Introduction to ic engines
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Introduction to ic engines



IC engines, Classification , Application

IC engines, Classification , Application



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Introduction to ic engines Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter I Introduction to IC Engines By Dr. S. Murali Professor & Head Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  • 2. Thermodynamics •Branch of science which deals with H t B h f i hi h d l ith Heat and Work •Basic principles B i i i l –Zeroeth law • Basis for Temperature measurement –First Law • Conversion of Energies –Second Law • Rectifies flaws in First Law • Basic theories for Heat Engines development
  • 3. Engine & Heat Engine Engine : D i used t convert one form E i Device d to t f of energy another form of energy. A heat engine diverts some heat as it flows naturally from hot to cold and converts that heat into useful work Heat Engine: (i) Internal combustion engine (ii) External combustion engine
  • 4. Internal Combustion engine
  • 5. External Combustion engine
  • 6. IC Engine(Reciprocating) Gudgeon pin Cylinder Cooling Jacket Crank Shaft Crank Web Crankcase
  • 7. Reciprocating IC Engine(Parts) • Pi t Piston- cylindrical piece of metal th t moves li d i l i f t l that up and down the cylinder. • Piston rings rings provide a sliding seal ringsbetween the piston and cylinder. • Rings serve two purposes: –prevent fuel/air from leaking into the sump –prevent oil from entering the combustion chamber0 •Combustion chamber- area where combustion and compression takes place.
  • 8. Reciprocating IC Engine(Parts) •Connecting rod- connects th piston t the C ti d t the i t to th crankshaft. •Crankshaft- th crankshaft turns the up C k h ft the k h ft t th and down motion of the piston into circular motion •Sump- (oil pan) contains and collects oil for lubrication
  • 9. IC Engine Terminology Clearance Top dead center (TDC) Stoke (L) Bottom dead center (BDC) Cylinder B C li d Bore (D) π Displacement or Stroke Volume (Vs ) = A × L = D 2 L 4 Cylinder Volume (V ) C li d V l = dispacement volume + clearance volume = VS + VC VS V VC + VS Compression Ratio(r ) = p = = 1+ VC VC VC
  • 10. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES 1. 1 Application 2. Basic Engine Design 3. Operating Cycle 4. Working Cycle 5. Valve/Port Design and Location 6. Fuel 7. Mixture Preparation 8. Ignition 8 I iti 9. Stratification of Charge 10. 10 Combustion Chamber Design 11. Method of Load Control 12. Cooling g
  • 11. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Application 1. Automotive: () (i) Car (ii) Truck/Bus (iii) Off-highway 2. 2 Locomotive 3. Light Aircraft 4. Marine: (i) Outboard (ii) Inboard (iii) Ship 5. Power Generation: (i) (ii) Portable (Domestic) Fixed (Peak Power)
  • 12. Application
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES 6. 6 Agricultural: (i) (ii) 7. Earthmoving: (i) (ii) (iii) 8. Home U 8 H Use: (i) (ii) (iii) 9. Others Tractors Pump sets Dumpers Tippers Mining Equipment Lawnmowers Snow blowers Tools
  • 14. Application
  • 15. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Basic Engine Design Design: 1. Reciprocating (a) Single Cylinder (b) Multi-cylinder (I) In-line (ii) V (iii) Radial (iv) Opposed Cylinder (v) Opposed Piston 2. R t 2 Rotary: (a) Single Rotor ( ) Si l R t (b) Multi-rotor
  • 16. Basic Engine Design Vertical Horizontal Slanted
  • 17. Basic Engine Design In-line V Horizontally opposed
  • 18. Basic Engine Design
  • 19. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES • • • • • Operating Cycle O ti C l Otto (For the Conventional SI Engine) Atkinson (For Complete Expansion SI Engine) Miller (For Early Mill (F E l or L t I l t Valve Late Inlet V l Closing type SI Engine) Diesel (For the Ideal Di Di l (F th Id l Diesel Engine) lE i ) Dual (For the Actual Diesel Engine)
  • 20. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Working C cle (St okes) Wo king Cycle (Strokes) 1. Four Stroke Cycle: (a) Naturally Aspirated (b)Supercharged/Turbocharged 2. 2 Two Stroke Cycle: (a) Crankcase Scavenged (b) Uniflow Scavenged (i) Inlet valve/Exhaust Port (ii) Inlet Port/Exhaust Valve (iii) Inlet and Exhaust Valve ay b a u a y sp a d May be Naturally Aspirated Turbocharged
  • 21. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES 1. 2. 2 3. 4. 4 1. 1 2. 3. 4. Valve/Port Val e/Po t Design Poppet Valve Rotary Valve Reed Valve Piston Controlled Porting Valve Location The T-head T head The L-head The F-head F head The I-head: (i) Over head Valve (OHV) (ii) Over head Cam (OHC) ( ) O ad Ca (O C)
  • 22. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Fuel 1.Conventional: (a) Crude oil derived (i) Petrol (ii) Diesel (b) Other sources (i) Coal (ii) Wood (i l d bi W d (includes bio-mass) ) (iii)Tar Sands (iv)Shale
  • 23. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Fuel 2. Alternate: (a) Petroleum derived (i) CNG(Compressed Natural Gas) (ii) LPG(Liquid Petroleum Gas) (b) Bio-mass Derived (i) Alcohols (methyl and ethyl) (ii) Vegetable oils V t bl il (iii) Producer gas and biogas (iv) Hydrogen 3. Blending 4. Dual fueling g
