Setting the Stage (KWL)
What does learning look like now in your
classroom (with children or adult
How would that change if you were to
implement PBL? What is PBL? What
does the teacher do differently? What do
the students do differently? How does
Learning at school
Teaching as a private event
Teaching as a public
Learning as passive
Learning in a participatory
Learning as individuals
Learning in a networked
The NCTE Definition of 21
Develop proficiency with the tools
Build relationships with others to
pose and solve problems
collaboratively and crossculturally
Design and share information for
global communities to meet a
variety of purposes
Manage, analyze and synthesize
multiple streams of simultaneous
Play — the capacity to experiment with
one’s surroundings as a form of problemsolving
Performance — the ability to adopt
alternative identities for the purpose
of improvisation and discovery
Simulation — the ability to interpret
and construct dynamic models of realworld processes
Appropriation — the ability to
meaningfully sample and remix media
Multitasking — the ability to scan one’s
environment and shift focus as needed to
Collective Intelligence — the ability to
pool knowledge and compare notes with
others toward a common goal
Judgment — the ability to evaluate the
reliability and credibility of different
Transmedia Navigation — the ability to
follow the flow of stories and
information across multiple modalities
Networking — the ability to search for,
synthesize, and disseminate information
Negotiation — the ability to travel
across diverse communities, discerning
New Media Literacies- What are they?
Will the future of education include broad-based,
global reflection and inquiry?
Will your current level of new media literacy skills
allow you to take part in leading learning through
What place does emerging media have in your role as
a change savvy leader?
"The world is moving at
a tremendous rate. Going
no one knows where. We
must prepare our
children, not for the
world of the past. Not
for our world. But for
Dewey's thoughts have laid the world
their world. The
foundationof the future."
for inquiry driven
Dewey's description of the four primary
interests of the child are still
appropriate starting points:
1. the child's instinctive desire to
find things out
2. in conversation, the propensity
children have to communicate
Free range learners
how and what
and more timely
learning has no
need for the
You go where the bus goes
You go where you choose
Jay Cross – Internet Time
Project Based Learning
Rigor without Sacrificing Creativity
“The biggest obstacle
to school change
is our memories.”
-- Dr. Allen Glenn
"We think too much about effective
methods of teaching and not
enough about effective methods of
learning." John Carolus
PBL is NOT New
JOHN DEWEY LEV
VYGOTSKY 1902 - 1987
Inquiry Based Learning
Chalk and Talk:
•Traditional science education
•Focus on „what we know‟ (facts)
•Direct transfer of knowledge from
teacher to student
•Teacher‟s role = dispense knowledge
•Student‟s role = receive knowledge
Inquiry Based Learning
•The scientific process
•Focus on „how we know what we
•Indirect transfer of knowledge
•Teacher‟s role = facilitator of
•Student‟s role = active,
independent learner (investigator)
What is Inquiry?
"Inquiry is the active pursuit of meaning involving thought processes
that change experience to bits of knowledge. When we see a strange
object, for example, we may be puzzled about what it is, what it is
made of, what it is used for, how it came into being, and so forth. To
find answers to questions such as these we might examine the object
closely, subject it to certain tests, compare it with other, more familiar
objects, or ask people about it, and for a time our searching would be
aimed at finding out whether any of these theories made sense. Or we
might simply cast about for information that would suggest new theories
for us to test. All these activities---observing, theorizing, experimenting,
theory testing---are part of inquiry. The purpose of the activity is to
gather enough information to put together theories that will make new
experiences less strange and more meaningful."
(Suchman, 1968, p.1)
Elements of Inquiry Based Learning
2. Deep Understanding (academic rigor)
4. Appropriate Use of Technology
5. Beyond the School
6. Connecting with Experts
7. Active Exploration
8. Performances of Understanding
9. Elaborated Communication
10. Ethical Citizenship
11. Student Successes
Constructivism vs Inquiry
A theory about how people learn.
People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world
through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
Encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, problem
solving) to create more knowledge, to reflect on and talk about what
they are doing and how their understanding is changing.
Often used as a tool for constructivism.
A seeking for truth, information, or knowledge by questioning.
Emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of
inquiring attitudes or habits of mind.
Implementing inquiry into the classroom involves a context for
questions, a framework for questions, a focus for questions, and
different levels of questions.
“Inquiry is something that students do, not
something that is done to them.”
~ Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards
Types of Constructivist Learning
Project-driven- An approach to learning focusing on developing a
product or creation. Usually tied to a theme and cross disciplinary
Problem-based- An approach to learning focusing on the process
of solving a problem or scenario and acquiring knowledge.
