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An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” (J&K Cements Ltd)
 

An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” (J&K Cements Ltd)

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An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees”

An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees”
(J&K Cements Ltd)

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    An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” (J&K Cements Ltd) An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” (J&K Cements Ltd) Document Transcript

    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 1 “An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” (J&K Cements Ltd) Report submitted to GEN’S GLOABL BUSINESS SCHOOL, HUBLI By Muneer Hussain MBA12 Under the guidance of August 2013 GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL, HUBLI-580026
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 2 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Summer Implant Project 2013 entitled“ An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” is the bonafide record of independent research work done by Mr. Muneer Hussain Parray (Reg. No: MBA12007048) under my supervision, submitted to Karnataka University, Dharwad for the partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration and that the project has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, Associateship, Fellowship or title. Place: Hubli Date: Institution Guide DIRECTOR Global Business School, Hubli - 580026
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a pleasure to record my sense of gratitude to all who have helped me to complete this internship-cum-project work. I am extremely indebted to our beloved Director Dr Ramakant Kulkarni, Global Business School and the internal guide Prof. Mahesh Bendigeri under whose guidance this internship project was undertaken. I also wish to thank Mr. Arshid Hussain (Ast Manager) for his permission and assistance in undertaking this internship project that provided a helping hand in making this internship successful. Last but not the least on personal note I wish to avail myself of this opportunity to Express a sense of gratitude and love to my parents for their moral support, strength Help & for everything that they gave me went a long way. Finally, I kneel down before Almighty Allah for the shower of blessings in Materializing this project work.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 4 DECLARATION This is to state that the internship report titled “An Organizational Study on J&K Cements Ltd and job satisfaction of the employees” conducted at J&K CEMENTS LTD (KHREW) SRINAGAR J&K” is based on the original work carried out by me under the supervision of my project guide Mr. Arshid Hussain (Ast Manager) towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MBA program of Karnataka University Dharwad. This report has not been submitted to any other University for the award of any Degree or Diploma. Place: Mr Muneer Hussain Date: (Reg. No: MBA12007048)
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page no. 1. Introduction 7……14 1.1 Introduction of the topic 1.2 Objective of the Study 1.3 Methodology 1.4 Scope of the Study 1.5 Area of Study 1.6 Database 1.7 Limitation of the Study 2. An Overview of Cement Industry in India 15…27 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Present scenario 1.3 Indian economy-A Review 1.4 Cement industry in India 1.5 Contribution to Infrastructure Industry 1.6 Scope of Cement Industry 3. Company Profile 28…43 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Industry Profile 1.3 Mission & Vision 1.4 Objectives & Goals 1.5 Product & Project profiles 4. Functional Departments 44…..57 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Structure of Departments 1.3 Functioning of departments 1.4 Interdependence 5. Data analysis 58……84 5.1 Findings 5.2 Suggestions
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 6 5.3 Conclusions 6. Appendix 85….93 6.1 Questionnaires 6.2 Code sheet 6.3 Bibliography
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  Introduction of the topic  Objective of the Study  Methodology  Scope of the Study  Area of Study  Database  Limitation of the Study
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 8 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction of the Cement Industry The cement industry is one of the main beneficiaries of the infrastructure boom. With robust demand and adequate supply, the industry has bright future. The Indian Cement Industry with total capacity of 165 million tones is the second largest after China. Cement industry is dominated by 20 companies who account for over 70% of the market. Individually no company accounts for over 12% of the market. The major players like L&T and ACC have been quiet successful in narrowing the gap between demand and supply. Private housing sector is the major consumer of cement (53%) followed by the government infrastructure sector. Similarly northern and southern region consume around 20%-30% cement while the central and western region are consuming only 18%-16%.India is the 2nd largest cement producer in world after china .Right from laying concrete bricks of economy to waving fly over‟s cement industry has shown and shows a great future. The overall outlook for the industry shows significant growth on the back of robust demand from housing construction, Phase-II of NHDP (National Highway Development Project) and other infrastructure development projects. Domestic demand for cement has been increasing at a fast pace in India. Cement consumption in India is forecasted to grow by over 22% by 2009-10 from 2007-08.Among the states, Maharashtra has the highest share in consumption at12.18%,followed by Uttar Pradesh, In production terms, Andhra Pradesh is leading with 14.72% of total production followed by Rajasthan. Cement production grew at the rate of 9.1 per cent during 2006-07 over the previous fiscal's total production of 147.8 mt (million tons). Due to rising demand of cement the sales volume of cement companies are also increasing & companies reporting higher production, higher sales and higher profits. The net profit growth rate of cement firms was 85%.Cement industry has contributed around 8% to the economic development of India. Outsiders (foreign players) eyeing India as a major market to invest in the form of either merger or FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). Cement industry has a long way to go as Indian economy is poised to grow because of being on verge of development. The company continues to emphasize on reduction of costs through enhanced productivity, reduction in energy costs and logistics expenses. The cement sector is expected to witness growth in line with the economic growth because of the strong co-relation with GDP. Future drivers of cement demand growth in India would be the road and housing
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 9 projects. As per the Working Group report on Cement Industry for the formulation of the 11th Plan, the cement demand is likely to grow at 11.5 percent per annum during the 11th Plan and cement production and capacity by the end of the 11th Plan are estimated to be 269 million tones and 298 million tones, respectively, with capacity utilization of90percent. Despite the growth of Indian cement industry India lags behind the per capita production. Supply for cement is expected to remain tight which, in turn, will push up prices of cement by more than 50%. The most important factor for better prices is consolidation of the industry. It has just begun and we will see more consolidation in the coming years. Other budget measures such as cut in import duty from 12.5percent to nil etc. are all intended to cut costs and boost availability of cement. Sadly the adverse effects of global slowdown have not speared this industry too. Demand is sluggish, the government is keeping an eagle eye on prizes, domestic coal and pet coke, prizes have increased sharply and utilizations rates are down.The numbers coming out are a reflection of grim times. ACC the country‟s largest cement company that‟s controlled by Swiss giant HOLCIM, registered 2% fall in august sales. It is the biggest fall since Feb 2007. Production fell by 5%. To stand against the problematic situation, government as well as cement industry has taken some steps. Companies are focusing on cost of transportation. One of the strategy is to decrease dependence on road & opt for sea logistics as that can cut transportation cost by 30- 50 %. Some plants are adopting futuristic plan such as setting up captive power plant, moving closer to the customers by creating clicker, crushing, and capacity in key markets, to be more customer centric to generate better revenue. India should push for stricter regulations of market place as to control the prices of big companies and prevent them from forming cartels and exchanging information. To fight with the high inflation, government wants to import more cement from Pakistan .However cement prizes are not very much high as other items but still they are increasing. And the reason of high prize is surging cost of raw material and transportation cost. Apart from this government also discussed with cement industry not to have increase in prizes and keep consumer interest in mind. Now the question arise in front of the government is whether the demand by the government is possible to increase through expenditure on infrastructure or not according to the current state of economy when so many crises are going on or how the government allocation of US$ 3.23 billion for the National Highway Development, Project will keep the demand for cement alive? And to what extent the prizes of cement should be increase so that consumer can‟t affect. Cement industry in India has also made tremendous strides in technological up gradation and assimilation of latest technology. Presently, 93 per
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 10 cent of the total capacity in the industry is based on modern and environment-friendly dry process technology. The induction of advanced technology has helped the industry immensely to conserve energy and fuel and to save materials substantially. Indian cement industry has also acquired technical capability to produce different types of cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, and Rapid Hardening Portland cement, Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, White Cement etc. Some ofthe major clusters of cement industry in India are: Satna (Madhya Pradesh), Chandrapur (Maharashtra), Gulbarga (Karnataka), Yerranguntla (Andhra Pradesh), Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh) and Chandoria (Rajasthan). Statement of the Problem During the last few years liberalization of economic policies in India has resulted in a business climate that has favored rapid growth in almost all segments of Indian industry and commerce. The primary reason for this is the LPG process in 1991. The entire process has brought in a lot of changes in various aspects of financial market. J&K has also witnessed an upward trend in the savings from the public in the recent past. Also the infrastructure is in the developing stages in Jammu and Kashmir. All this has played its part in the growth and development of the cement industry in J&K. 1.2 Objectives of the Study To study the overall performance of the J&K Cements Limited. To study that whether the employees of J&K Cements Limited are satisfied or not. To study the government rules and policies with regards to the J&K Cement Sector. To get an idea of the challenges faced by the J&K cement sector and its future outlook. To measure the overall performance of J&K cements in terms of quality and economy in Prices. To find out the level to which J&K have been successful in fulfilling various social Responsibilities in Kashmir. To find out the Positive and Negative aspects about J&K cements in the market.