collect, store, track and analyze enormous volumes of data—everything from click stream data and event logs to mobile call records and more. Butthis all comes with a cost to both businesses and the environment. Data warehouses andthe sprawling data centers that house them use up a huge amount of power, both to runlegions of servers and to cool them. Just how much? A whopping 61 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, at an estimated cost of $4.5B annually [6].3|Page
  4. 4. The IT industry has begun to address energy consumption in the data center through avariety of approaches including the use of more efficient cooling systems, virtualization,blade servers and storage area networks (SANs). But a fundamental challenge remains.As data volumes explode, traditional, appliance-centric data warehousing approachescan only continue to throw more hardware at the problem. This can quickly negate anygreen gains seen through better cooling or more tightly packed servers [6].To minimize their hardware footprint, organizations also need to shrink their "datafootprint" by addressing how much server space and resources their informationanalysis requires in the first place. A combination of new database technologiesexpressly designed for analysis of massive quantities of data and affordable, resource-efficient, open-source software can help organizations save money and become greener[6].Organizations can do so in the following three key areas: reduced data footprint,reduced deployment resources, and reduced on going management and maintenance [6].4|Page
  5. 5. CHAPTER 2 Approaches2. APPROACHES TO GREEN COMPUTINGEnergy costs of IT and data center operations are significant, whether for internalcorporate IT operations or as part of IT outsourcing, Power consumption, Cooling,―Inefficient‖ equipment operations, e.g., data servers ―spinning‖ when no activeoperations are being performed. In ―old days‖ energy costs were assumed to be free. Incurrent environment (pun intended), equipment costs have been reduced, putting focuson energy costs [R1].2.1 VIRTUALIZATIONInitiatives in this area include server virtualization and consolidation, storageconsolidation and desktop virtualization. These projects typically improve cost andenergy efficiency through optimized use of existing and new computing and storagecapacity, electricity, cooling, ventilation and real estate [6].Moving desktops to a virtual environment and employing thin-client machines reducesenergy consumption and environmental impact of user infrastructure. As one seniorpartner at a 100-employee services firm reports, ―[Thin clients have] no CPU, no RAM,no moving parts, and connect to the virtual desktop environment. Our typical computerused up to a 250-watt power supply; our thin client uses a 4.8-watt power supply, so thereduction in electricity usage is 97, 98 percent, with all the functionality. ‖ Energysavings result, as does cost avoidance, thanks to extended refresh cycles provided bythin client equipment. Mid-size businesses face a preponderance of issues when itcomes to the server room. In this study, businesses cite the following reasons forundertaking server room upgrades and the construction of new server rooms: • Decrease cost and increase effectiveness of cooling and ventilation systems. Many existing HVAC systems cannot keep up with smaller, more powerful5|Page
  6. 6. servers that throw off more heat than older, low-density equipment. Most server rooms were not designed to keep pace with the modern complement of fully virtualized servers and consolidated storage. • Increase server and computing capacity. Server room spaces are simply maxed out; they are either too small to house needed servers, or inadequately equipped to deal with a high rate of virtualization on fewer devices that run hotter. • Questionable reliability of aging server room infrastructure; the server room design of yesterday no longer supports business needs of today, in terms of uptime and availability. • Mounting maintenance and management costs for older facilities, which may not affordably handle growth of computing and storage. • The need to decrease real estate costs, through server room infrastructure that supports denser, smaller footprints of new servers and storage [6].Computer virtualization is the process of running two or more logical computer systemson one set of physical hardware. The concept originated with the IBM mainframeoperating systems of the 1960s, but was commercialized for x86- compatible computersonly in the 1990s. With virtualization, a system administrator could combine severalphysical systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, therebyunplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption. Severalcommercial companies and open-source projects now offer software packages to enablea transition to virtual computing. Intel Corporation and AMD have also built proprietaryvirtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU productlines, in order to facilitate virtualized computing [R1].Server Virtualisation increases network utilization and reduces network equipmentneeds by allowing multiple virtual servers to share one or more network adapters withinthe confines of a single physical server. On the switch side, features such as CiscosVirtual Switching System allow one switch to function like many, which means morethan one server can connect to the same port. This works because most organizationsoverprovision switching capacity based on peak loads. Reducing the total number ofphysical ports required lowers overall power consumption. Similarly, 1HPs VirtualConnect technology abstracts HP server blades from Ethernet and Fibre Channel6|Page
  7. 7. networks. It requires fewer network interface cards, reduces cabling requirements andincreases network utilization [R1].One of the primary goals of almost all forms of virtualization is making the mostefficient use of available system resources. With energy and power costs increasing asthe size of IT infrastructures grow, holding expenses to a minimum is quickly becominga top priority for many IT pros. Virtualization has helped in that respect by allowingorganizations to consolidate their servers onto fewer pieces of hardware, which canresult in sizable cost savings. The data-center is where virtualization can have thegreatest impact, and its there where many of the largest companies in the virtualizationspace are investing their resources [R1].Virtualization also fits in very nicely with the idea of ―Green Computing‖; byconsolidating servers and maximizing CPU processing power on other servers, you arecutting costs (saving money) and taking less of a toll on our environment Storagevirtualization uses hardware and software to break the link between an application,application component, system service or whole stack of software and the storagesubsystem. This allows the storage to be located just about anywhere, on just about anytype of device, replicated for performance reasons, replicated for reliability reasons orfor any combination of the above [R1].2.2 PC POWER MANAGEMENTMany look to managing end-user device power consumption as an easy, effective wayto reduce energy costs. These power management initiatives include the following: • Using software that centrally manages energy settings of PCs and monitors. • Enforcing standardized power settings on all PCs before distributing to end users. • Procuring energy-efficient equipment, such as Energy Star certified devices [6].-Every kilowatt counts:Older computers can use up to 300 watts during peak load, but less than eight wattsduring sleep modes. By maximizing the number of PCs and monitors controlled forhibernate, sleep or shut-down times, companies reduce the amount of energy consumedduring lengthy idle times, particularly overnight. Procuring Energy Star compliantdevices or more energy-efficient equipment can also reduce power consumption during7|Page