Inquiry-driven-In inquiry-based learning environments, students
are engaged in activities that help them actively pose questions,
investigate, solve problems, and draw conclusions about the world
The blending of
students at the center
and in charge of their
Creating a Learning Environment
for 21st Century Skills
Students working in teams to experience
and explore relevant, real-world
problems, questions, issues, and
challenges; then creating
presentations and products to share
what they have learned.
What is PBL?
Curriculum fueled and standards based.
Asks a question or poses a problem that ALL
students can answer. Concrete, hands-on
experiences come together during projectbased learning.
Allows students to investigate issues and
topics in real-world problems.
Fosters abstract, intellectual tasks to explore
Uses Authentic Assessment
Allows teachers to have multiple assessment
Allows a child to demonstrate his or her capabilities
while working independently. (includes
performance based assessments)
Shows the student‟s ability to apply desired skills
such as doing research.
Develops the student‟s ability to work with his or
her peers, building teamwork and group skills.
It allows the teacher to learn more about the child
as a whole person.
Photo credit: Ben
Provides the opportunity for reaching outside the
classroom walls and develop personal learning
networks around expertise.
It helps the teacher(s) communicate in progressive
and meaningful ways with the student or a group of
students on a range of issues.
•provides an environment for the acquisition
of skills needed in higher education &
• teaches curricular content
•Builds 21st Century Skills
-Drake High School, San
Seven Elements of Project-Based
Real World Connection
Extended Time Frame
Six ‘A’s of Project Based Learning
Another Way to Look at What is PBL
Buck Institute for Education:
Problems presented in their full complexity
Students finding interdisciplinary
connections between ideas
Students struggling with ambiguity,
complexity, and unpredictability
Real-world questions that students care
Buck Institute for Education:
Support student autonomy
Students community of inquiry
Coursework in a social context
Students exhibit task- and time-management
Students direct their own work & learning
Students simulate the professional work
Buck Institute for Education:
Investigative and engaging
Students multi-faceted investigations over long
periods of time
Students encountering obstacles, seeking
resources, and solving problems
Students making their own connections among
ideas and acquiring new skills
Students using authentic tools
Students getting feedback from expert sources
and realistic assessment
Buck Institute for Education:
Students generating complex intellectual
products to demonstrate learning
Students participate in assessment
Students held accountable for competence
Students exhibiting growth in real-world
Buck Institute for Education:
How to Implement?
Select and research topic:
Make sure the topic is of personal interest to you and the students and that it is
based on their needs and developmental levels. Consult the state and local
curriculum guides, teacher‟s editions of textbooks, trade books on the topic, and
other expert learners. Involve the children in planning.
Identify concepts/brainstorm topic:
Identify key concepts or subtopics related to the theme of the project. A semantic
map is an excellent way to visualize and brainstorm content related to a theme. Use
K-W-L with the children for their input about what they want to know. Get ownership
through their questions.
Locate materials and resources:
Locate diverse materials and resources related to the topic, i.e., children‟s literature,
films, manipulatives, music, arts/crafts, resources, and people from your Web
community. Utilize diverse global perspectives.
Plan learning experiences:
Develop a variety of learning experiences related to the topic. Include hands-on
activities using concrete objects. Plan for small and large group activities, learning
centers/stations, independent research, exploration, problem-solving, using both
divergent/convergent learning activities.
Guidelines to PBL Continued
Integrate content areas:
Use a webbing approach to organize concepts and activities into
content areas: the arts, sciences, social studies, mathematics,
literature, and technology. The goal is seamless integration of all
content area learning within the planned activities.
Organize the learning environment:
Consider space, time, materials, learning experiences, teacher/learner
roles, methods of assessment and evaluation.
Initiate integrated/interdisciplinary study:
Arouse students‟ curiosity and interest with stimulating introduction.
Consider visual display of theme as well as introductory activities.
Bring closure to the theme by concluding with an event. Incorporate
parent involvement, collaboration with other classes both in the school
and the blogosphere, and allow students to use technology to enhance
learning and celebrate success!
Assessment and authentic evaluation:
Use assessment and evaluation which may include the following:
“kidwatching,” observations, anecdotal records, checklists, conferences,
informal interviews, rubrics and digital portfolios.
How Does Project-Based Learning Work?
Take a real-world topic and
begin an in-depth investigation
Start with the Essential
Have students do a concept
map with you around the topic.
(You have already created one
during your planning)
Questions from group to
How Do I Begin?