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 11 1.3 Methodology The whole study can be termed as a desk research. Hence there is a field work and collection of primary data from the employees through questionnaire for this research except for secondary information obtained from internet, journals and magazines. Scope of Study Comprehensive study of a sector involves studying the basics of the sector like the product, its features, history, manufacturing process, and components of cost of production, overview of the industry, history of the industry, challenges faced, government policies and initiatives for the industry‟s growth, demand supply situation and the future prospects. With 153 cement plants and a total installed capacity of around 209 million tons per annum (MTPA) both as of March 2009, the Indian cement industry is the second largest in the world, the largest being China, which produces over 1 billion tons of cement annually. During 2008-09, total cement consumption in India stood at 178 million tons while exports of cement and clinker amounted to around 3 million tones. Area of Study The industry occupies an important place in the national economy because of its strong linkages to other sectors such as construction, transportation, coal and power, overall performance of the J&K Cements Ltd in the valley, functions of the different departments and the job satisfaction of the employees. Sources of data:- Primary Data: Primary data are the data gathered for specific purpose or a specific research project. Primary data is data collected for the first time. The data that is collected from primary sources of information is known as primary data. It is also known as first hand information. In this the individual conducts his own research and collects data.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 12 Secondary Data: The data collected for another purpose already exists somewhere is secondary data. This data is collected from published sources like books, newspapers etc., it is second hand information. The individual has to separate the relevant data for his study from the data that is already available and also check the euthenics of the data. Sources of Data and Tools of Collection: The data or this study has been collected from primary and secondary sources and various tools are used for the purpose of collection and analysis. Primary Data: Altercating on the research approach and instruments a sampling plan was designed. This plan called for three decisions: Sampling Procedure The researcher now decides on sampling plan. Here the researcher has to decide on the following options: Population: Who is to be surveyed? The researcher must define the target population, which is to be sampled. Sample unit: Once the population is determined, a sampling unit must be developed, then the sampling frame, so that everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being sampled. Here in this research the footfalls in the store are the sampling units Sampling size: It is not necessary to sample the entire target population. In this research, sample size is 90 each at J&K Cements Ltd (khrew) plant to find out whether the employees are satisfied with their jobs or not. Sampling procedure: To obtain the representative sample, a non probability sample can be drawn. In this study the method of selecting samples is random
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 13 Tools of Data Collection: Primary data are gathered through direct interview and questionnaires. A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to respondents for their answers. While preparing the questionnaire the researcher has to carefully choose the questions and their forms, and sequence them in proper order. The sequence should be in a logical order. The form of questions asked can influence the response. The questions can be open ended or close ended. An open-ended question allows the respondents to answer them in their own words. These questions always reveal more because they do not constrain respondents answer. The close-ended questions pre specify all the possible answers. These questions provide answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate. The questionnaire must be simple, direct, unbiased and wording should be pre tested with a sample of respondents before it is used. The main thing is that a questionnaire should create interest among the respondents. Techniques of Analysis The data collected from the employees are transcript to the work sheets in the form of tally bars and analyzed by statistical tools by drawing tables and graphs, inferences were drawn on whether the employees are satisfied with their jobs. Sampling Procedure The researcher now decides on sampling plan. Here the researcher has to decide on the following options: Population: Who is to be surveyed? The researcher must define the target population, which is to be sampled. Sample unit: Once the population is determined, a sampling unit must be developed, then the sampling frame, so that everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being sampled. Here in this research the footfalls in the khrew plant was the sampling units
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 14 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:- It is not possible for any study to make it accurate due to many hurdles in the collection and computation of data. Some limitations of the study are listed below: The sampling frame to conduct the study has been restricted some extend. Another hurdle faced in this research due to non-response error, which is caused by incomplete questionnaire. Another drawback of the study is that it was restricted to fill the Questionnaire by the employees, who do not have much time to answer. Respondents show reluctance towards giving correct information. Findings of the study are based on the assumption that respondents have disclosed accurate information.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 15 Chapter 2 An Overview of Cement Industry in India  Introduction  Present scenario  Indian economy-A Review  Cement industry in India  Contribution to Infrastructure Industry  Scope of Cement Industry
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 16 1.1 Introduction Cement is one of the core industries which plays a vital role in the growth and expansion of a nation. It is basically a mixture of compounds, consisting mainly of silicates and aluminates of calcium, formed out of calcium oxide, silica, aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The demand for cement depends primarily on the pace of activities in the business, financial, real estate and infrastructure sectors of the economy. Cement is considered preferred building material and is used worldwide for all construction works such as housing and industrial construction, as well as for creation of infrastructures like ports, roads, power plants, etc. Indian cement industry is globally competitive because the industry has witnessed healthy trends such as cost control and continuous technology up gradation. The Indian cement industry is extremely energy intensive and is the third largest user of coal in the country. It is modern and uses latest technology, which is among the best in the world. Also, the industry has tremendous potential for development as limestone of excellent quality is found almost throughout the country. 1.2 Indian Economy-A Review:- The Role of Cement Industry in India GDP is significant in the economic development of the country. The cement industry in India is one of the oldest sectors in India. The industry is driven by the immense growth in the housing sector, the infrastructure development, and construction of transportation systems. An increased outflow in infrastructure sector, by the government as well as private builders, has raised a significant demand of cement in India. It is the key raw material in construction industry. Also, it has highly influenced those bigger companies to participate in the growing sector. At least 125 plants set up by the big companies in India with about 300 other small scale cement manufacturers, to fulfill the growing demand of cement. Being one of the vital industries, the cement industry contributes to the nation‟s socioeconomic development. The sum total utilization of cement in a year indicates the country‟s economic growth. The demand of cement in year 2012-2013 is expected to increase by 50 million tons despite of the recession and decline in demand of housing sector. Against India‟s GDP growth of 7%, the experts have estimated the cement sector to grow by 9 to 10 % in the current financial year. Major Indian cement manufacturers and exporters have all made huge investments in the last few months to increase their production capability. This heralds an optimistic outlook for cement industry. The housing sector in India accounts for 50 % of the cement‟s demand. And
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 17 the demand is expected to continue. With the constant effort made by cement manufacturers and exporters, India has become the second largest cement producer in the world. Madras Cement Ltd., Associated Cement Company Ltd (ACC), Ambuja Cements Ltd, Grasim Industries Ltd, and J.K Cement Ltd. are among few renowned names of the major Indian cement companies. 1.2 Present Scenario:- The Indian cement industry is the second largest producer of quality cement. Indian Cement Industry is engaged in the production of several varieties of cement such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement, Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, White Cement, etc. They are produced strictly as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications and their quality is comparable with the best in the world. The industry occupies an important place in the national economy because of its strong linkages to other sectors such as construction, transportation, coal and power. The cement industry is also one of the major contributors to the exchequer by way of indirect taxes. Facts of Indian Cement Industry (1989-2012) Theindustryrecordedanexponentialgrowthwiththeintroductionofpartialdecontrolin1982culminatingin totaldecontrolin1989. Thecapacitywhichwas29Mn.tin1981-82,raisedto219Mn.tattheendof2012. Whileittook8decadestoreachthefirst100Mn.tcapacities,the2nd100Mn.twasaddedinjust10years. India ranks second in world cement producing countries. It contributes to environmental cleanliness by consuming hazardous wastes like Fly Ash (around 30 Mn.t) from thermal power plants and the entire 8 Mn.t of slag produced by steel manufacturing units. As a part of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the cement Industry employs around 0.1 million people and takes care of the social needs not only of the employees
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 18 but also adopts several villages around the factories providing free drinking water, electricity, medical and educational facilities. The cement Industry produces a variety of cement to suit a host of applications matching the world's best in quality. Exports Cement/Clinker to around 30 countries across the globe and earns precious foreign exchange.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 19 1.4 CEMENT INDUSTRY IN INDIA INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY Size of the Industry The total capacity is spread over 129 plants, which is owned by 54 major companies across the country. Geographical distribution Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune, New Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata, Delhi, Rajkot, Coimbatore, Vadodara, Ghaziabad, Nagpur, Faridabad, Jaipur, Surat, Aurangabad, Indore, Gurgaon, Jodhpur, Thane, Noida, Secunderabad, Thiruchirapalli, Navi Mumbai, Ludhiana, Guwahati, Nashik , Patna , Bhilai, Raipur , Howrah, Siliguri, Kota, Bhubaneswar, Madurai, Ankleshwar, Vapi, Chandigarh, Jamshedpur, Morbi, Udaipur , Bhavnagar, Kanpur, Lucknow, Tuticorin, Vijayawada, Beawar, Goa Output per annum 217.80 million tonnes Percentage in world market 8% of share
