Necc08 Mentoring

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  • Necc08 Mentoring

    1. 1. Sheryl Nussbaum-Beach, M.Ed. ( [email_address] ) Christopher R. Gareis, Ed.D. (crgare@wm.edu) The College of William & Mary Williamsburg, Virginia What Are They Talking About? Using Content Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Conversations Among Novice & Mentor Teachers in an Online Community
    2. 2. 1-to-1 Group http://endapt.wm.edu/modules/emissary-admin/info.php?template=home_page.html Info on demand
    3. 3. ENDAPT Goals <ul><li>Improve pre-service preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Improve novice induction </li></ul><ul><li>Improve teacher effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Improve teacher retention </li></ul><ul><li>Foster teacher leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Improve K-12 student learning </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Overcomes some recognized limitations </li></ul><ul><li>of site-based mentoring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate mentors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling & accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Abbott, 2003; Schlager, Fusco, Koch, Crawford, & Phillips, 2003) </li></ul></ul>Why Online Mentoring for Novice Teachers? Telementoring e-mentoring Virtual learning community Computer-mediated communication
    5. 5. <ul><li>Venue </li></ul><ul><li>Tapped-In </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual rooms (“chat rooms”) </li></ul><ul><li>Closed community </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Moderator at William & Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate student </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized excellence (TLN) </li></ul><ul><li>Trained online as mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Paid an honorarium </li></ul>The ENDAPT Group Mentoring Forum http:// www.tappedin.org
    6. 6. Novice Mentor Mentor Novice Mentor Threaded Discussion in a Virtual Room
    7. 7. Purpose of Study With whom, why, and about what do novice and experienced teachers “talk” in an online mentoring community?
    8. 8. <ul><li>Flow: What are the directions and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Function: What are the purposes and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Content: What are the topics and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers? </li></ul>Research Questions
    9. 9. Content Analysis <ul><li>Unit of Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion thread within an online mentoring forum </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Individual posting to discussion thread within an online mentoring forum </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Evidence: Manifest vs. Latent </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest or explicit meaning that can be objectively derived from the words used and the thoughts expressed in the postings. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Content Analysis Methodology <ul><li>Created function categories * </li></ul><ul><li>Identified content categories ** </li></ul><ul><li>Developed codebook </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot coded </li></ul><ul><li>Trained coders (6) </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated inter-rater reliability </li></ul>* Adapted from Bonk & Kim's (1998) 12 forms of mentoring communication. ** Adapted from William & Mary (2002) student teacher competencies
    11. 11. <ul><li>YEAR 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Range : .80 - .94 </li></ul><ul><li>Overall : .86 </li></ul><ul><li>YEAR 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Range : .82 - .93 </li></ul><ul><li>Overall : .88 </li></ul>Inter-rater Reliability
    12. 12. <ul><li>17 Novices- Year 2 </li></ul><ul><li>10 elementary </li></ul><ul><li>2 middle </li></ul><ul><li>4 high </li></ul><ul><li>1 guidance counselor </li></ul><ul><li>17 in VA </li></ul><ul><li>11 Mentors- Year 2 </li></ul><ul><li>5 elementary </li></ul><ul><li>2 middle </li></ul><ul><li>4 high </li></ul><ul><li>AL, CA, MO, SC, VA </li></ul><ul><li>10-38 years experience </li></ul><ul><li>19 years experience on average </li></ul><ul><li>TOY—school, district, region, state, national </li></ul><ul><li>NBPTS certified </li></ul><ul><li>Danforth fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Officers/president of state professional associations </li></ul><ul><li>State/national commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Department/team/grade-level chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Awards from professional assn. </li></ul>Pilot Participants <ul><li>13 Novices- Year 1 </li></ul><ul><li>5 elementary </li></ul><ul><li>2 middle </li></ul><ul><li>4 high </li></ul><ul><li>2 reading specialists </li></ul><ul><li>11 in VA </li></ul><ul><li>1 in FL </li></ul><ul><li>1 in AZ </li></ul><ul><li>11 Mentors- Year 1 </li></ul><ul><li>6 elementary </li></ul><ul><li>3 middle </li></ul><ul><li>2 high </li></ul><ul><li>AL, CA, FL, MI, MO, NC, VA </li></ul><ul><li>5 - 31 years experience </li></ul><ul><li>20 years experience on average </li></ul><ul><li>TOY—school, district, region, state, national </li></ul><ul><li>NBPTS certified </li></ul><ul><li>Danforth fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Officers/president of state professional associations </li></ul><ul><li>State/national commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Department/team/grade-level chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Awards from professional assn. </li></ul>8
    13. 13. Year 2 Year 1 Mean Median Mode SD Mentors 28.00 22 28 22.44 Novices 11.65 2 0 17.39
    14. 14. Year 2 Year 1
    15. 15. Year 2 Year 1 Number of Posts per Month 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 September October November December January February March April May June
    16. 16. Frequency & Direction of Posts Specific Mentor Specific Novice Broadcast Mentor Specific Novice Specific Mentor Broadcast Novice
    17. 17. Year 2 Year 1
    18. 18. Year 2 Year 1
    19. 19. Mentor and Novice Functions (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) Reflection / Professional Growth Professional Growth Explicit Issue / Problem Prompting Reflection Seeking Information / Specific Question Seeking Clarification / Direct Questioning Sharing Experience, No Problem Modeling Guided Advice Guided Advice Acknowledgement / Thanks Support / Confirmation Novice Mentor