  8. 8. equipment use. This includes replacing old desktops with laptops, or refreshing CRTmonitors with LCD flat-screens. Altogether, these power management strategies resultin significant energy and maintenance cost savings; such benefits are realized by 65% ofcompanies that complete such initiatives [6]. Power management for computer systemsare desired for many reasons, particularly: • Prolong battery life for portable and embedded systems. • Reduce cooling requirements. • Reduce noise. • Reduce operating costs for energy and cooling. • Lower power consumption also means lower heat dissipation, which increases system stability, and less energy use, which saves money and reduces the impact on the environment. • The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), an open industry standard, allows an operating system to directly control the power saving aspects of its underlying hardware. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. In addition, a system may hibernate, where most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel- Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management, which allows a computers BIOS to control power management functions. • Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. This process is called under volting. Some CPUs can automatically under volt the processor depending on the workload; this technology is called "SpeedStep" on Intel processors, "PowerNow!" or "CoolnQuiet" on AMD chips, ―LongHaul‖ on VIA CPUs, and ―Long Run‖ with Transmeta processors. The power management for microprocessors can be done over the whole processor, or in specific areas. With dynamic voltage scaling and dynamic frequency scaling, the CPU core voltage, clock rate, or both, can be altered to decrease power consumption at the price of slower performance. This is sometimes done in real time to optimize the power-performance tradeoff.8|Page
  9. 9. Examples: • Intel SpeedStep • AMD CoolnQuiet • AMD PowerNow! • VIA LongHaul (PowerSaver) • Transmeta LongRun and LongRun2Newer Intel Core processors support ultra-fine power control over the function unitswithin the processors [R1].2.3 POWER SUPPLYPower supplies in most computers (PSUs for short) arent designed for energy efficiency.In fact, most computers drain more power than they need during normal operation,leading to higher electrical bills and a more dire environmental impact. The 80 Plusprogram is a voluntary certification system for power-supply manufacturers. The term"80 Plus" is a little complicated, so bear with me for a moment. If a PSU meets thecertification, it will use only the power it needs at a given load: In other words, it wontuse more power than it needs. For example, if your PC requires only 20 percent of thetotal power of a 500-watt PSU, the system will consume no more than 100 watts. Onlywhen the PC requires full power will the PSU run at the full wattage load. An 80 Pluspower supply can save about 85 kilowatt hours per PC, per year. In many ways, its theheart of a green PC, since it manages the power for all the other components. It also hasthe most dramatic effect on your energy bill. Of course, all 80 Plus power supplies arealso lead-free and RoHS compliant [R1].Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70–75% efficient, dissipatingthe remaining energy as heat. An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs thatare at least 80% efficient; typically these models are drop-in replacements for older, lessefficient PSUs of the same form factor. As of July 20, 2007, all new Energy Star 4.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. Various initiatives are underwayto improve the efficiency of computer power supplies.9|Page
  10. 10. Climate savers computing initiative promotes energy saving and reduction ofgreenhouse gas emissions by encouraging development and use of more efficient powersupplies [R1].2.4 STORAGEThere are three routes available, all of which vary in cost, performance, and capacity.The most conventional route is the 3.5" desktop hard drive. Recently, major drivemanufacturers have begun to focus on reduced power consumption, resulting in suchfeatures as the reduced RPM low-power idle mode with fixed rotation speed for reducedpower consumption. The advantages of this route are the highest possible capacity, thebest performance (out of the highest-end solid-state drives).The second option, which also lends itself to affordability, is to use a 2.5" laptop harddrive. These consume less power than larger disks as a result of their smaller platters,smaller motors, and firmware that is already optimized for power consumption versusmost 3.5" hard disks. With capacities up to 320GB, reasonable capacity is well withinreach, although the price is substantially higher than an equivalent 3.5" disk. With agreen system aimed at light use, a 120GB or 160GB laptop drive is a very affordable,lower-power alternative to a 3.5" disk [R1].The lowest-power option is to use a solid state hard drive (SSD), which typically drawless than one-third the power of a 2.5" disk. The latest, highest-performance SSDs arevery fast but extremely expensive, and currently top out at only 64GB. Thats adequatefor light use, but wholly inadequate for gamers, video editing, and other heavy uses.More affordable SSDs are available in larger capacities, but are not cheap and typicallyhave slow write performance, which limits their practical utility.Smaller form factor (e.g. 2.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power thanphysically larger drives. Unlike hard disk drives, solid-state drives store data in flashmemory or DRAM. With no moving parts, power consumption may be reducedsomewhat for low capacity flash based devices. Even at modest sizes, DRAM basedSSDs may use more power than hard disks, (e.g., 4GB i-RAM uses more power andspace than laptop drives). Flash based drives are generally slower for writing than harddisks [R1].10 | P a g e
  11. 11. 2.5 VIDEO CARDA fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. Energy efficient displayoptions include: • No video card - use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software if display required. • Use motherboard video output - typically low 3D performance and low power. • Reuse an older video card that uses little power; many do not require heat sinks or fans. • Select a GPU based on average wattage or performance per watt.The easiest way to conserve power is to go with integrated video. This is the lowestperformance option, but for office users, casual browsing, and pure 2D use, its morethan adequate—and well worth saving the 10W, 20W, or even 35W from a discretevideo card. Motherboards spitting out integrated video via DVI or HDMI arent thathard to find, so power-users with their massive LCDs dont have to suffer [R1].2.6 DISPLAYSLCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for thedisplay. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place ofthe fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. LCDmonitors uses three times less when active, and ten times less energy when in sleepmode. LCDs are up to 66% more energy efficient than CRTs, LCDs are also upwards of80% smaller in size and weight, leading to fuel savings in shipping.LCDs produce less heat, meaning youll need less AC to keep cool. LCD screens arealso easier on the eyes. Their lower intensity and steady light pattern result in lessfatigue versus CRTs. A newer LCD draws 40-60W maximum in a modest 19", 20", or22" size. That number grows close to maximum 85W or 100W for a 24" unit. Dropthem down to standby or turn them off entirely when not using them to minimize powerconsumption. By comparison, a 21" CRT typically uses more than 120W, more thandouble the power of a typical 22" LCD [R1].2.7 IT EQUIPMENT RECYCLING11 | P a g e