  • 24. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Mixture P Mi t Preparation ti 1. Carburetion 2. Fuel Injection (i) Diesel (ii) Gasoline (a) Manifold (b) Port (c) Cylinder
  • 25. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Ignition I iti 1. Spark Ignition (a) Conventional (i) Battery (ii) Magneto (b) Other methods 2. Compression Ignition
  • 26. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Charge Stratification Ch St tifi ti 1. Homogeneous Charge (Also Pre-mixed charge) 2. Stratified Ch 2 St tifi d Charge (i) With carburetion (ii) With fuel injection
  • 27. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES 1. 2. Combustion Chambe Comb stion Chamber Design Open Chamber (i) Disc type (ii) Wedge (iii) Hemispherical (iv) Bowl-in-piston (v) Other design Divided Chamber (For CI) (For SI) (i) Swirl chamber (i) CVCC (ii) Pre-chamber ( ) a b (ii) Other designs ( )O d sg s
  • 28. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Method f L d Control M th d of Load C t l 1. Throttling: (To keep mixture strength constant) Al called Ch t t) Also ll d Charge Control C t l Used in the Carbureted S.I. Engine 2. Fuel C t l (To 2 F l Control (T vary th mixture the i t strength according to load) Used in th C I E i U d i the C.I. Engine 3. Combination Used in the F l i j t d S.I. E i U d i th Fuel-injected S I Engine.
  • 29. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Cooling 1. 1 Direct Air cooling Air-cooling 2. 2 Indirect Air-cooling (Liquid Cooling) 3. 3 Low Heat Rejection (Semi-adiabatic) (Semi adiabatic) engine.
  • 30. CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES Cooling 1. 1 Direct Air cooling Air-cooling 2. 2 Indirect Air-cooling (Liquid Cooling) 3. 3 Low Heat Rejection (Semi-adiabatic) (Semi adiabatic) engine.
  • 31. Cooling
  • 32. Working of Four Stroke SI Engine Sequential operations S i l i •Induction Stroke: fill cylinder with air fuel mixture •Compression Stroke: squeeze mixture •Power Stroke: burn and extract work •Exhaust Stroke: empty cylinder of exhaust
  • 33. Induction Stroke(1→2) • Piston moves from TDC to BDC • Intake valve - open • Exhaust valve- closed • Engine pulls piston out of cylinder • Low pressure inside cylinder • air fuel mixture (carburretted 14 to 15 on weight basis) enters into cylinder • Flywheel angle of rotation 0-180 • Engine does work on the gases during this stroke
  • 34. Compression Stroke(2→3) • Piston moves from BDC to TDC • Intake valve – closed • Exhaust valve- closed • Engine pushes piston into cylinder • Mixture is compressed to high pressure and temperature • Flywheel angle of rotation 180-360 • Engine does work on the gases during this stroke
  • 35. Power Stroke(3→4) • Piston moves from TDC-BDC • Intake valve - closed • Exhaust valve - closed • Mixture burns to form hot gases • Gases push piston out of cylinder • Gases expand to lower pressure and temperature • Flywheel angle of rotation 360-540 • Gases do work on engine during this stroke
  • 36. Exhaust Stroke • Piston moving up • Intake valve closed • Exhaust valve open • Engine pushes piston into cylinder • High pressure inside cylinder • Pressure pushes burned gases out of cylinder • Flywheel angle of rotation 540-720 • Engine does work on the gases during this stroke
  • 37. SI Engine Animation & Ideal PV-Diagram 3 1 2 3 4 1 intake isentropic compression isochoric h ti i h i heating isentropic expansion 0 exhaust ignition P 0 1 2 3 4 2 Patm 0 1 exhau ust 4 Intake / exhaust V2 V1 V
  • 38. Working of 4 stroke CI Engine • operation i quite similar t SI engine ti is it i il to i –However • F l Injectors are used for Fuel I j t df atomized fuel injection • Fresh air is entered during induction stroke g • Heterogeneous mixture is burned because of self ignition of the fuel
  • 39. Working of 4 stroke CI Engine 0 → 1induction 1 → 2 isentropic compression 2 → 3const. vloume heat addition 3 → 4 isentropic exp ansion 4 → 1 → 0 const. pressure heat j ti h t rejection 0 Intake / exhaust
  • 40. Salient features of 4 stroke engine •Provided with valves P id d ith l •It requires four strokes •Two revolution of crank shaft •One power stroke for every four strokes •Flywheel stores energy during power stroke and supplies part of energy for idle strokes
  • 41. SI engine Vs CI engine Description Basic Cycle Fuel Introduction f I t d ti of Fuel SI CI Otto cycle or constant Diesel cycle or volume heat addition cycle constant pressure heat addition Gasoline, a highly volatile Diesel, a non volatile , g y , fuel, high self ignition fuel, low self ignition temperature temperature A mixture of fuel and air is F l i injected just at i t f f l d i i Fuel is i j t d j t t introduced during suction the end of compression stroke(Induction Stroke) stroke Load control Quantity governed Quality governed Fuel Ignition g Requires Spark plug q p p g Self ignition g
  • 42. SI engine Vs CI engine(contd) Description Compression ratio Thermal efficiency y Weight SI CI 6-10 16-20 Low efficiency(Lower compression ratio) p ) Higher efficiency(higher y( g compression ratio) Heavier(higher peak pressure) ) Lighter in weight(low peak pressure) k )
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