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 20 HISTORY Firstly in 1889 a Kolkata-based company started manufacturing cement from Argillaceous. Later the industry started getting the organized shape in the early 1900's. India Cement Company Ltd was established in 1914 in Porbandar with a capacity of 10,000 tons and production of 1000 tons installed. The first initial thrust to the cement industry in India was during the World War 1 and then the industry started growing at a fast rate in terms of production, manufacturing units, and installed capacity. This particular stage in the history was referred to as the Nascent Stage of Indian Cement Industry. In 1927, Concrete Association of India was established to create public awareness on the utility of cement as well as to propagate cement consumption. In the year 1956 the Indian Cement Industry saw the price and distribution control system, which was established to ensure fair price model for consumers as well as manufacturers. Later, government authorized new manufacturing units (as well as existing units going for capacity enhancement) to put a higher price tag for their products in the year 1977. After some years, government introduced a three-tier pricing system with different pricing on cement produced in high, medium and low cost plants. In 1982 Government of India introduced a quota system to give impetus to the cement industry. A quota of 66.60% was imposed for sales to Government and small real estate developers. Lower quota at 50% was affected for new units and sick units. The remaining 33.40% was allowed to be sold in the open market. These changes had the desirable effects on the Indian Cement industry. Profitability of the manufacturers increased substantially, but such rising input cost was a cause for concern. Complete freedom to the cement industry was given in the year 1989, to gear it up to meet the challenges of free market competition due to the impending policy of liberalization. In 1991 the industry was de- licensed which resulted in an accelerated growth for the industry and availability of state of the art technology for modernization. Major players invested heavily for capacity expansion and the industry laid greater focus on exports to maximize the opportunity available in the form of global markets. The role of the government has been extremely crucial in the growth of the industry.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 21 BRIEF INTRODUCTION Indian Cement Industry is the second largest cement producer in the world after China with a total capacity of 151.2 Million Tons (MT). Government of India has been giving immense boost to various infrastructure projects, housing facilities and road networks, the cement industry in India is currently growing at an enviable pace. In the coming years more growth in the Indian cement industry is expected to come. It is predicted that the production in India would rise to 236.16 MT in FY11 & expected to rise to 262.61 MT in FY12 in the Cement Industry. The Indian cement industry is dominated by 20 companies, which account for almost 70% of the total cement production in India. The companies all over India have produced 11 MT cement during April-September 2009. The Indian Cement industry plays a major role in the growth of the nation for that case in any country. Industry Cement Industry was under full control and supervision of the government. However, it got great relief at a large extent after the economic reform which made its growth easier. Still government interference, especially in the pricing, is evident in India. In spite of it being second largest cement producer in the world, Indian Cement industry falls in the list of lowest per capita consumption of cement with 125 kg. The reason for this is poor rural people who mostly live in mud huts and cannot afford to have the commodity. The demand and supply of cement in India has grown up over the years. In a fast developing economy as India there is always large possibility of expansion of cement industry. The Indian cement industry is one of the vital industries for economic development. The total utilization of cement in a year is used as an indicator of economic growth. Cement contributes as a necessary constituent of infrastructure development and a key raw material for the construction industry, especially in the government‟s infrastructure development plans in the context of the nation‟s socio-economic development.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 22 Types of Cement Manufactured in India The types of cement in India have increased over the years with the advancement in research, development, and technology. The Indian cement industry is witnessing a boom as a result of which the production of different kinds of cement in India has also increased. By a fair estimate, there are around 11 different types of cement that are being produced in India. Various types of cement produced in India are: Clinker Cement Ordinary Portland Cement Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement Portland Pozzolana Cement Rapid Hardening Portland Cement Oil Well Cement White Cement Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement In India, the different types of cement are manufactured using dry, semi-dry, and wet processes. In the production of Clinker Cement, a lot of energy is required. It is produced by using materials such as limestone, iron oxides, aluminum, and silicon oxides. Among the different kinds of cement produced in India, Portland Pozzolana Cement, Ordinary Portland Cement, and Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement are the most important because they account for around 99% of the total cement production in India. The Portland variety of cement is the most common one among the types of cement in India and is produced from gypsum and clinker. The Ordinary Portland cement and Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement are used mostly in the construction of airports and bridges. The
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 23 production of white cement in the country is very less for it is very expensive in comparison to grey cement. In India, while cement is usually utilized for decorative purposes, marble foundation work, and to fill up the gaps between tiles of ceramic and marble. The different types of cement in India have registered an increase in production in the last few years. Efforts must be made by the cement industry in India and the government of India to ensure that the cement industry continues innovation and research to come up with more and more varieties in the near future. The major companies producing Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement in India are: J K Cement Grasim Industries and Ultra Tech ACC India Cement Ltd Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd The major countries where Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement is exported from India are: South Africa UAE Sri Lanka Nepal Bangladesh Australia Doha-Qatar The production and use of Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement have increased over the years. The Indian government has undertaken several investments in the production of the Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement so that its quality and durability can be improved.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 24 SIZE OF THE INDUSTRY The Cement Industry in India is the second largest in the world. Cement Industry constitutes of 140 large and more than 365 mini cement plants. The Indian Cement Industry's capacity at the beginning of the year 2009-10 was 217.80 million tons. The Indian Cement Industry comprises of 125 units with an installed capacity of 148.28 million tons and more than 300 mini cement plants with an estimated capacity of 11.10 million tons per annum. Actual Indian cement production in 2002-03 was 116.35 million tons as against a production of 106.90 million tons in 2001-02, registering a growth rate of 8.84%. Keeping in view the trend of growth of the industry in previous years, a production target of 126 million tons has been fixed for the year 2003-04. During the period April-June 2003, a production (provisional) was 31.30 million ton es. The industry has achieved a growth rate of 4.86 per cent during this period. 1.5 TOTAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMY / SALES The Indian Cement Industry comprises of 125 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 148.28 million tonnes and more than 300 mini cement plants with an estimated capacity of 11.10 million tonnes per annum. The Cement Corporation of India is a Central Public Sector Undertaking which has 10 units. State Governments owns 10 large cement plants. Indian Cement production in 2002-03 was 116.35 million tonnes as against a production of 106.90 million tonnes in 2001-02, registering a growth rate of 8.84%. The Major players in cement production are Ambuja cement, Aditya Cement, J K Cement and L & T cement.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 25 DOMESTIC AND EXPORT SHARE Apart from meeting the entire domestic demand, the Indian Cement industry is also exporting cement and clinker. During 2001-02 and 2003-04 the export was 5.14 million tons and 6.92 million tons respectively. During 2003 the export was 1.35 million tons. The Major exporters were Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. and L&T. It is expected that the cement industry will steadily grow and more than 50 million tons will be produced annually to cater the high demand in the real estate sector. There will be significant increase in the production by around 9 to 10% which will favorably affect the overall Gross Domestic Product of the country. Top Leading Companies Ultratech Cement Century Cements Madras Cements ACC Gujarat Ambuja Cement Limited Grasim Industries India Cements Limited Jaiprakash Associates JK Cements Holcim Lafarge Heidelberg Cemex Italcementi Contribution to Infrastructure Industry India is the second largest producer of cement in the world and the increased focus on infrastructure and affordable housing is expected to significantly increase the production capacity of cement in India over the next few years. The cement industry comprises of 125 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 148.28 million tons and more than 300 mini cement plants with an estimated capacity of 11.10 million tons per annum.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 26 The Cement Corporation of India, which is a Central Public Sector Undertaking, has 10 units. There are 10 large cement plants owned by various State Governments. The total installed capacity in the country as a whole is 159.38 million tons. Actual cement production in 2002- 03 was 116.35 million tons as against a production of 106.90 million tons in 2001-02, registering a growth rate of 8.84%. Major players in cement production are Ambuja cement, Aditya Cement, J K Cement and L & T cement. The Planning Commission for the formulation of X Five Year Plan constituted a 'Working Group on Cement Industry' for the development of cement industry. The Working Group has identified following thrust areas for improving demand for cement; Further push to housing development programmers; Promotion of concrete Highways and roads; and Use of ready-mix concrete in large infrastructure projects. 1.6 SCOPE OF CEMENT INDUSTRY Domestic demand is one of the chief reasons for the rapid growth of cement manufacturing in India. One can say that the domestic demand for the commodity has in fact clearly overtaken the rate of economic growth in the country. It is estimated that the consumption of cement in the country is bound to rise more than 22% within the next two years. In terms of cement consumption, Maharashtra State leads the list with 12.18%, followed by Uttar Pradesh, whereas in terms of production, the State of Andhra Pradesh leads the table reporting 14.72% of production. The second place in the manufacturing is bagged by Rajasthan. During October 2009, the country produced a total volume of 12.37 MT compared to a manufacturing of 11.61 MT recorded in the same month during the previous year. The cement manufacturing units are also motivated to take up their production rate owing to the rapidly increasing demand in the market. Most encouragingly, the cement companies witnessed a net profit growth rate of 85%. This huge success has further encouraged the firms in India to account for about 8% of India‟s economic development. Some of the regions where major clusters of cement industries located in India are Satna (Madhya Pradesh), Yerranguntla (Andhra Pradesh), Chandrapur (Maharashtra), Bilaspur (Chattisgarh), Gulbarga (Karnataka), Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh), and Chandoria (Rajasthan).