  12. 12. After you‘ve finished with your IT products, what happens when they‘re no longerneeded? In nature, organic materials rot down and feed future growth, so why notdismantle products at the end of their lives and use the elements as raw materials forfuture products? Several reputable computer manufacturers use metal and easilyseparated plastics in order to maximize raw material reuse. It‘s important that theenvironmental costs of recovery don‘t exceed the benefits expected. And that, of course,loops back to design in the first place [6].The priorities for all material things are reducing reuse and recycle - in that order ofimportance. If you can extend the working life of your IT products, you reduce theenvironmental consequences of mining, manufacture, packaging, shipping and disposal.Can you upgrade something rather than finish using it? If you have to replace it, cansomeone else inside your organization use it? If not, charities and refurbishingorganizations may be able to extend the product‘s life. And, waiting at the end of theline, many organizations, including some manufacturers themselves, are willing to takeequipment back and recycle the components into new products. Out of all initiatives inthis study, the success of IT equipment recycling relies not on a business case with costsavings, but on a combination of environmental responsibility and regulatory pressures.The single most important factor in adopting recycling initiatives is to decrease wastesent to landfills [6].Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, andhexavalent chromium out of landfills. Obsolete computers are a valuable source forsecondary raw materials, if treated properly, however if not treated properly they are amajor source of toxins and carcinogens. Rapid technology change, low initial cost andeven planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast growing problem around the globe.Technical solutions are available but in most cases a legal framework, a collectionsystem, logistics and other services need to be implemented before a technical solutioncan be applied. Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions,VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other handheld devices, and computercomponents, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation,including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances, suchas dioxins, PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury [R1].12 | P a g e
  13. 13. Additionally, the processing required reclaiming the precious substances (includingincineration and acid treatments) release, generating and synthesizing further toxicbyproducts most major computer manufacturers offer some form of recycling, often as afree replacement service when purchasing a new PC. At the users request they maymail in their old computer, or arrange for pickup from the manufacturer. Individualslooking for environmentally-friendly ways in which to dispose of electronics can findcorporate electronic take-back and recycling programs across the country. Open to thepublic (in most cases), corporations nationwide have begun to offer low-cost to no costrecycling, and have opened centers nationally and in some cases internationally [4].Such programs frequently offer services to take-back and recycle electronics includingmobile phones, laptop and desktop computers, digital cameras, and home and autoelectronics. Companies offer what are called ―take-back‖ programs that providemonetary incentives for recyclable and/or working technologies. While there are severalhealth hazards when it comes to dealing with computer recycling some of thesubstances you should be aware of: • Lead common in CRTs, older solder, some batteries and to some formulations of PVC. It can be harmful if not disposed of properly. • Mercury in fluorescent tubes. With new technologies arising the elimination of mercury in many new model computers is taking place. • Cadmium in some rechargeable batteries. It can be hazardous to your skin if exposed for too long. Although many people are exposed to it every day it just depends on the amount of exposure. • Liquid crystals are another health hazard that should be taken into consideration although they do not have the nearly the same effects as the other chemicals [2].2.8 REMOTE CONFERENCING & TELECOMMUTING STRATEGIESGiven recent jumps in fuel costs and greater awareness of harm caused by greenhousegas emissions, many companies wish to reduce travel to cut costs and decrease negativeimpact on the environment. The initiatives in this study consist of the following: • Remote Conferencing & Collaboration13 | P a g e
  14. 14. • Video-conferencing and teleconferencing implementations between facilities or between office and client sites. • Online collaboration environments.2.8.1 Telecommuting Strategy & Capabilities: • Virtual Private Network (VPN), remote access, and unified or voice communications capabilities to enable access from home and other remote locations. • Policies and strategies allowing or encouraging employees to work from home. • Policies allowing or enforcing employees to work ―Four-Tens‖ (4 days a week, 10 hours a day) [6].2.8.2 Cutting travel costs where it counts:Not surprisingly, businesses adopting travel reduction initiatives seek to decrease thetravel and fuel consumption costs associated with driving or flying between officelocations and to client sites. These initiatives not only reduce costs of fuel, flights,hotels and related expenses, but also result in higher employee satisfaction. Afterimplementation, more than three-quarters of organizations report their expectationsregarding travel cost savings are either met or exceeded. Teleconferencing andtelepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. Theadvantages are many; increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gasemissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overheadcosts for office space, heat, lighting, etc. The savings are significant; the average annualenergy consumption for U.S. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot,with heat, air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed.Other related initiatives, such as hotelling, reduce the square footage per employee asworkers reserve space only when they need it. Many types of jobs -- sales, consulting,and field service -- integrate well with this technique. Rather than traveling greatdistances, in order to have a face-face meeting, it is now possible to teleconferenceinstead, using a multi way video phone. Each member of the meeting, or each party, cansee every other member on a screen or screens, and can talk to them as if they were inthe same room. This brings enormous time and cost benefits, as well as a reduced14 | P a g e
  15. 15. impact on the environment by lessening the need for travel – a damaging source ofcarbon emissions [R1].Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existingEthernet copper (a toxic metal). VoIP and phone extension mobility also made hotdesking and more practical [R1].2.9 PRODUCT LONGEVITYGartner maintains that the PC manufacturing process accounts for 70 % of the naturalresources used in the life cycle of a PC. Therefore, the biggest contribution to greencomputing usually is to prolong the equipments lifetime. Another report from Gartnerrecommends to "Looking for product longevity, including upgradability andmodularity." For instance, manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecologicalfootprint than manufacturing a new RAM module to upgrade an existing one, a commonupgrade that saves the user having to purchase a new computer [R1].2.10 ALGORITHMIC EFFICIENCYThe efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resourcesrequired for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs inwriting programs. As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardwarehas declined relative to the cost of energy, the energy efficiency and environmentalimpact of computing systems and programs has received increased attention. A study byAlex Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard, estimated that the average Google searchreleased 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, Google disputes this figure,arguing instead that a typical search produces only 0.2 grams of CO2 [R1].2.11 RESOURCE ALLOCATIONAlgorithms can also be used to route data to data centers where electricity is lessexpensive. Researchers from MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Akamai have testedan energy allocation algorithm that successfully routes traffic to the location with thecheapest energy costs. The researchers project up to a 40 percent savings on energycosts if their proposed algorithm were to be deployed. Strictly speaking, this approachdoes not actually reduce the amount of energy being used; it only reduces the cost to the15 | P a g e