    20. 20. Mentor Function Categories (1) Support/Confirmation -- The mentor makes a supportive statement and/or confirms the actions of a novice teacher or another mentor: “You’re doing great…”, “Don’t doubt yourself…”, &quot;You're really growing as a professional...&quot;, &quot;That was a good decision...&quot; (2) Guided Advice -- The mentor provides specific direction, instruction, or advice to the novice teacher or another mentor: “You may want to try…”, “I suggest using…” (3) Modeling -- The mentor describes his or her own experience or thinking but does not give direct advice, answers, or interpretations of a given situation: “The way I’ve handled that situation is to…”, &quot;Once I...&quot;, &quot;I remember...&quot;, &quot;In my classroom...&quot; (4) Seeking Clarification/Direct Questioning -- The mentor poses a direct question or makes a statement inviting explanation or clarification: “How are you currently grading homework?”, “Have you discussed this with your principal?”, &quot;Tell me more about...&quot; (5) Prompting Reflection -- The mentor prompts or otherwise creates an opportunity for a novice to think about, share, and evaluate his or her own thinking: &quot;What do you think your actions resulted in?&quot;, &quot;How might your students have taken what you said to them?&quot;, &quot;What do you think the parent was thinking during the conference?&quot; (6) Professional Growth -- The mentor makes an explicit statement about his or her own professional growth, new understanding, or change in practice resulting from online forum: “I’m starting to see…”, “I feel more confident…”, “I used to think…but now...”
    21. 21. Novice Function Categories (1) Acknowledgement/Thanks -- The novice acknowledges his or her understanding someone else's ideas, or indicates acceptance of new ideas, or expresses thanks for someone else's thought: “I see what you’re saying…”, &quot;That's good advice...” (2) Guided Advice -- The novice provides specific direction, instruction, or advice to another novice teacher or mentor: “You may want to try…”, “I suggest using…” (3) Sharing Experience, No Problem -- The novice describes an experience, but there is no indication that the experience is problematic: &quot;Today was great! I had my class doing...&quot;, &quot;I had my first parent conference yesterday and it went really well.&quot; , &quot;In our school use...&quot; (4) Specific Question/Seeking Specific Information -- The novice teacher poses a question or invites others to provide him or her specific information: “How do you use manipulatives in middle school math?”, &quot;What reading series do you use?&quot;, &quot;What should I expect during my first observation?&quot;, &quot;I need to know more about...&quot;, &quot;Anything you can tell me is appreciated...&quot; (5) Explicit Issue/Problem -- The novice specifically describes a situation that he or she is confronting or has confronted in his or her practice, but does not pose a question or specifically seek a response: “I’m having trouble with…”, “In my school…”, &quot;Yesterday was awful. I had a student...&quot; (6) Reflection/Professional Growth -- The novice teacher makes an explicit statement about his or her own professional growth, new understanding, or change in practice, either resulting from the online forum or not: “I’m starting to see…”, “I feel more confident…”, “I used to think…but now...”
    22. 22. Year 2 Year 1 Percentages exceed 100 because a single post may have multiple functions.
    23. 23. Percentages exceed 100 because a single post may have multiple functions. Year 2 Year 1
    24. 24. Content Categories <ul><li>(1) Planning for Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Plans lessons that align with local, state, and national standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Selects appropriate instructional strategies/activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Selects appropriate materials/resources. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Instructional Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches based on planned lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses motivational strategies to promote learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Engages students actively in learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a variety of effective teaching strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students develop thinking skills that promote learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Assessment for Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Creates and selects appropriate assessments for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Implements assessments for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Interprets/uses assessment results to make instructional decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Classroom Management </li></ul><ul><li>Builds positive rapport with and among students. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes for effective teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates use of effective routines and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates efficient and effective use of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains a safe learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Responds appropriately to inappropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates professional demeanor and ethical behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in and applies professional development. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates effective oral and written communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperates, collaborates, and fosters relationships with members of the school community. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Year 1 Year 2
    26. 26. <ul><li>FINDINGS </li></ul><ul><li> Evidence of a Professional Learning Community </li></ul><ul><li>Communication occurred between and among novices and mentors alike. </li></ul><ul><li> Evidence of Classic “Mentoring” Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors supported, guided, modeled, asked questions, prompted reflection rather than only directing or giving advice </li></ul><ul><li>Novices shared experiences as often as they asked direct questions </li></ul><ul><li> Evidence of Professional Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations focused on professional teacher competencies </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Lessons Learned about Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Market & recruit early </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarize mentors & novices with the platform </li></ul><ul><li>Train the mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your moderator carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt participation behind the scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide modest incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Expect periods of activity & inactivity </li></ul>

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