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 27 The annual demand for cement in India is consistently growing at 8-10%. NCAER has estimated after an extensive study that the demand for cement in the country is expected to increase to 244.82 million tonnes by 2012. At the same time, the demand will be at 311.37 million tonnes if the projections of the road and housing segments are met in reality. However, the realization of this capacity might get delayed on account of delay in equipment delivery and construction of plants caused by heavy pending orders in the books of suppliers. The crude oil prices have pronounced a heavy impact on the profits made by cement manufacturers. Once the economic growth passes on this burden to the consumers, this situation will be eased at the manufacturer‟s end. The government has taken measures to increase the availability of indigenous coal for cement manufacturers to bring down production costs. Developments in the domestic environment and a large number of infrastructure projects have created an unforeseen demand for cement consumption in India, which is bound to increase manifold over the coming years. While concrete steps are being taken to bring down costs, the cement industry is heading towards a very bright future in India.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 28 Chapter 3 Company profile  Introduction  Industry Profile  Mission & Vision  Objectives & Goals  Product & Project profiles
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 29 INTRODUCTION:- J&K Cements Ltd: The place is a remote area of district Srinagar, KHREW, where J&K cements came into existence in 1980 and started its production in 1981. The story of J&K cements thus began and it has completed 28 years of its glorious existence. Over the last few years, J&K cements has spent it‟s time to build. There is only one difference between dream and aim, dreams require effortless sleep and aim requires sleepless efforts. J&K Cements did a pioneering role in laying the foundation of cements as early as 1982 and making a humble beginning. The group has to its credit thunderous achievements of universal acclaim in terms of quality of the products and the latest technology employed, coupled with able guidance and skilled work force. J&K Cements is undisputedly the most diversified, spread out cement of the valley. Currently the total employee strength of the J&K Cements is over 900 and is expected to rise in future. The company has been in operation for more than 28 years now, producing high quality Cement 43 Grade cement OPC and PPC at its cement plant situated at Khrew, Srinagar. It started with the cement production of 600 tons per day, which is now going to increase to 1200 tons per day as J&K cements have recently started a new Rotary Plant unit of 600TPD Capacity. The company uses latest sophisticated German technology. The company has distinction of being the first plant of its kind in the valley. The company commands good market reputation in the valley for super quality cement J&K Brand 43 Grade OPC, with super strength, super Finish and super fineness manufactured in latest sophisticated Rotary plant with computerized Raw material feeding. The company provides employment to more than 900 persons directly and about 2000 Families indirectly. Company provides a lot of benefits and allowances like Bonus, food Allowances, conveyance allowances etc to its employees. It believes that the reason behind the fast growth of the company is its competent and skilled workforce.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 30
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 31 INDUSTRY PROFILE BEGINNING:- Jammu and Kashmir cements ltd was incorporated as fully owned Government Company in December, 1974. The installation work for 600 tons per day dry process plant, Rotary horizontal kiln, available technology of that time, was started at Khrew in district Pulwama Kashmir nearly 23 kms away from Srinagar in 1975 and completed in October, 1981. Trial runs were started in October 1981. The plant which was then in a heavy sector industries listed commercial production in April, 1982. SITE SELECTION:- The plant is situated near rich deposits of high quality lime stones which help in production of quality cement. PHILOSOPHY:- To exploit the abundant deposits available near the plant site. To make the quality cement available to the consumers at reasonable rates. To fill up the gap between demand and supply. INVESTMENT:-The Company was started with the initial capital of 38 core rupees, of which 15crore was invested by the govt. and the rest by Banks and various financial institutions. The company has been making profits right from its inception. CORPORATE MISSION The management of J&K Cements aims at expanding its market by providing better quality products with added services to meet the market demand. Company also aspires for maintaining its Profitability and creates job opportunities in the state as well as outside. Among the first companies in India to include commitment to environmental protection is also included in its corporate Mission.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 32 EMPLOYES:- J&K Cements Ltd started with a staff of 315 employees falling under different cadres including 25 managers/ engineers, 40 supervisors/ technicians, 200 permanent workers and 50 casual workers. At present, the company has staff strength of more than 900 employees of Which 30 are managers/ engineers, 70 supervisors, 550 permanent and 257 casual workers? Further the company has an annual turnover of 50crore with an annual growth of 15-20%. The company is having a very good conductive working atmosphere and is free from union Interventions. However, company has never witnessed any strike throughout its Establishment. Being a fair market practitioner and providing quality products, the company is putting its Regular effort in research and development for making innovations in its market strategies and Locates new potential markets. The company is having dedicated well qualified and efficient Human resources. The capital investments, regular purchases, financial matters including preparation of Budgets, cash inflows and outflows etc are directly controlled and managed by the director of the company who is very hopeful and positive about the mission of the company applying his Expertise in fulfilling the goals of the organization.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 33 NATURE OF PRODUCTS AND PRODUCT LINE:- The plant started producing quality variety of ordinary Portland cements (OPC), 33 Grade and Pozzolana Portland cements (PPC) under “Jhelum Brand” with Bureau of Indian standards certification. This brand is registered with the trade mark Registry Bombay, Government of India. At that time Pozzolana cement was manufactured by using brick Bats. This did not sale smoothly in the market due to radish color of the cement on accounts of usage of bricks bats. The company discontinued its production of PPC in 1997 and started manufacturing ordinary Portland cement 43 Grade. ADDITIONAL PRODUCT LINE:- Now the position is different and n view of the changed scenario in Indian cement industries the major producers have started using alternatives Fly ash in manufacture of blended cement which not only has reduced their cost of production but also have improved the environment. The company is also going to add this variety of cement to its product line by manufacturing Fly ash based Pozzolana port land cement. We approached Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) and obtained license for manufacture of Fly ash based blended cement. By introducing this variety of cement in the market, the company would be able o reduce the cost of the production and appears in more competition with major producers in the market. CONTRIBUTION IN DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE:- The company provides employment to more than 900 persons directly and about 2000 Families indirectly. Company provides a lot of benefits and allowances like Bonus, food Allowances, conveyance allowances etc to its employees. It believes that the reason behind the fast growth of the company is its competent and skilled workforce. The company is providing employments to more than one thousand semi skilled, skilled, specializes and super specialized people directly or indirectly. Company has played significant role in the development of the state and is also a major contributor in construction of major projects like hydro power projects, water treatment, plants, bridges, canals etc. the company is supplying cement in bulk quantities to Leh, kargil , Defiance services ,state PWD, Power development co operations.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 34 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:- The company does not have any annualized budget spared for training purpose as the training is provided within the premises of the organization by the experts from higher positions in the company. Company only provides short term practical training to its employees working at shop level. Employees found deficient while performing their routine job are recommended for training purpose by the head of the department. Whenever there is need for training the employees, the company shows its most interest in imparting training to its employees. Employees also show strong inclination and interest towards these training programs. Vision, Mission and Core Values Vision:-To be the most admired company, to set new benchmark in business practices and fulfilling the needs and expectations of our customers by giving them value for their hard earned money. Mission:- To go beyond mere offering of quality products to our customers and practice business in accordance with the highest ethical standards, supporting the community where we work and live, protecting the health and safety of our employees and safe guarding the environment where in we do our business. Core Values: - At J&K Cements Ltd, we are convinced that staying successful in the business environment requires more than just striving for economic success. We must also accept social responsibility and demonstrate environmental awareness. We live and practice our company values. They serve as the basis for our business practices.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 35 Future plan of J&K Cement Ltd RETROFITTING OF EXISTING PLANT The retrofitting of the existing kilns shall be taken up and Consultants are being short listed for the purpose. The modalities of the work are being worked out to minimize the cost and to maximize the use of existing civil structures and equipments at Site. The plan is to add a Pre- calciner, change the clinker coolers to latest grate coolers, and change the feed-end fans and motors as well as to rectify/replace the Kiln drive motor and foundations to take the extra load of augmented production. The total estimated cost is anticipated to be around Rs.30.00 Crores. CLINKER GRINDING CUM PACKING UNIT AT JAMMU A Grinding Plant of 300 tons per day capacity is being set up at Jammu in Samba Industrial Growth Centre of SIDCO. Lands stands acquired for the purpose and land development and construction of Boundary Wall under progress. Work on site office has already started. The plant shall be of latest technology. It shall make use of the surplus Clinker from Khrew Plant during winter months to cater to the demands of Jammu region. The Plant is also proposed to make use of Fly Ash to reduce the cost per bag. Latest Pollution Control Devices are planned for the unit. Consultants for the Project have been short-listed. The total estimated cost is anticipated to be around Rs.15.00 Cores.