  16. 16. company using it. However, a similar strategy could be used to direct traffic to rely onenergy that is produced in a more environmentally friendly or efficient way. A similarapproach has also been used to cut energy usage by routing traffic away from datacenters experiencing warm weather; this allows computers to be shut down to avoidusing air conditioning [R1].2.12 TERMINAL SERVERSTerminal servers have also been used in green computing. When using the system, usersat a terminal connect to a central server; all of the actual computing is done on theserver, but the end user experiences the operating system on the terminal. These can becombined with thin clients, which use up to 1/8 the amount of energy of a normalworkstation, resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption.There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtuallabs. Examples of terminal server software include Terminal Services for Windows andthe Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the Linux operating system [R1].2.13 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTThe dominant desktop operating system, Microsoft Windows, has included limited PCpower management features since Windows 95. These initially provided for stand-by(suspend-to-RAM) and a monitor low power state. Further iterations of Windows addedhibernate (suspend-to-disk) and support for the ACPI standard. Windows 2000 was thefirst NT based operation system to include power management. This required majorchanges to the underlying operating system architecture and a new hardware drivermodel. Windows 2000 also introduced Group Policy, a technology which allowedadministrators to centrally configure most Windows features. However, powermanagement was not one of those features. This is probably because the powermanagement settings design relied upon a connected set of per-user and per-machinebinary registry values, effectively leaving it up to each user to configure their ownpower management settings [R1].This approach, which is not compatible with Windows Group Policy, was repeated inWindows XP. The reasons for this design decision by Microsoft are not known, and ithas resulted in heavy criticism Microsoft significantly improved this in Windows Vista16 | P a g e
  17. 17. by redesigning the power management system to allow basic configuration by GroupPolicy. The support offered is limited to a single per computer policy. The most recentrelease, Windows 7 retains these limitations but does include refinements for moreefficient user of operating system timers, processor power management, and displaypanel brightness [R1].17 | P a g e
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 Ways of implementation3. WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION3.1 GREENING YOUR ORGANIZATIONThe whole idea of replacing physical movement with electronic communications likevideoconferencing reduces environmental impacts, not to mention associated costs. Thisalso applies to how you manage your business processes. Consider distributinginformation electronically rather than printing it first and then distributing it. This ‗printon demand‘ approach saves transport and unnecessary copies, not to mention savingmoney! Companies with transport and logistics operations can reduce emissions byusing software applications to optimize routes and eliminate wasted journeys. Solutionscan range from simple sat-nav devices to more complex transportation managementsystems which coordinate multiple vehicles and routes, saving both time and fuel, andproviding more predictable customer service too [3].Power management softwares help the computers to sleep or hibernate when not in use.Reversible computing (which also includes quantum computing) promises to reducepower consumption by a factor of several thousand, but such systems are still verymuch in the laboratories. Reversible computing includes any computational process thatis (at least to some close approximation) reversible, i.e., time-invertible, meaning that atime-reversed version of the process could exist within the same general dynamicalframework as the original process. Reversible computings efficient use of heat couldmake it possible to come up with 3-D chip designs, Bennett said. This would push all ofthe circuitry closer together and ultimately increase performance.The best way to recycle a computer, however, is to keep it and upgrade it. Further, it isimportant to design computers which can be powered with low power obtained from18 | P a g e
  19. 19. non-conventional energy sources like solar energy, pedaling a bike, turning a hand-crank etc.The electric utility industry is in an unprecedented era of change to meet increasingcustomer demand for greater reliability and different services in the face of substantialregulation and volatile energy costs. This requires new approaches and business modelsto allow greater network reliability, efficiency, flexibility and transparency. At the sametime, the utility industry is digitizing, transforming from an electromechanicalenvironment to a digitized one.New Internet Protocol-enabled networks now allow for network integration along theentire supply chain – from generation, transmission, to end-use and metering – andcreate the opportunity for Intelligent Utility Networks (IUN) which applies sensors andother technologies to sense and respond in real-time to changes throughout the supplychain. The IP-enabled network connects all parts of the utility grid equipment, controlsystems, applications, and employees. It also enables automatic data collection andstorage from across the utility based on a common information model and service-oriented architecture (SOA), which enables a flexible use of information technology.This in turn allows utilities to continuously analyze data so that they can better manageassets and operations.Electronics giants are about to roll out eco-friendly range of computers (like desktopsand laptops) that aim at reducing the e-waste in the environment. Besides desktops andlaptops, other electronic hardware products should also be strictly adhering to therestricted use of hazardous substances. In other words, they should be free of hazardousmaterials such as brominated flame retardants, PVCs and heavy metals such as lead,cadmium and mercury, which are commonly used in computer manufacturing.Reliability about the use of green materials in computer is perhaps the biggest singlechallenge facing the electronics industry. Lead-tin solder in use today is very malleablemaking it an ideal shock absorber. So far, more brittle replacement solders have yet toshow the same reliability in arduous real-world applications.3.2 NEARING GREEN NIRVANA19 | P a g e
