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  • 1. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT LECTURE -II
  • 2. Syllabus• The Production Function• Types of production system• Elementary knowledge of manufacturing processes• Plant Layouts• Material Handling• Location Problems• Inventory management• Scheduling• Network Analysis• Break Even Point Analysis• Reliability maint & plant services• Quality control• Emerging Trends• Concept of Productivity
  • 3. CHAPTER -II • Types of Production Systems – •Intermittent Production •Continuous Production CHAPTER -III• Elementary knowledge of Manufacturing process • Assembling • Fabrication • Forming • Heat Treatment • Welding • Machining etc
  • 4. PRODUCTION SYSTEM DECISION MAKER CONTROL CONVERSIONINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
  • 5. PRODUCTION SYSTEM• Solid line represents movement of material through conversion system by value addition to finish goods ( Materials Management)• Dotted Line represents flow of information / set of Instruction • All on line data / information is continuously passed on to control tower ,control tower in terms process / Tabulate all the information in format & sends it to decision maker ( Flow of Information)• Decision Maker Compares / Benchmark actual information with plan & generate the set of instructions for correcting the deviations & sends it to control tower (Plan Vs Actual)• Control tower sends instructions at appropriate point for execution & bring back process under control DECISION CONTROL MAKER INPUT CONVERSION OUTPUT PROCESS
  • 6. The system selection is sensitive because of following parameters1 . Type of Product • Common parameters • Total Volume • Varieties in total Volume 2 .Type of Company • Automobile • Chemical • Pharma 3.Life Cycle of Product / Project
  • 7. Life cycle phase of Project Conclusion : Introduction ( Low volume ,High System selection is not a static or one time Variation) Growth ( High volume , Low decision but “DYNAMIC” one & changes as Variation) organization passes through I –G-M-D Phases Maturity ( High volume , Low Variation) & changes the equation of Volume to Variety Decline ( Volume drops , Variation ratio High)
  • 8. Types of Production SystemIntermittent System Continuous System Job Type Mass Production Printing Job Spoons / Hair Pins / Machine Building Soaps / Chocolates Batch Type Process TypeWashing Machine Cement / Sugar / Chemical IndustriesFridge / TV / CAR
  • 9. INTERMITTENT SYSTEM• The goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders made by customers & not for stock• Characteristics : • Most products are produced in small quantities • Machines & equipments are laid out by process • Workloads are unbalanced • Highly skilled operators are required for efficient use of machines & equipments • In process inventory is very large • Flexible to accommodate variety in production• Example : •Machine shops • Hospitals • locomotives • Plants • Automobiles
  • 10. INTERMITTENT SYSTEM OP1 Information & Control Decision Maker Storage1 OP2 Storage 2 Storage 4 OP4 Storage 3 OP3 Storage 5Ex. Paper cutting machine
  • 11. Intermittent system Classification : • Job Production • Batch Production• Job Production : 1) It is the production of single complete unit by one operator , Group of operators 2) Whole project is considered as a one operation & work is completed on each product before passing to the next• Characteristics : • Complete project is considered as single operation • Versatile & skilled labors are required • High capital Investment • Control operations relatively simple • High unit cost of production• Examples : • Bridge Building • Dam Construction • Ship Buiding • Heavy machines
  • 12. Intermittent system Classification :• Batch Production• Batch Production : It is a extension of job type production Whole project is considered as a one operation & work is completed on each product before passing to the next• Characteristics : • Production schedule can be formulated according to specific orders or demand forecasts • Items are processed in lots & batches • Only one item is produced in every production run • New batch will be taken only after completion of one • High WIP
  • 13. Continuous System : • In this system the items are produced for the stocks & not for specific order • Manufacturing stock is based on sales forecast • Inputs are standardized & standard set of processes & sequence of processes can be usedInput OP1 Information & Control Decision Maker Storage1 OP2 Storage2 OP3 OP4 OP5 Ex. Bottling Plant Out put
  • 14. Mass ProductionFundamental characteristics of the system is standardization• Items are produced in large quantities independent of customer orders• i.e Production is to stock & not to order• Standardization is w.r. to materials & machines• Uniform & un-interrupted flow of material is maintained through predetermined sequence of operations required to produce the product• System can produce only one type of product at one time Example : • Sub assemblies • Parts / components •Advantage : • Economies of production because of specialization & standardization
  • 15. Process ProductionIt gives more stress on AUTOMATION in production process• The volume of production is very high• This method is used for manufacturing items with very high demand• Ex. • Petroleum products • Particular brand of medicines • Heavy chemical industries • Plastic industriesNote : Single raw material can be transformed into different kinds pf product at different stages of production process Ex. Processing of crude oil will give Kerosene / Gasoline etc at diff stages of production
  • 16. Factors for Comparison of Manufacturing systems1. Manufacturing costs2. Capital investment3. Size of plant4. Technical requirement5. Organizational structure6. Flexibility in production7. Type of products produced8. Security of job
  • 17. Elementary knowledge of Manufacturing process Assembling : Welding, Brazing, Riveting, Fastening By Nuts&bolts, AdhesivesForming :In this process shape of work piece changes without necessarily removing oradding material Ex .Casting, Forging, Extrusions, Stamping, Embossing, Heat Treatment : Heat treatment is process of heating & cooling of metals or alloys in solid state inorder to obtain certain desired properties ( Relieve internal stresses , Hardness,toughness etc) Machining : It involves metal removing by Turning , Drilling , Milling , grinding,shaping ,boring ,EDM , ECM etc.Electro discharge machining : (EDM)Spark between workpiece & tool across gap removes the material usingdielectric ,which also cools the metalElectro Chemical Machining (ECM) :Chemical energy combine with electrical energy is used to do the cutting operation