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 36 EXPANSION OF THE EXISTING PLANT: In view of huge gap between the demand and supply of cement in the State and increase of per capita consumption of cement in future, the Management of the company approached its Board of Directors in April, 2002 in its 80th meeting with the proposal for expansion of the production capacity of the existing plant by installation of additional production line of 600 tons per day (TPD) capacity plant. The Board of Directors (BOD) after discussing various pros and cons of the proposal cleared the same. After getting clearance from the BOD for the additional production line, the company approached the Govt. for Administrative Approval of the project. State Cabinet accorded approval for installation of additional 600 TPD production line at the existing plant at Khrew at a cost of Rs.64.16 crores comprising Rs.2291 lacs as contribution of State Govt. towards company‟s Share Capital and Rs.4125 lacs to be raised as term loan from Financial Institutions. Accordingly, the Company after appointing the Consultants for the said project invited tenders for supply, installation, supervision and commissioning of required plant and machinery including civil works on turn-key basis. As per the lowest bid, the total project cost came to the tune of Rs.87.50 crores. After processing the case, the Board of Directors in its 87th meeting in September, 2005 approved the allotment of the contract on the lowest bidder. Thereupon, the allotment for supply, installation, supervision and commissioning of the required plant and machinery on turn-key basis including civil work stands issued in the month of November, 2005 in favour of the lowest bidder M/S Promac Engineers Industries Ltd; Bangalore. The agreement for the project between the company and M/S Promac also stands signed.The work on additional production line of 600 TPD cement plant by M/S Promos Engineering Industries Ltd., Bangalore, was taken up in April, 2006. The commissioning of the plant got delayed due to
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 37 disturbed conditions in the Valley on account of land row and elections. During this period, the Engineers and workers of M/S Promac Engineering Industries Ltd. left the Valley. After having discussions on the issue with Commissioner/Secretary, Industries & Commerce Deptt., the Managing Director of the company went to Bangalore and met the Managing Director of M/S Promac and after long persuasion & with the assurance regarding the safety of their Engineers and other workers, we got them back to our Site.The new plant is presently on trial load runs and its commercial production shall start shortly once the trial production is stabilized.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 38 PREPARATION/ FORMATION OF CEMENT:- LIME STONE CLAY QUARRYING PROCESS CRUSHING PROCSS CRUSHED LIME STONES+CLAY+OTHER MATERIALS ARE MIXED AND GROUND TOGETHER RAW MATERIALS OTHER MATERIALS MIXTURE IS BURENT IN KILN GYPSUM IS ADDED & MIXTURE IS GROUNDTO TO POWDER RESULTING IN PORTLAND CEMENT STORAGE IN SILO PACKED TRANSPORTED USED
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 39 Main constituent in a typical Portland cement Chemical name chemical formula Di calcium silicate 2CaO+ Si O2 Tri calcium silicate 3CaO+SiO 2 Tri calcium Aluminates 4 CaO+ Al2O3 Tetra calcium Alumino ferrite 4 CaO + Al2 O3 + Fe2 O3 Gypsum CaSo4 + 2H2O Lime stone and clay Burnt at Calcium silicate Ca3 Sio2, Ca2 SiO4 Powered and mixed 1400- 1670c Calcium aluminates‟ Ca3Al2O6Ca2Al2 C5 other materials in rotator kiln cement clinker + Gypsum Portland cement PROCESS OF PRODUCTION:- The demanding nature of the production of the Portland cement requires, to make some various operations use of machinery and weighted team and big quantities of heat and energy. Each step in the production of the Portland cement is verified by frequent physical is analyzed and it is proven to assure that it completes all the specifications. Two process of production of the cement Portland exists dry and wet. In the first milled decreases the stone until an approximate size of 6 inches then it passes the secondary crushers or hammer mill and their size is reduced to 3 inches or less. The raw materials are warmed to some degrees of 1400- 1750c. the ovens are of 12 feet of diameter in many cases and extremely long, they are tightly inclined and for up the material is introduced and for below there is a blaze ( burning coal) certain materials leave in form of gas, the remaining elements unite to form a new material with new characteristics. The new substance called clinker is formed in lower end of the kiln, going by some refrigerator or
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 40 fans is returned to the oven, a process that saves fuel and the effectiveness of the burnt one increases. The clinker formed is cooled and conveyed to the clinker soil, from where it is extracted and transported to the cement mill for producing OPC cement clinker and gypsum are used for production of cement. The OPC is then stored in cement soil. After that it is packed and is transported to different areas of the state. Working of the cement factory:- The large plant of cement factory is composed of heavy electronic machines. These machines run with the help of electricity which helps to grand or crush the high stones in small pieces in different steps and finally gives cement as an end product. Fallowing steps occur during manufacturing of cement are lime stone, sand stone are available in the nearby mountains while as clay, iron ore and gypsum is made available from other areas. The plant contains two types of crushers‟ namely primary and secondary crushers. Primary crusher: in primary crushers, the high stones of lime and sand are firstly crushed. Here the piano sized rocks are broken into pieces, the size of base ball. The primary crusher is located at the base of the mountain. Secondary crushers: from primary crusher, the crushed stone are passed into the secondary crushers. The secondary crusher reduces raw material to the size of gravel. Secondary crusher is located at the edge of the mountain. After secondary crushing the raw material is transported storage hall. After 1600 metric tons of raw material is produced per day. Main mill section:- Now the material goes into the main mill section with the help of moving belts. Then the raw material reaches into the site sized by large hoppers. Hopper:- It is a container tapering down ward through which material passes into a mill. Hopper is four in number viz lime clay, sand and additive. Hopper controls the amount and type of materials. These hoppers are joined by D.C Feeders. This is the raw material mixing site.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 41 D.C FEEDER:- DC Feeder is a feeding apparatus in a machine used to select the proportion of raw material. R.B CONVEYOR:- After mixing of raw material, it comes to RB Conveyor belt conveyor is an apparatus having an endless moving belt for conveying material. From conveyor belt the material reaches the mill. Here the material needs more grinding with the help of grinding media balls. Each grinder is made up of chromium steel. BUCKET ELEVATOR:- It is a system where lifting and storing quality of material is done. The material from R.B Conveyor is supplied into the bucket elevator. AIR SEPARATOR:- At this point fine materials and coarse materials are separated from each other. Hera air separator works as sieve. RAW MILL:- Lengths of raw mill are about 19.5m. Now the raw material which is in air separator goes to raw section. Which contains a diaphragm, where the cement is sucked with help of exhaust fans and the material is transferred to the elevator and then finally to FK Pump (Fuller Kirryon Pump). Here the material mixes with fine material. Which were prepared first the raw material now goes to the blending soil which acts as a raw material storage tank. KILN:- Whether in dry powder or slurry form, the raw metal is ready for the huge rotating furnace called kiln, it is the heart of cement making process, a horizontally sloped steel cylinder, lined with fire bricks turning from about 1-3 rotations per minute. The kiln is the world‟s largest piece of moving industrial equipments.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 42 At the lower end of the kiln, powered coal, natural gas, oil or waste derived fuels feed a white flame that reaches 187c on third of the temperature of the sun‟s surface. Here in the hottest zone the material reaches nearly to 1480-1700c and become partly molten, they emerge from the lower end of the kiln as a new substance red hot particles called as clinkers. As the raw material move down the progressively hotter kiln, they undergo complex chemical reaction in cement making converts‟ calcium and silicon oxides into calcium silicates, cements principle constituents. While kiln system varies there are three major zones. a) Drying and preheating zone: water is evaporated and calcinations driving off CO2 from lime stone, temperature 20-900 degree. b) Calcinations:-calcinations is a complete removing co2 from calcium carbonate to produces lime (calcium oxide) needed for subsequent reaction. c) Burning or sintering zone:- (1200-1600 C) calcium oxide reacts with silica to form di calcium silicates (2CaO+S1O2) and alumina and iron bearing materials to form tri calcium aluminate (4CaO+AlO3). These compounds in liquid phase melts solid together into the pellets called clinkers. PREHEATER:- To save energy modern cement plant preheat the materials before they enter the kiln. The pre heater tower dominated the landscape risings more than 200 feet. The tower supports a series of vertical cyclone chamber through which the raw meal passes on its way to the kiln, hot exit gasses risings from the kiln heat the materials as it swirls through to cyclones. From the pre heater, the material now enters the kiln at the upper or feed end. It slides and trembles down the kiln through progressively hotter zones towards the flame. Remaining CO2 in the raw materials is driven off and the intense heat triggers other chemical reactions. FINAL GRIND:- As the clinker leaves the kiln, it tumbles on to a reciprocation gate through which fans force cool air, the heat recovered as the clinker cools is returned to the kiln or pre heater to save