  20. 20. • Energy-intensive manufacturing of computer parts can be minimized by making manufacturing process more energy efficient by replacing petroleum filled plastic with bioplastics—plant-based polymers— require less oil and energy to produce than traditional plastics with a challenge to keep these bioplastic computers cool so that electronics wont melt them. • Power-sucking displays can be replaced with green light displays made of OLEDs, or organic light-emitting diodes. • Use of toxic materials like lead can be replaced by silver and copper. • Making recycling of computers (which is expensive and time consuming at present) more effective by recycling computer parts separately with an option of reuse or resale. • Future computers could knock 10 percent off their energy use just by replacing hard drives with solid-state, or flash, memory, which has no watt-hungry moving parts. • Buy and use a low power desktop or a laptop computer (40-90 watts) rather a higher power desktop (e.g. 300 watts). • Find out the normal operating power (watts) required. • The maximum power supply (up to 1kW in some modern gaming PCs) is not as important as the normal operating power, but note that power supply efficiency generally peaks at about 50-75% load. • Idle state represents 69 to 97% of total annual energy use, even if power management is enabled. • Computer power supplies are generally about 70–75% efficient; to produce 75 W of DC output they require 100 W of AC input and dissipate the remaining 25 W in heat. • Higher-quality power supplies can be over 80% efficient; higher energy efficiency uses less power directly, and requires less power to cool as well. As of 2007, 93% efficient power supplies are available. • Thin clients can use only 4 to 8 watts of power at the desktop as the processing is done by a server.20 | P a g e
  21. 21. • For desktops, buy a low power central processing unit (CPU). This reduces both power consumption and cooling requirements. • Buy hardware from manufacturers that have a hardware recycling scheme, and recycle your old computer equipment rather than sending it to landfill. • Turn your computer and monitor off when you are not using it. • Enable hibernation using the power management settings. Standby does not save as much power. • Replace your CRT screen with an LCD screen. • Keep your PC or laptop for at least 5 years. If youre leasing, shift to a 5 year period. This reduces resource and energy consumption associated with the manufacture and distribution of PCs by 40%, compared to replacing PCs every 3 years which is current corporate practice. • Avoid an unnecessary operating system version upgrade which requires a hardware upgrade. • Use Linux (such as Ubuntu), which requires less resources than many other operating systems on an older computer as a spare or a file server. • Use server virtualization to aggregate multiple under-utilized servers onto more energy efficient server infrastructure. • Use blade servers instead of rack or standalone servers to reduce power consumption. • Specify low energy consumption level in Request for Tender documents. • Measure your data center power usage. • Use server and/or web-based applications where possible to extend desktop service life and reduce desktop software maintenance. • Establish policies governing the acquisition, usage and disposal of computer hardware to minimize energy consumption and environmental impact [3].21 | P a g e
  22. 22. CHAPTER 4 Future4. FUTURE OF GREEN COMPUTINGAs 21st century belongs to computers, gizmos and electronic items, energy issues willget a serious ring in the coming days, as the public debate on carbon emissions, globalwarming and climate change gets hotter. If we think computers are nonpolluting andconsume very little energy we need to think again. It is estimated that out of $250billion per year spent on powering computers worldwide only about 15% of that poweris spent computing- the rest is wasted idling. Thus, energy saved on computer hardwareand computing will equate tonnes of carbon emissions saved per year.Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has tolead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before.Opportunities lie in green technology like never before in history and organizations areseeing it as a way to create new profit centers while trying to help the environmentalcause [R1].The plan towards green IT should include new electronic products and services withoptimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings. Faster processorshistorically use more power. Inefficient CPUs are a double hit because they both usetoo much power themselves and their waste heat increases air conditioning needs,especially in server farms--between the computers and the HVAC. The waste heat alsocauses reliability problems, as CPUs crash much more often at higher temperatures.Many people have been working for years to slice this inefficiency out of computers.Similarly, power supplies are notoriously bad, generally as little as 47% efficient. Andsince everything in a computer runs off the power supply, nothing can be efficientwithout a good power supply. Recent inventions of power supply are helping fix this byrunning at 80% efficiency or better [2].22 | P a g e
  23. 23. CHAPTER 5 Green IT5. GREEN IT FOR BUSINESSIt is becoming widely understood that the way in which we are behaving as a society isenvironmentally unsustainable, causing irreparable damage to our planet. Rising energyprices, together with government-imposed levies on carbon production, are increasinglyimpacting on the cost of doing business, making many current business practiceseconomically unsustainable. It is becoming progressively more important for allbusinesses to act (and to be seen to act) in an environmentally responsible manner, bothto fulfill their legal and moral obligations, but also to enhance the brand and to improvecorporate image [3].Companies are competing in an increasingly ‗green‘ market, and must avoid the realand growing financial penalties that are increasingly being levied against carbonproduction. IT has a large part to play in all this. With the increasing drive towardscentralized mega data centers alongside the huge growth in power hungry bladetechnologies in some companies, and with a shift to an equally power-hungrydistributed architecture in others, the IT function of business is driving an exponentialincrease in demand for energy, and, along with it, is having to bear the associated costincreases [3].5.1 THE PROBLEMRising energy costs will have an impact on all businesses, and all businesses willincreasingly be judged according to their environmental credentials, by legislators,customers and shareholders. This won‘t just affect the obvious, traditionally power-hungry ‗smoke-belching‘ manufacturing and heavy engineering industries, and thepower generators. The IT industry is more vulnerable than most –It has sometimes beena reckless and profligate consumer of energy. Development and Improvements intechnology have largely been achieved without regard to energy consumption.23 | P a g e
  24. 24. 5.2 THE IMPACTRising energy costs and increasing environmental damage can only become moreimportant issues, politically and economically. They will continue to drive significantincreases in the cost of living, and will continue to drive up the cost of doing business.This will make it imperative for businesses to operate as green entities, risking massiveand expensive change. Cost and environmental concern will continue to force us awayfrom the ‗dirtiest‘ forms of energy (coal/oil), though all of the alternatives areproblematic. We may find ourselves facing a greater reliance on gas, which iseconomically unstable and whose supply is potentially insecure, or at least unreliable.It may force greater investment in nuclear power, which is unpopular and expensive,and it may lead to a massive growth of intrusive alternative energy infrastructure –including huge wind farms, or the equipment needed to exploit tidal energy. Solving therelated problems of rising energy costs and environmental damage will be extremelypainful and costly, and those perceived as being responsible will be increasinglyexpected to shoulder the biggest burden of the cost and blame. It may even proveimpossible to reduce the growth in carbon emissions sufficiently to avoid environmentalcatastrophe. Some believe that the spotlight may increasingly point towards IT as anarea to make major energy savings, and some even predict that IT may even becometomorrow‘s 4x4/SUV, or aviation – the next big target for the environmental lobby, andthe next thing to lose public support/consent.5.3 THE SOLUTIONA fresh approach to IT and power is now needed, putting power consumption at the forein all aspects of IT – from basic hardware design to architectural standards, from bolt-onpoint solutions to bottom-up infrastructure build. IBM has a real appreciation of theissues, thanks to its size, experience and expertise, and can help its customers to avoidthe dozens of ‗wrong ways‘ of doing things, by helping to identify the most appropriatesolutions. There is a real, economic imperative to change arising now, and it is not just amatter of making gestures simply to improve a company‘s environmental credentials.5.4 THE COST OF POWER24 | P a g e
