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Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
Rights Expression Languages and IPTC
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Rights Expression Languages and IPTC

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At the Spring IPTC meeting, we looked at the issue of usage rights and news, with an eye to selecting a rights expression language to recommend for use with IPTC standards, such as NewsML-G2.

At the Spring IPTC meeting, we looked at the issue of usage rights and news, with an eye to selecting a rights expression language to recommend for use with IPTC standards, such as NewsML-G2.

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  • 1. IPTC andRights Expression Languages<br />Stuart Myles<br />Associated Press<br />10th March 2010<br />
  • 2. © 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />2<br />Rights Examples<br />“No New York”<br />“Not for Yahoo”<br />“No Canada mobile”<br />“No sales”<br />“Any non-commercial use, requires attribution”<br />“No Internet/Mobile usage without Football Association Premier League (FAPL) license”<br />“No mobile use until 2 hours after the match, website users are obliged to comply with DFL restrictions”<br />
  • 3. Usage Rights and News<br />Looking at the examples of usage rights for news content, we see some common types of factors:<br />Specific organizations<br />Types of organizations<br />Permitted or restricted actions (e.g. sales)<br />Required actions (e.g. attribution)<br />Time constraints<br />Geographic locations<br />Platforms (e.g. mobile)<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />3<br />
  • 4. IPTC and Rights Expressions<br />NewsML 1 and NITF support a<br />semi-structured model<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />4<br />
  • 5. IPTC and Rights Expressions<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />5<br />The G2 standards (NewsML-G2 et al) have a RightsInfo block<br />Allows natural language statements<br /><ul><li>Different model than NITF or NewsML1</li></li></ul><li>IPTC and Rights<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />6<br />Some members feel that IPTC needs to specify a rights expression language<br />Rights for content and metadata a recent focus for G2<br />Ideally, this should be selecting an existing language, rather than developing a new REL<br />Before simply selecting a language, we decided to conduct a survey, to discover the rights use cases<br />
  • 6. Rights Use Cases<br />The survey was structured as five suggested use cases, to see if there was any commonality:<br />Four use cases concerning applying rights metadata within an editorial system<br />One use case about rights metadata being sent from or received from clients<br />We got three responses, with little commonality<br />Interestingly, the main consensus was that the sending and receiving rights metadata is important but that enforcement in editorial tools is not<br />This appears to be contradictory<br />Why is it important to transmit rights if they aren’t to be acted on?<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />7<br />
  • 7. Rights Expression Languages<br />The survey sheds little light<br />There was not much notice, since we tried to get responses shortly before this meeting<br />The use cases with most support (transmitting and receiving rights) appear to already be supported by NewsML 1, NITF and G2<br />However, let’s examine some existing RELs to see what they allow <br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />8<br />
  • 8. Rights Expression Language<br />A machine-readable language to convey rights associated with a piece of content<br />Automatically answer the question <br />Can we use this content for this particular purpose?<br />Rights:<br />Permissions and restrictions on the use of a piece of content<br />Granted by a rights holder to a user<br />Basic Structure:<br />{Party A} grants {Party B} the right to {Action C} with {Item D} under {Condition E}<br />Such as MPEG-21, ODRL, PLUS, CCREL, ACAP, DDM<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />9<br />
  • 9. MPEG-21 / ISO REL<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />10<br />MPEG-21 expresses requirements for a Rights Expression Language<br />Implemented as ISO/IEC21000/5:2004<br />A relatively simple data model, implemented as XML<br />
  • 10. Open Digital Rights Language<br />ODRL v1 exists, v2 in progress<br />More sophisticated model than ISO REL<br />http://odrl.net/2.0/WD-ODRL-Model.html<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />11<br />
  • 11. PLUS<br />PLUS Licensing Data Format<br />Provides standard vocabularies for creating licenses<br />Similar data model to ISO REL and ODRL<br />Specific vocabularies aimed at publishers of images<br />PLUS has a relationship with IPTC<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />12<br />
  • 12. CCREL<br />Creative Commons<br />Grant of rights beyond “fair use”, to promote re-use<br />http://wiki.creativecommons.org/CC_REL<br />Widely implemented, used in certain Yahoo! and Google applications (chiefly to find rights cleared content)<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />13<br />
  • 13. ACAP<br />Automated Content Access Protocol<br />Version 1 aimed at web crawlers<br />Expand upon robots.txt / Robots Exclusion Protocol<br />Starting an ACAP Version 2<br />http://www.the-acap.org/<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />14<br />
  • 14. DDM<br />Digital Distribution Management<br />AP’s ENPS led effort, principally for video, but applicable to all media types<br />Machine interpretable rules<br />Suggested XML syntax<br />Public registry of Individual and Group IDs<br />Needs to be hosted by someone (maybe a role for IPTC?)<br />Definitions of Common Use<br />Centrally managed vocabulary of “uses” and “distributions”<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />15<br />
  • 15. Next Steps?<br />What are IPTC’s next steps for adopting a REL?<br />Do we try to better understand the use cases?<br />Do we need to get involved with either of the “new” REL efforts (ODRL v2 or ACAP v2)?<br />Should IPTC define controlled vocabularies for permissions, restrictions, constraints that are meaningful for news?<br />Does IPTC want to take on an organizational role (e.g. central registry)?<br />What else do we need to do, in order to pick a REL?<br />© 2010 IPTC (www.iptc.org) All rights reserved<br />16<br />

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