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 43 energy. Once cooled the clinker is ready to be ground into the familiar gray powder. During final grinding a small amount of Gypsum is added to the clinker to control the setting time of the cement and also provide color to the cement. BALL MILL or CEMENT MILL: - I n ball mill or cement mill the clinker is grounded to super fine powder composed of micron sized. It can know be considered Portland cement. The cement is so fine it will easily pass through a sieve that is fine enough to hold water. SILO: - Each cement product is stored in an individual bulk silo until needed by the consumer there are almost 12 nozzles which moves automatically in a circle and through these nozzle cements is packed in bags. At least 15-25 bags of cement are packed in one minute and are then distributed in bulk by trucks etc. POLLUTIONCONTROLE DEVICES:- Pollution control device such as electrostatic precipitation or fabric filter called bag house, remove particulates from exit gasses before they enter into the atmosphere. This strict control of emission enables cement plant to meet high air quality standards. Many plants return all or a portion of the collected particles called cement kiln dust to the kiln as a part of the raw feet. Cement kiln dust to the kiln as a part of the raw feet, cement kiln dust not returned to the kiln is responsibility managed or sold for uses such as establishing agents. RPJ (RESERVE PULP JET SYSTEM):- It is an old type of system in which dust is collected and control pollution. Reserve pulp jet works as podium, it sucks the dust present in the factory and stored it as cement.RPJ helps to decrease the ratio of amount pollution about 45-50%.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 44 Chapter 4 FUNCRIONAL DEPARTMENTS  Introduction  Structure of Departments  Functioning of departments  Interdependence
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 45 FUNCTIONAL AREAS Departments are the entities organizations form to organize people, reporting relationships, and work in a way that best supports the accomplishment of the organization's goals. Departments are usually organized by functions such as human resources, marketing, administration, and sales. But, a department can be organized in any way that makes sense for the customer. Departments can also be organized by customer, by product, or by region of the world.  Human Resource Department  Production Department  Marketing & Sales Department  Finance Department  Purchase Department Human Resource Department: The forward thinking human resource department is devoted to providing effective policies, procedures, and people-friendly guidelines and support within companies. Additionally, the human resource function serves to make sure that the company mission, vision, values or guiding principles, the company metrics, and the factors that keep the company guided toward success are optimized. The human resources of a business are its employees. Wise organizations look after their staff on the basis that if they are well trained and committed to the aims of the business, the organization is more likely to be successful.HR is responsible for recruiting new employees and ensuring that each vacancy is filled by the best person for the job. This is important because the recruitment process is expensive and time-consuming. Hiring the wrong person can be costly and cause problems both for the individual And the firm normally, new employees attend an induction programme which tells them about the business, their rights and responsibilities as employees, the company rules and the requirements of their new job. Arranging appropriate training and assisting with the
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 46 continuous professional development of staff is another aspect of HR. Training may be carried out in-house or staff may attend external courses. HR aims to ensure that the business retains good, experienced staff. Analyzing staff-turnover figures will show the rate at which people leave the organization. If these are high, it is important to identify and remedy any problem areas. Whilst people may leave for justifiable reasons, such as moving to another area or for promotion elsewhere, dissatisfaction with the job or the company should be investigated. Some organizations hold exit interviews to find out staff views on the business when they leave. Employees normally have basic expectations of their employer. They expect to be treated and paid fairly, to have appropriate working conditions, to have training opportunities, which will improve their promotion prospects, and support if they are ill or have serious personal problems. They also want a varied and interesting job and praise when they have worked particularly hard or well. These factors help motivation, which means staff are keen to work hard – and this benefits everyone. HR can help this process by monitoring working Conditions, having staff welfare policies and ensuring that company pay rates are fair and competitive. Many organizations have staff associations, which monitor the views and conditions of staff and make these known. In other businesses trade unions may represent the workers, especially on pay and conditions. Senior HR staffs liaise with these organizations, keep them informed of changes and developments and are also involved in any negotiations with senior management. Today, all employees and employers have legal rights and responsibilities in relation to health and safety, data protection (which restricts the type of information which can be held on employees and customers and how it is used) and employment. HR staff must ensure that the business complies with current laws and stays up to date with legal changes and developments.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 47 The H R manager has following functions:  To maintain good relationship between the employer and employees.  To maintain good cooperate relations.  To select right type and number of employees.  Recruitment of employees Manpower.  Performance review of employees.  Maintenance of all personnel records.  Co-ordination with the other department in recruitment of employees.  To comply with norms of state government and statutory bodies  To maintain effective and efficient work force.  Implementing all policy matters.  Salary/wage administration.  Statutory administration-like Company act etc. Example role: Junior Assistant The various functions of HR department are: Recruitment Selection Pay roll Performance Management System
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 48 STRUCTURE OF HR (P&A) DEPARTMENT Dy Manager HR (P&A) Manager HR (P&A) Assistant Manager HR (P&A) Assistant Manager Administration Assistant Officer Helper Junior Receptionist Pantry Service Associate Sweeper Gatekeeper Driver Helper Security
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 49 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: Production refers to the manufacture or assembly of goods. Production staff must ensure that goods are produced on time and are of the right quality. Checking quality does not mean just examining goods after they have been produced. Today quality is „built-in‟ at every stage of the process, starting with the raw materials. Buying raw materials is done by specialist purchasing staff, which takes out contracts with regular suppliers and make sure that the terms of the contract are met, in relation to delivery, cost, quantity and quality. They also ensure that all items are checked on delivery and refer any problems back to the supplier. The materials must be purchased at a competitive price. This is not necessarily the cheapest price, but takes account of other factors, such as the reliability of the supplier, the quality required and the delivery date. Raw materials will be stored near to the production area in a separate area. If a manufacturer uses a large number of parts – such as a car producer – storage can be very expensive, in terms of the space required and the manpower to oversee the stock. For this reason, many manufacturers today operate a just-in-time (JIT) system. This involves having an agreement with specific suppliers to provide small quantities, quickly, when they are needed. The suppliers know that they have a regular buyer. The manufacturer no longer needs to store large quantities of goods or worry about having sufficient stocks on the premises all the time. Today, many production processes are automated. When a process cannot be automated, teams of operators may work together and take responsibility for a sequence of operations. This makes the job more interesting and makes it easier to ensure high quality. This system is also more flexible because changes can easily be introduced at any stage by giving instructions to specfic teams. It is therefore used by many car manufacturers who often want to vary certain models. The production function also includes all the following aspects of Production planning involves deciding what will be made, when, and which machines and operators will be used. A realistic timescale must be predicted, bearing in mind other jobs that are in progress production control means constantly checking progress to make sure that production plans are met – and taking remedial action if problems occur. This could be because of machinery breakdown, Substandard raw materials or labor shortages. Machine utilization control is concerned with minimizing problems by keeping all the equipment and machinery in good working order. This involves checking to ensure none is overloaded or overused, without being routinely checked and maintained. This is important because if a machine malfunctions it may produce
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 50 damaged goods. If it breaks down altogether then production of that product will cease. Because this aspect is so important, many organizations have a maintenance plan, which shows the dates on which machines will be out of operation for inspection and servicing. These dates are then taken into consideration when production plans are made. Staff utilization control concentrates on making sure all the staff are working effectively and efficiently and concentrating their efforts on key production areas and targets. This is very important in industries which are labor-intensive and use more people than machines, such as assembling circuit boards or sewing jeans.final quality checks make certain that the product is of the correct Production functions Ordering (often buying) stocks of raw materials from approved suppliers Storing and checking the stocks of raw materials Planning production schedules to maximize machine capacity and staff levels Producing or assembling the finished product Checking the quality of the product throughout the production process Checking production is on schedule and resolving delays or problems Packing and storing the final products before distribution Scheduling routine machinery inspections and maintenance Carrying out repairs to machinery and equipment as required