  25. 25. The whole topic of energy consumption is gaining increased prominence in WesternEurope as a consequence of rising energy prices, and as a result of a growing focus onglobal warming and the environment.5.5 A HISTORY & THE FUTURE OF INCREASING POWER CONSUMPTIONMany of today‘s motor cars and car engines are increasingly poorly suited to today‘sdemand for economy and fuel efficiency, having been designed when oil prices werelow and when performance, space and comfort were the most important design drivers.Each new car model since the Model T was therefore designed to outperform itspredecessors. Only now is fuel economy and environmental ‗friendliness‘ is becomingmore important than speed and horsepower. The situation is similar in the IT industry,which has seen a concentration on processing power and storage capacity, while powerconsumption has been ignored. As in the automotive industry, energy consumption wasregarded as being much less important than performance. The IT industry has seen aconcentration on processing power and storage capacity, while power consumption hasbeen ignored. As manufacturers competed to create ever-faster processors, smaller andsmaller transistors (running hotter and consuming more electricity) were used to formthe basis of each new generation of processors. Increased operating temperatures addedto the consumption of power, requiring more and more cooling fans. Modern IT systemsprovide more computing power per unit of energy (kWh) and thus reduce energyconsumption per unit of computing power. Despite this, they are actually responsible foran overall increase in energy consumption, and for an increase in the cost of energy as aproportion of IT costs. This is because users are not simply using the same amount ofcomputing power as before, while using the new technology to reduce their powerconsumption (or operating temperatures), nor are they using technology to leveragesavings in energy costs or in CO2 production.Instead, users are taking and using the increased computing power offered by modernsystems. New software in particular is devouring more and more power every year.Some software requires almost constant access to the hard drive, draining power muchmore rapidly than previous packages did. Tests of the initial version of MicrosoftWindows Vista indicated that it consumed 25% more power than today‘s Windows XP,25 | P a g e
  26. 26. for example. The advent of faster, smaller chips has also allowed manufacturers toproduce smaller, stackable and rackable servers allowing greater computing power to bebrought to bear (and often shoe-horned into smaller spaces) but with no reduction inoverall energy consumption, and often with a much greater requirement for cooling.Despite the trend towards server virtualization and consolidation in some companies,business demand for IT services is increasing, and many companies are still expandingtheir data centers, while the number of servers in such data centers is still increasingannually by about 18%.While the growth in demand for energy did slowdown in 2005(going from a 4.4% rise to just 2.7%, globally) and though the demand for energyactually fell in the USA, the International Energy Agency has predicted that the worldwill need 60% more energy by 2030 than it does today.5.6 DATA CENTERSIn many companies, there has been a shift away from dedicated data centers, as part ofan attempt to provide all IT requirements by using smaller boxes within the officeenvironment. Many have found this solution too expensive, experiencing a higher netspend on staff as well as with higher support costs. Energy consumption of distributedIT environments is difficult to audit, but some have also noted a progressive increase inpower consumption with the move from centralized to decentralized, then to distributedarchitecture, and finally to mobility-based computing [2].Even where distributed computing remains dominant, the problems of escalating energyprices and environmental concerns are present, albeit at a lower order of magnitude thanin the data center environment, and even though the problems are rather more diffuseand more difficult to solve. Some analysts believe that there is already a trend awayfrom distributed computing back to the data center, with consolidation andcentralization on the rise again. Within a data center/server environment, technologicalimprovement is driving requirements for greater energy into the building, for increasedfloor area and for increased cooling capacity [2].This may be counter-intuitive, since the emergence of blade servers superficiallypromised to allow the more efficient use of data center floor space, by packing morehigh-performance servers into a single rack. However, this increase in computing power26 | P a g e
  27. 27. and server numbers for a given floor area multiplies cooling problems, since air is aninefficient media for cooling computers and empty space alone is insufficient to giveadequate cooling. Air conditioning and other cooling techniques are required to keeptemperatures in check. A typical 1980s server could be cooled quite easily, but though amodern server takes up much less floor space, it is more difficult to cool, and requiresmore space around it. Though it will require less power per unit of computing power, itsoverall energy requirement will be considerably higher, and the need for improvedcooling will further increase energy requirements – and environmental impact, of course.Analysts recently suggested that by the end of 2008, 50% of the data centers would nothave enough power to meet the power and cooling requirements of the new equipmentused in high-density server environments.The new systems are more compact and of higher density, and can call for morelocalized power and cooling than will typically be found in an existing data centerenvironment. A blade server system set up in a single rack, can easily weigh more thana tonnes, and can in theory call for more than 30kW of power – more than 10 timeswhat would have been required a few years ago. According to Sun Microsystemsengineers, a typical rack of servers installed in data centers just two years ago mighthave consumed a modest 2kW of power while producing 40 watts of heat per squarefoot. Newer, high-density racks, expected to be in use by the end of the decade, couldeasily consume as much as 25kW and give off as much as 500 watts of heat per squarefoot. The energy consumed by fans, pumps and other cooling components alreadyaccounts for some 60-70% of the total energy consumption in the data center, andGartner predicts that energy costs will become the second highest cost in 70% of theworld‘s data centers by 2009, trailing staff/personnel costs, but well ahead of the cost ofthe IT hardware.It is now believed that in most data centers, particularly those located in single-storyindustrial-type buildings, electrical costs are already more than two to three timesgreater than real-estate costs, and many existing data center buildings may be physicallyincapable of providing the higher levels of power and cooling that are now required.Because IT equipment is usually depreciated every two to three years, investment innew hardware is relatively easy, whereas new data center equipment (including air27 | P a g e
