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Life & Health Insurance

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Discovering Paraplegia & Underwriting Factors

Discovering Paraplegia & Underwriting Factors

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  • 1. DISCOVERING PARAPLEGIA & UNDERWRITING FACTORS By Sofia Naznim
  • 2. Nerina age 42, paralyze as a result of motorbike accident 5 years ago. She is proposing for a RM 250,000 endowment policy. SNH ©
  • 3. Age • Stage 2 Paralyse downwards • Paraplegia Medical report from the doctor • current medical status • how bad • past history • other illnesses • effect SNH ©
  • 4. This stages of life (Stage 2) show that protection is vital as the death of either spouse during these periods would cripple any family financially. Here, term insurance and small amount of permanent cover (whole of life) provide the cover required. Disability income insurance is also an important benefit to be considered for both of these and the next stage. SNH ©
  • 5. Paraplegia, paralysis of the lower part of the body, commonly affecting both legs and often internal organs below the waist. When both legs and arms are affected, the condition is called quadriplegia. Paraplegia and quadriplegia are caused by an injury or disease that damages the spinal cord, and consequently always affects both sides of the body. SNH ©
  • 6. While some people with paraplegia can walk to a degree but it may not be good for the hip, many are dependent on wheelchairs or other supportive measures. Depending on the level and extent of spinal damage, people with paraplegia may experience some, or complete loss of sensation in the affected limbs. Impotence and various degrees of urinary and faecal incontinence may also occur. SNH ©
  • 7. Due to the decrease or loss of feeling or function in the lower extremities, paraplegia can contribute to a number of medical complications including pressure sores (decubitus), thrombosis, and pneumonia. Physiotherapy and various assistive technologies, such as a standing frame, as well as vigilant self- observation and care, may aid in helping to prevent future complications and mitigate existing complications. SNH ©
  • 8. Interventions The treatment of paraplegia seeks to restore proper spine alignment, stabilize the injured spinal area, decompress any involved neurologic structures, and rehabilitate the patient as quickly as possible. SNH ©
  • 9. When the paraplegic patient progresses from bed rest to use of a wheelchair, the nurse is alert to any signs of orthostatic hypotension. Special binders and ant embolism hose are used to help the patient adjust to the transition from bed to wheelchair. Prevention of pressure sores is an important priority. SNH ©
  • 10. Because rehabilitation is the ultimate goal for a paraplegic patient, the patient care during the early stages of the disorder must be particularly concerned with preventing complications that may stand in the way of successful rehabilitation. These complications include pressure ulcers, respiratory disorders, orthopedic deformities, urinary tract infections or calculi, and gastrointestinal disorders. The psychological and emotional aspects of paraplegia also must be considered. SNH ©
  • 11. The type of bed used and the positioning of the patient with paraplegia will depend on the cause and extent of the paralysis and the preference of the health care provider. Patients with spinal cord injuries may be placed in traction or the spinal cord may be hyperextended by placing the patient's head at the foot of the bed and adjusting the bed. SNH ©
  • 12. Hypostatic pneumonia and other respiratory problems are guarded against by deep breathing exercises. The patient should be protected from respiratory infections, such as the COMMON COLD, which can have serious complications in a paraplegic who is confined to bed. SNH ©
  • 13. Until the patient is allowed out of bed and can engage in some form of physical activity, range of motion EXERCISES for all joints should be performed frequently. Proper positioning of the feet and legs will help prevent contractures, footdrop, and ankylosis. A program of therapeutic EXERCISE, including passive and active exercises, is initiated to maintain any remaining muscle function and to restore as much muscle activity in the affected parts as possible. SNH ©
  • 14. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and the formation of CALCULI, particularly in the bladder, present real problems for the patient with paralysis. If there is no control over urination, an indwelling CATHETER may be the technique of choice for keeping the patient dry, but it also predisposes to infection. A thorough assessment of the patient's status and potential for achieving bladder control should be made before a final choice is made. SNH ©
  • 15. A flaccid bowel produces abdominal distention and predisposes the patient to faecal impaction. The patient may have faecal INCONTINENCE as well as frequent accumulations of flatus and faecal material in the lower intestine. Rehabilitation of the patient then requires working out some method of bowel control so that regularity of defecation can be accomplished. SNH ©
  • 16. There are two types of spinal cord injuries. Complete spinal cord injuries refer to the types of injuries that result in complete loss of function below the level of the injury. while incomplete spinal cord injuries are those that result in some sensation and feeling below the point of injury. SNH ©
  • 17. PARAPLEGIA Quadriplegia Spinal Tuberculosis Syphilis Spinal Tumors Multiple Sclerosis Poliomyelitis SNH ©
  • 18. OCCUPATION FINANCIAL SITUATION SNH ©
  • 19. Rasheed a solicitor age 25, participates in motor sports and hill climbing. He is proposing for RM 100,000 personal accident insurance. SNH ©
  • 20. HOBBY AMOUNT PROPOSE OCCUPATION AGE & FINANCIAL TERM/SPECIAL TERM MEDICAL SNH ©
  • 21. YOUNG FINANCIAL FINANCIAL HISTORY CURRENT EARNING STUCTURE FINANCIAL DOCUMENT SNH ©
  • 22. FINANCIAL HAZARD SNH ©
  • 23. CLASS EXAMPLE Class 1 – Minimal accident/health risk - Professional, administrative, clerical workers. Class 2 – Slight accident/health risk - Moderate level of manual work; semi- skilled occupations involving a small level of manual work. Class 3 – Moderate accident - Skilled occupations of a predominantly manual nature. Class 4 – Appreciable accident - Certain unskilled occupations in which the physical and moral hazards appears acceptable. SNH ©
  • 24. LOADING • Increase premium EXCLUSION • Cover local only SPECIAL TERM • How often • Do not cover during competition SNH ©
  • 25. WHERE • LOCAL • INTERNATIONAL HOW OFTEN • HOBBY • REPRESENT COUNTRY INTERNATIONAL • MORE HAZARD SNH ©
  • 26. INTERNATIONAL WIND SNOW SURFACE MOTOR SNH ©
  • 27. MEDICAL HISTORY MEDICAL REPORT CRITICAAL ILLNESS SNH ©
  • 28. In Rasheed case, he asks for RM 100,000. Seeking large amounts of insurance can disproportionately increase his premium. The insurance company looks at his income and why he needs the insurance. For example, he might want it to cover living expenses for dependents. The company then determines how much insurance would cover these expenses. Asking for insurance substantially above this value will indicate he is in bad risk and result in high premiums or denial of higher coverage levels. SNH ©
  • 29. Credit to my great friends Muhammad Hamdi Puteh, Norazuin Jonit and Natasha Ismail!!  Credit to Google images Credit to http://www.pptbackgroundstemplates.com SNH ©

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