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 51 FINANCE DEPARTMENT: Most entrepreneurs consider this is the most important function in the business. This is because all businesses need a regular stream of income to pay the bills. Finance staff record all the money earned and spent so that the senior managers always know how much profit (or loss) is being made by each product or each part of the business and how much money is currently held by the business. This enables critical decisions to be made rapidly and accurately because they are based on accurate information. In many large businesses, different types of financial experts are employed: management accountants monitor departmental budgets and current income from sales, prepare cash flow forecasts and specialize in analyzing day-to-day financial information and keeping senior managers informed. financial accountants are concerned with the preparation of the statutory accounts. All companies must provide a Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account each year, and most produce a cash flow statement as well. Finance staff supports the accountants by keeping financial records, chasing up late payments and paying for items purchased. J&K Cements Ltd use computer accounting packages to record financial transactions and prepare their accounts as well as spreadsheets to analyze financial data. The finance department prepares the payroll and pays staff salaries. At times J&K Cement Ltd needs money to fullfill specific aims and objectives linked to growth, expansion or simply updating their equipment or machinery. These items may be bought from money held back (reserved) from past profits, but usually additional money will be needed. If the business needs to borrow money it will want the cheapest interest rates possible and also want good repayment terms. Deciding where to obtain these funds is a specialist job and normally the task of the senior financial manager. Finance functions Producing invoices, checking payments are received and chasing up overdue payments Recording money received Checking and paying invoices received Preparing the payroll and paying staff salaries Monitoring departmental budgets to check managers are not overspending
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 52 Issuing regular budget reports to all departmental managers Producing cash flow forecasts and regular financial reports for senior managers Advising senior managers on sources of finance for capital expenditure. Producing the statutory accounts each year STRUCTURE OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT Dy Manager Finance and Accounts Manager Accounts Manager Taxation Assistant Manager Accounts Accountant Accounts Assistant Accounts Assistant II Assistant Manager Taxation Sr. Assistant Finance Assistant Finance In Charge Taxation
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 53 MARKETING & SALES DEPARTMENT Marketing is all about identifying and meeting customer needs. Many businesses consider this so important that they are said to be marketing led. In this case, everyone in the organization is trained to put the customer first – from the production worker, who has to produce high quality goods, to the accounts clerk, who must respond to a customer enquiry promptly and accurately. Another way to understand marketing is through the marketing mix which consists of four Ps. Product – Who are our customers? What do they want to buy? Are their needs changing? Which products are we offering and how many are we selling? What new products are we planning? In which areas are sales growing – and how can we sustain this? For which products are sales static – and how can we renew interest? Which sales are falling and what, if anything, can we do? J&K Cement has been able to develop the trust in customers throughout Jammu & Kashmir by offering them the high quality and most reliable products at reasonable rates. J&K Cement understands the customer‟s needs and the growing demand from housing industry and is ready to meet the challenges. Also the increasing population of Jammu & Kashmir provides a lot of scope to this growing industry. Price – How much should we charge? Should we reduce the price at the start to attract more customers – or charge as much as we can when we can? Can we charge different prices to different types of customers? What discounts can we give? What services or products should we give away or sell very cheaply. Customers do not hesitate or bother to buy J&K Cement at a reasonable rate of Rs 450/bag. Promotion – How can we tell people about our products? Should we have specialist sales staff? Where should we advertise to attract the attention of our key customers? How else can we promote the product – should we give free samples or run a competition? Where and how can we obtain free publicity? Should we send direct mail shots and, if so, what information should we include? J&K Cement has come out with promotional strategies and branding techniques. It has developed a brand image for its products under the brand name “Jhelum Cement”. Place – How can we distribute our product(s)? Should we sell direct to the customer or through retailers? Do we need specialist wholesalers or overseas agents to sell for us? What can we sell over the telephone? How can the Internet help us to sell more? All these questions
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 54 are considered by marketing staff. They start by identifying future customer needs. Products are then developed (or adapted) or services offered to meet these needs. If this is done well, it gives the company an edge over its competitors. The company website is a major way of communicating with prospective and actual customers and the style and content is kept up to date by the marketing staff. Marketing functions Carrying out market research to obtain feedback on potential and existing products and/or services Analyzing market research responses and advising senior managers of the results and implications Promoting products and services through a variety of advertising and promotional methods, e.g. press, TV, online, direct mail, sponsorship and trade shows or exhibitions Obtaining and updating a profile of existing customers to target advertising and promotions appropriately Producing and distributing publicity materials, such as catalogues or brochures Designing, updating and promoting the company website Organizing sales promotions Responding to customer enquiries Selling the product or service to customers, either over the telephone or face to face Preparing quotations or estimates for customers Negotiating discounts or financial terms for business customers Providing technical advice Keeping customer records up to date
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 55 STRUCTURE OF MARKETING & SALES DEPARETMENT Dy. Manager Marketing and Sales Manager Marketing and Sales Marketing Executive Sales Executive Sales Assistant
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 56 PURCHASE DEPARTMENT OBJECTIVES To maintain uninterrupted flow of materials to support the development schedules. To procure materials economically at a cost consistent with the quality and service required. However, generally all purchases may be attempted at the lowest cost. To provide the necessary expertise, advice, information to the Curators and Education Officers with regard to the best quality of material available in the market, supplier‟s capability and performance etc. To develop and maintain good buyer-seller relationship. To promote source development. To maintain credibility in the market by fair dealings and prompt payments. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS The main functions of the Purchase Department are defined as follows: Procurement of stores through indigenous and foreign sources as required in accordance with the rules in force. Checking of requisitions/purchase indents. Selection of suppliers for issue of enquiries. Issuing enquiries/tenders and obtaining quotations. Analyzing quotations and bids etc., and preparation of comparative statement (quotation charts). Consultation with the Indenter for selection and approval of quotations and with Accounts Officer for pre-audit. Negotiating contracts. Checking legal conditions of contracts. Consulting Administrative Officer or Secretary, NCSM – where necessary. Issue of Purchase Orders. Follow-up of purchase orders for delivery in due time Verification and passing of suppliers‟ bills to see that payments are made promptly.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 57 Correspondence and dealing with suppliers, carriers etc., regarding shortages, rejections etc., reported by the Stores Department. Maintenance of purchase records. Maintenance of progressive expenditure statement, sub-head wise. Maintenance of vendor performance records/data. Arrangement for Insurance Surveys, as and when necessary. Clearance of foreign consignments. STRUCTURE OF PURCHASE DEPARTMENT Dy. Manager Purchase Manager/Sr. Manager Purchase Assistant Manager Purchase Purchase Officer Purchase Assistant
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 58 Chapter 5 Data analysis  FINDINGS  SUGGESTIONS  CONCLUSIONS  GRAPHS
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 59 FINDINGS:-  J&K cements have earned a lot of trust in the valley as compared to other cements available in the valley.  Most of the retailers sell J&K cement due to its Good quality, Goodwill and more Demand.  The opportunities for J&K Cement Ltd are high in Jammu & Kashmir.  The J&K Cement Ltd is not facing much competition in J&K.  In J&K Cement Ltd 44% of the employees are not satisfied with company‟s promotion policies.  The working environment in the organization is very good.  In J&K Cement Ltd 58% of the employees are not satisfied with accident compensations paid by the organization.  In J&K Cement Ltd 51% of the employees are satisfied with the facilities provided by the company.  In J&K Cement Ltd 37% of the employees are dissatisfied with the performance appraisal adopted by the organization.  In J&K Cement Ltd 80% of the employees are fully utilized with their capacities and potential.  In J&K Cement Ltd 60% of the employees are satisfied with their pay packages.  In J&K Cement Ltd 74% of the employees are recruited on the basis of their qualification and skills.  In J&K Cement Ltd 72% employees get de motivated if they are not meet the company standards.  70 % of the employees are satisfied with the working hours of the J&K Cement Ltd.  In J&K Cement Ltd Company only 54% of the employees are satisfied with their jobs.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 60 Suggestions:-  To adoptee new promotion policies in the organization and change the old promotion policies.  To adoptee performance appraisal methods in the organization so that employees will be satisfied with their jobs.  To appreciate, recognize and reward the performance of the employees.  To pay some good compensation regarding accidents policies so that satisfaction level of the employees will increase.  The Asst Managers should get a chance to attend the meetings with top management.  To arrange training programs for the betterment of the employees.  To arrange new welfare programs in the company to increase the satisfaction level of the employees.  Company should also reduce the emission of heavy metals & CO2 in air.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 61 Conclusion Every ship that starts for a voyage needs a harbor to end its journey and so does our journey, an exhausted survey conducted to know the overall performance of the JK cement Ltd in Jammu & Kashmir valley and job satisfaction of the employees, threw up some knowledgeable aspects from data analysis.  J & K Céments Ltd can look back with pride at what it has achieved since its inception.  They are not only the leader in J&K but enjoy a good reputation at national level.  The company has been able to connect very strongly with its customers and the name “Jhelum” in itself correlates with the quality.  Right since its inception, J&K Cement has always been committed to community development to ensure a clean and healthy environment.  Both employees and community people are satisfied with the services from J&K Cement.  J&K cements have earned a lot of trust in the valley as compared to other cements available in the valley.  Most of the retailers sell J&K cement due to its Good quality, Goodwill and more Demand. It was a wonderful experience working with J&K Cement Ltd.