  28. 28. conditioning, universal power supplies and generators) are more usually depreciatedover 20 years, making new investment more difficult. Investing in new buildings maybe more even more problematic. It is thus difficult and costly to build your way out ofpower consumption and heat problems. The increasing drive toward Serverconsolidation in an effort to improve operating costs and operational efficiency isfurther aggravating the problems of increasing energy consumption, and increased heatgeneration. Thus, data center managers must focus on the electrical and cooling issue asnever before.There are cheap, quick-fix, ‗point‘ solutions that provide ‗strap-on‘ cooling byretrofitting blowers and/or water-cooling systems. Installing water jackets on theserver racks allows one to build a much smaller, denser and more efficient data center.But although liquid cooling is more efficient than air-conditioning, it is still a short term,stop-gap answer. Much greater efficiencies and greater cost savings can be leveraged byaddressing the underlying problem and by using longer-term solutions.This is likely to entail redesigning and reconfiguring the data center, however, whichobviously requires more long-term investment and a fresh approach to IT, with powerconsumption at front of mind.5.7 STRATEGIES FOR CHANGEThe whole purpose of IT is to make businesses more productive and efficient, and tosave money. Businesses are competitive bodies, used to having to ‗do more with less‘ inorder to remain competitive. They will have to learn to use less electricity in just thesame way, using green (sustainable) computing to save money.This will demand major changes in IT user behaviors and policies. As energy andinfrastructure costs continue to increase exponentially, and as environmentalconsiderations become more prevalent, there is a real need for a power-based IToptimization strategy, bringing power right to the fore of IT policy, thereby impactingthe end-tonnes architecture, hardware and software, and on all of the processesundertaken day-to-day to support a company‘s workflow. This could force the adoptionof new infrastructure, and will increasingly inform decision making when newplatforms are procured, or when decisions are made about IT strategies – whether to28 | P a g e
  29. 29. centralize or whether to adopt a more distributed architecture and so on. Othercompanies will have to take more modest steps, simply making sure that desktop PCs,monitors and printers are turned off at night, and/or using more effective power savingmodes on unused equipment. Others will opt to use more energy-efficient components,such as LCDs rather than CRT monitors when buying new hardware. New dual-coreprocessors are faster than traditional chips and yet use less energy, and the latestgeneration of dual-core processors (exemplified by Intel‘s new ‗Woodcrest‘) promise toconsume about one third less power than their predecessors while offering up to 80%better performance.Other IT users may need to investigate the use of DC power. Most energy suppliersprovide AC power because it is easier to transport over long distances, although mostPCs and servers run on DC, so that the AC current from the utility has to be convertedto DC before it reaches the hardware, with inevitable losses of energy in conversion.Some companies may benefit from moving away from distributed computing based onindividual desktop PCs to small, thin client server architecture. It has been suggestedthat a 10-user system could save about 3,200kWh per year in direct electricity costs(while further energy savings, equivalent to about 11 tonnes of CO2 per year, would besaved in manufacturing costs). The total production and operating cost savings over thethree-year life span of a 10-user system would be more than 33 tonnes.In an existing server environment, there are significant cost savings associated with anyreductions in cooling requirements, and keeping server rooms and computer workspacesat the right temperature is critical.Virtualization and server consolidation can allow users to ‗do more with less‘, allowingone large server to replace several smaller machines. This can reduce the powerrequired and the overall heat produced. By reducing the number of servers in use, userscan simplify their IT infrastructure, and reduce the power and cooling requirements.When Dayton, Ohio overhauled its IT infrastructure, replacing a network of 80 archaicterminals and numerous ad hoc PCs with thin clients for 60% of the staff and PCs forthe rest, the city saw a corresponding drop in energy used.The switch saved the city US$700,000 annually from reduced data and softwareadministration expenses, and especially from lower client maintenance costs, with a29 | P a g e
  30. 30. US$60,000-$90,000 reduction in electricity costs. There is also a correspondingreduction in carbon footprint.Fortunately, business is getting outside support as it struggles towards greenercomputing. The US Environmental Protection Agency‘s Energy Star program is alreadypromoting more energy-efficient IT infrastructures and policies, while IBM,Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems and AMD have joined forces to launch the GreenGrid environmental lobby, aimed at reducing energy consumption at computer datacenters by encouraging and improving power-saving measures.30 | P a g e
  31. 31. CHAPTER 6 Implementation6. INDUSTRIAL IMPLEMENTATIONS6.1 BLACKLEBlackle is a search-engine site powered by Google Search. Blackle came into beingbased on the concept that when a computer screen is white, presenting an empty wordpage or the Google home page, your computer consumes 74W. When the screen isblack it consumes only 59W. Based on this theory if everyone switched from Google toBlackle, mother earth would save 750MW each year. This was a really goodimplementation of Green Computing. The principle behind Blackle is based on the factthat the display of different colors consumes different amounts of energy on computermonitors [5].6.2 FIT-PCFit-PC is the size of a paperback and absolutely silent, yet fit enough to run WindowsXP or Linux. fit-PC is designed to fit where a standard PC is too bulky, noisy and powerhungry. If you ever wished for a PC to be compact, quiet and green – then fit- PC is theperfect fit for you. Fit-PC draws only 5 Watts, consuming in a day less power than atraditional PC consumes in 1 hour. You can leave fit-PC to work 24/7 without making adent in your electric bill [5].6.3 ZONBU COMPUTERThe Zonbu is a new, very energy efficient PC. The Zonbu consumes just one third of thepower of a typical light bulb. The device runs the Linux operating system using a 1.2gigahertz processor and 512 meg of RAM. It also contains no moving parts, and does31 | P a g e