Begin with an “Essential Question”
What is important to your students
What is the deep learning--the enduring
What are the necessary skills
Prerequisite knowledge (prior knowledge)
Skills and knowledge to to be embedded into the
Plan which content standards will be addressed while
answering the question. (I start with my concept map, then I
break into a topic map, then I match standards)
Involve students in the questioning, planning, and projectbuilding process. (I decide which areas I will teach and then I
put them in collaborative learning groups of mixed ability and
let them choose the area where they will become experts- the
go-to person for that topic)
Teacher and students brainstorm activities that support the
inquiry.(I use a tic tac toe activity chart. Groups will choose
three to do.)
Wiggins G (op
Backward Design Process
Map the Project
Organize tasks and activities
Decide how to launch the project
Draw a “Storyboard”
Manage the Process
Share project goals with students
Use problem-solving tools
Use checkpoints and milestones
Plan for evaluation and reflection
How do you do it?-TPCK
Understanding by Design
able to do
at the end
Teacher and Students
7 Pieces of the TPACK Pie
Content [CK]: subject matter to be learned
Technology [TK]: foundational and new technologies
Pedagogy [PK]: purpose, values & methods used to teach
and evaluate learning
PCK: What pedagogical strategies make concepts
difficult or easy to learn?
TCK: How is content represented and transformed by the
application of technology?
TPK: What pedagogical strategies enable you to get the
most out of existing technologies for teaching &
TPCK:Understanding the relationship between elements - “a change in any one factor has to be „compensated‟ by
changes in the other two”
Throughout the week
(and back in your
• Content focus: What content
does this lesson focus on?
• Pedagogical focus: What
pedagogical practices are
employed in this lesson?
• Technology used: What
technologies are used?
• PCK: Do these pedagogical
practices make concepts
clearer and/or foster deeper
• TCK: Does the use of technology
help represent the
content in diverse ways or
maximize opportunities to
transform the content in ways
The computer connects the student to the rest of the world
Learning occurs through connections with other learners
Learning is based on conversation and interaction
Connected Learner Scale
This work is at which level(s) of
the connected learner scale?
Share (Publish & Participate)
Connect (Comment and
Remixing (building on the
ideas of others) –
knowledge and meaning) –
21st Centurizing your
Step 1- Best Practice
Researchers at Mid-continent Research for
Education and Learning (McREL) have identified
nine instructional strategies that are most
likely to improve student achievement across all
content areas and across all grade levels. These
strategies are explained in the book Classroom
Instruction That Works by Robert Marzano, Debra
Pickering, and Jane Pollock.
Identifying similarities and differences
Summarizing and note taking
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
Homework and practice
Setting objectives and providing feedback
Generating and testing hypotheses
Cues, questions, and advance organizers
What are specific strategies
you use in your classroom for
a particular discipline?
Pick the Content
Choose the Strategy
Choose the Tool
Create the Learning Activity
Then apply connected learner
--------------------------------------Think: Share, Connect, Remix,
Collaborate, Collective Action
Teacher and students design a timeline for project
Set benchmarks--Keep it simple and ageappropriate.
Learning contracts help with individual passions.
Learning stations help support exploration and
Schedule individual and group meetings with you.
Schedule initiating and culminating events well in
Make collaboration a key component
Let the kids help plan and make decisions, and
have them do the work in pairs or small teams
One of the great things about the Internet is
that kids can collaborate across great
distances. Try contacting a classroom across
the country (or across the ocean) in a place
your kids would like to learn about.
Your classes can exchange email or start an instantmessage conversation. (Skype – Video
You use a wiki to work together to show how things
are the same and different in each community.
Facilitate the process
Mentor the process
Document the process
Blog to Document
Wiki to Document
Make the assessment
Know authentic assessment
will require more time and
effort from the teacher.
Vary the type of assessment
Electronic portfolios work well
(video, podcasts, and digital
pics of work)
Take time to reflect, individually
and as a group.
Share feelings and experiences.
Discuss what worked well.
Discuss what needs change.
Share ideas that will lead to new
inquiries, thus new projects.
Education for Citizenship
“A capable and productive citizen doesn‟t simply
turn up for jury service. Rather, she is capable of
serving impartially on trials that may require
learning unfamiliar facts and concepts and new
ways to communicate and reach decisions with her
fellow jurors…. Jurors may be called on to decide
complex matters that require the verbal, reasoning,
math, science, and socialization skills that should
be imparted in public schools. Jurors today must
determine questions of fact concerning DNA
evidence, statistical analyses, and convoluted
financial fraud, to name only three topics.”
Justice Leland DeGrasse, 2001
Courage to Shift the way we teach and learn
the art of release…
It takes a lot of courage to release
the familiar and seemingly secure,
to embrace the new. But there is
no real security in what is no
longer meaningful. There is more
security in the adventurous and
exciting, for in movement there is
life, and in change there is power.
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