  32. 32. even contain a fan. You can get one for as little as US$99, but it does require you tosign up for a two-year subscription" [5].6.4 SUNRAY THIN CLIENTSun Microsystems is reporting increased customer interest in its Sun Ray, a thin desktopclient, as electricity prices climb, according to Subodh Bapat, vice president and chiefengineer in the Eco Responsibility office at Sun. Thin clients like the Sun Ray consumefar less electricity than conventional desktops, he said. A Sun Ray on a desktopconsumes 4 to 8 watts of power, because most of the heavy computation is performedby a server. Sun says Sunrays are particularly well suited for cost-sensitiveenvironments such as call centers, education, healthcare, service providers, and finance.PCs have more powerful processors as well as hard drives, something thin clients donthave. Thus, traditional PCs invariably consume a substantially larger amount of power.In the United States, desktops need to consume 50 watts or less in idle mode to qualifyfor new stringent Energy Star certification [5].6.5 THE ASUS EEE PC AND OTHER ULTRA PORTABLESThe "ultra-portable" class of personal computers is characterized by a small size, fairlylow power CPU, compact screen, low cost and innovations such as using flash memoryfor storage rather than hard drives with spinning platters. These factors combine toenable them to run more efficiently and use less power than a standard form factorlaptop. The Asus Eee PC is one example of an ultraportable. It is the size of a paperback,weighs less than a kilogram, has built-in Wi-Fi and uses flash memory instead of a harddrive. It runs Linux too [5].6.6 OTHER IMPLEMENTATION6.6.1 Notebooks:Usually, notebooks are more modest than desktop PCs when it comes to the energyrequirements. On average, notebook batteries last for less than two hours, so energysaving is an important issue for those who are away from a plug point for long durations.If you want to achieve maximum battery runtime then it‘s essential for a notebook tohave energy-efficient components. The warmer the external power supply unit, the32 | P a g e
  33. 33. higher the electricity consumption. Apple‘s MacBooks or Acer-models have intelligentcharging electronics that ensure the current-flow sinks below 0.1 Watts after the batteryis charged. Values less than 3.0 Watts, in Samsung‘s Q10, for instance, are acceptable.This is known as ‗conservation charging‘ [1].6.6.2 Printers and multifunctional devices:Usually, monochromatic laser printers require less electricity than color lasers. And thisis true even in the standby mode. Color lasers use more energy when they go into thestandby mode instead of the sleep mode. All color lasers require more than 10 Wattswhen they are in standby. To conserve energy, check the settings in the printer driver[1].6.6.3 Communications and network:W-LAN routers, DSL modems and DECT telephones do not have a standby mode sincethey must always be ready for operation. But low power consumption is a must sincethese devices are on 24 hours a day, seven days a week [1].6.6.4 External hard disks:Users are increasingly buying 3.5 inch external hard disks as backup devices for desktopand notebook computers. These are also being used to extend the system storage. Onceconnected, it‘s easy to forget that its power supply continues to draw power, even whennothing is being read or written to the disk. Only a few models have sophisticatedpower-saving mechanisms; Seagate devices are quite commendable. Most devices donot have a ‗Power‘ button. The 3.5-inch hard drives need 12 Volts and therefore theyhave an external power supply unit (power brick). But 2.5-inch drives require just 5Volts and they can draw power from the PC via a USB cable. Since they draw powerfrom the PC‘s power supply unit, the 2.5-inch drives will switch off automatically whenthe PC shuts down. Drive manufacturers are now incorporating features such as thereduced RPM low-power idle mode [1].6.6.5 DVD and video:Older DVD players and recorders are power hogs. Some devices consume up to 25Watts in the standby mode and a switch-off button is absent. You can save energy inmost such devices with a simple trick: The HF amplifier in DVD recorders isresponsible for consuming a good amount of electricity in the standby mode. The33 | P a g e
  34. 34. amplifier refreshes the incoming antenna signal for the television, which is perhapsconnected with an antenna cable. If one places the recorder and the television next toeach other and connects them to the antenna using a T-connector, this amplification isrendered useless. Many devices have the option of completely deactivating the HFoutput in the set-up. Older video recorders often have sliding switches for this [1].6.6.6 Cisco:Some of the activities Cisco follows include: review of energy efficiency concepts,enhance and standardize recycling programs and green cleaning, explore transportationservices and landscaping/parking for sustainability opportunities, incorporate LEEDcertification and energy collection data requests in future site selection criteria andstandard lease agreements [1].6.6.7 Aladdin:Aladdin has a global initiative to ‗Go Green.‘ From the earliest stages of product design,through manufacturing, use, and recycling, it ensures that its activities and products areenvironment-friendly. So its factories and production comply with ISO environmentalstandards. Aladdin claims that it is fully RoHS compliant too. It has set up recyclingbins in all its offices for bottles, plastics, and paper. It encourages its employees to savepaper too [1].6.6.8 D-Link:D-Link claims its ‗green‘ products have been compliant with RoHS since 2006 and withWEEE since 2005. D-Link‘s Green Ethernet technology saves power when desktop-to-switches are idle and optimized power usage on detection of cable length. Mostswitches today still consume considerable power even when a cable link or desktops-toswitch is turned off. D-Link‘s Green Ethernet technology will put the port in a sleepmode, thus reducing power used by that port. Usually, most switches send enoughpower to sustain data over a 100m cable regardless of the actual cable length. In atypical users‘ environment, however, the cable is usually less than 20m. But GreenEthernet technology will automatically detect the cable length and optimally adjustpower usage to save energy [1].6.6.9 Climate Savers Overview:34 | P a g e
  35. 35. It is started by Google and Intel to drive energy efficiency by increasing the energyefficiency of new PCs & servers and promoting the use of power management. We canreduce global CO2 emissions from the operation of computers by 54 million tons a yearby 2010. That‘s like taking 11 million cars off the road each year [R2].35 | P a g e
  36. 36. ConclusionBusinesses seeking a cost-effective way to responsibly recycle large amounts ofcomputer equipment face a more complicated process. They also have the option ofcontacting the manufacturers and arranging recycling options. However, in cases wherethe computer equipment comes from a wide variety of manufacturers, it may be moreefficient to hire a third-party contractor to handle the recycling arrangements. Thereexist companies that specialize in corporate computer disposal services both offerdisposal and recycling services in compliance with local laws and regulations. Suchcompanies frequently also offer secure data elimination services [2].So far, consumers havent cared about ecological impact when buying computers,theyve cared only about speed and price. But as Moores Law marches on andcomputers commoditize, consumers will become pickier about being green. Devices useless and less power while renewable energy gets more and more portable and effective.New green materials are developed every year, and many toxic ones are already beingreplaced by them. The greenest computer will not miraculously fall from the sky oneday; it‘ll be the product of years of improvements. The features of a green computer oftomorrow would be like: efficiency, manufacturing & materials, recyclability, servicemodel, self-powering, and other trends. Green computer will be one of the majorcontributions which will break down the digital divide, the electronic gulf thatseparates the information rich from the information poor [3].36 | P a g e
  37. 37. References[1]. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING CHIP-GREEN COMPUTING[2]. Jones, Ernesta " New Computer Efficiency Requirements". U.S. EPA[3]. ‗Green IT For Dummies‘-Hewlett Packard Limited Edition[4]. Report of the Green Computing Task Group Green Computing and the Environment[5]. a b c San Murugesan, ―Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices,‖ IEEE ITProfessional, January-February 2008, pp 24-33.[6]. ‖Green IT: Why Mid-Size Companies Are Investing Now‖ Resources[R1]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_computing[R2]. www.climatesaverscomputing.org37 | P a g e