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 62 Q1:- According to you how is the communication process of the company? Interpretation: - According to this graph 60% of employees are satisfactory to the communication process of the company and 26% are neutral about the communication process of the company. And rests 7% are dissatisfactory, 2% are highly dissatisfactory and 7% are highly satisfactory. Highlysatisfactory satisfactory Neutral Dis satisfactory Highlyssatisfactory According to you how is the communication processof the company? Highlysatisfactory 6.67% satisfactory 60.00% Neutral 25.56% Dissatisfactory 6.67% Highlyssatisfactory 1.11%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 63 Q2:- How good is your relationship with your colleagues? Interpretation: - According to this analysis 32% of employees in the organization have very good relation with their colleagues and 46% of employees have good relation with their colleagues and rests 20% have average relation and 3% have very bad relationship with their colleagues. Verygood Good Average Verybad How good is your relationship with your colleages? Verygood 32.22% Good 45.56% Average 20.00% Verybad 2.22%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 64 Q3:- Is your performance is recognized and rewarded? Interpretation: - According to this graph 33% of the employees are those who are agree that their performance is recognized and rewarded in the organization, 33% employees are neutral , 6% are highly agree, 10% are highly disagree and 18% are disagree of their performance is recognized and rewarded in the organization. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Disagree Highlyagree Is your performance is recognised and rewarded? Highlyagree 5.56% Agree 33.33% Neutral 33.33% Disagree 17.78% Highlyagree 10.00%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 65 Q4:- How do you rate the promotion policy adopted by your organization Interpretation: - According to this graph 32% of the employees are neutral regarding the promotion policy adopted by the organization. 22% are satisfactory, 26% are dissatisfactory, and 18%, highly dissatisfactory and 2% are highly satisfactory regarding the promotion policy adopted by the organization. Highlysatisfactory Satisfactory Neutral Dissatisfactory Highlydissatisfactory How do you rate the promotion policy adopted by your organisation? Highlysatisfactory 2.22% Satisfactory 22.22% Neutral 32.22% Dissatisfactory 25.56% Highlydissatisfactory 17.78%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 66 Q5:- Have you been recommended for promotion in the past few months Interpretation: - According to this graph 83% of the employees have not been recommended for promotion in the last few months and 18% employees have been recommended for promotion in the last few months. Yes No Have you been recommended for promotion in the lasr few months? Yes 17.78% No 82.22%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 67 Q6:- How do you rate the performance appraisal system (bonus, arrears, and gratuities) in your organization? Interpretation: - According to this graph 33% of the employees are satisfactory that their work is appreciated and performance appraisal in the organization is recognized. 26% of employees are neutral, 22% are dissatisfactory, 16% are highly dissatisfactory and 3 % are highly satisfactory. Highlysatisfactory Satisfactory Neutral Dissatisfactory Highlydissatisfactory How do you rate the performance appraisal system in your organisation? Highlysatisfactory 3.33% Satisfactory 33.33% Neutral 25.56% Dissatisfactory 22.22% Highlydissatisfactory 15.56%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 68 Q7:- Are you given clear instructions regarding your work by your higher authority? Interpretation: - According to this graph 53% of the employees are agree , 16% employees are neutral, 12% employees are disagree , 10% are highly disagree ,9% are highly agree that organization have giving clear instructions regarding the work by higher authority. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Disagree Highlydisagree Are you given clear instructions regarding your work byyour higher authority?Highlyagree 8.89% Agree 53.33% Neutral 15.56% Disagree 12.22% Highlydisagree 10.00%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 69 Q8:- Are you utilized fully to your capacities and potential? Interpretation: - According to this graph 40% of the employees are agree , 12% employees are neutral, 5% employees are disagree , 5% are highly disagree ,40% are highly agree that employees are utilized fully to your capacities and potentials Highlyagree Agree Neutral Disagree Highlyagree Are you utilized fully to your capacities and potential? Highlyagree 40.00% Agree 40.00% Neutral 11.11% Disagree 4.44% Highlyagree 4.44%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 70 Q9:- How do you find your job? Interpretation: - According to this graph 36% of the employees told they found their jobs challenging, 26% employees found interesting, 35% employees found ok, 4% found their jobs uninteresting and 2% found their jobs monotonous and repetitive. Challenging IInteresting OK Unintresting Monotonous andrepetitive How do you find your job? Challenging 35.56% IInteresting 25.56% OK 34.44% Un intresting 3.33% Monotonousand repetitive 1.11%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 71 Q10:- What do you feel about pay Package? Interpretation: - According to this graph 58% of the employees are satisfactory, 20% of employees are neutral, 16% employees are dissatisfactory, 5% employees are highly dissatisfactory and 3 % employees are highly satisfactory about the pay package. Highlysatisfactory Satisfactory Neutral Dis satisfactory Highlydis satisfactory What do you feel about pay pacakage? Highlysatisfactory 2.22% Satisfactory 57.78% Neutral 20.00% Dissatisfactory 15.56% Highlydissatisfactory 4.44%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 72 Q11:- How do you rate the working environment of the company? Interpretation: - According to this graph 42% of the employees are satisfactory, 41% of employees are neutral, 10% employees are dissatisfactory, 5% employees are highly dissatisfactory and 2 % employees are highly satisfactory about the working environment of the company. Highlysatisfactory Satisfactory Neutral Dissatisfactory Highlydissatisfactory How do you rate the working environment of the company? Highlysatisfactory 2.22% Satisfactory 42.22% Neutral 41.11% Dissatisfactory 10.00% Highlydissatisfactory 4.44%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 73 Q12:- Your work is according to your qualification and skills? Interpretation: - According to this graph 63% of the employees are agree, 11% of employees are neutral, 8% employees are disagree, 7% employees are highly disagree and 11 % employees are highly agree that their work is according to your qualification and skills. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Dis agree Highlydis agree your work is according to your qualification and skills? Highlyagree 11.11% Agree 63.33% Neutral 11.11% Disagree 7.78% Highlydisagree 6.67%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 74 Q13:- Authority appreciates the efforts put by you? Interpretation: - According to this graph 46% of the employees are agree, 19% of employees are neutral, 19% employees are disagree, 9% employees are highly disagree and 8 % employees are highly agree that authority appreciates the efforts put by employees. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Dis agree Highlydis agree Authority appreciates the efforts put by you? Highlyagree 7.78% Agree 45.56% Neutral 18.89% Disagree 18.89% Highlydisagree 8.89%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 75 Q14:- In case if you commit a mistake are you given a chance to correct it? Interpretation: - According to this graph 37% of the employees told that sometimes they have given the chances of correcting their mistakes, 26% of employees told often, 16% employees told always, 6% employees told never and 17 % employees told that their mistakes are given the chances to correct them. Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never In case if you commit a mistake are you given a chance to correct it? Always 15.56% Often 25.56% Sometimes 36.67% Rarely 16.67% Never 5.56%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 76 Q15:- Do you get de motivated if you don’t meet the company standards? Interpretation: - According to this graph 51% of the employees are agree, 18% of employees are neutral, 8% employees are disagree, 1% employees are highly disagree and 22 % employees are highly agree that they get de motivated if they don‟t meet the company standards. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Disagree Highlyagree Do you get the de motivated if you don't meet the company standards?Highlyagree 22.22% Agree 51.11% Neutral 17.78% Disagree 7.78% Highlyagree 1.11%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 77 Q16:- Are you satisfied with accident compensation paid? Interpretation: - According to this graph 58% of the employees are not satisfied and 42% of the employees are satisfied with accidents compensation paid by the organization. Yes No Are you satisfied with accidents compensation paid? Yes 42.22% No 57.78%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 78 Q17:- The management gives you enough support and encouragement to keep you motivated? Interpretation: - According to this graph 30% of the employees are agree, 39% of employees are neutral, 16% employees are disagree, 13% employees are highly disagree and 2 % employees are highly agree that management gives you enough support and encouragement to keep the employees motivated. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Disagree Highlydisagree The management gives youenoughsupport andencouragement tokeep youmotivated? Highlyagree 2.22% Agree 30.00% Neutral 38.89% Disagree 15.56% Highlydisagree 13.33%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 79 Q18:- Are you given a chance to attend the meetings? Interpretation: - According to this graph 43% employees told that they are not given the chances to attend the meetings, 22% of the employees told that, 17% of employees told often, 3% employees told always, and 14 % employees told rarely that they are given the chances to attend the meetings. Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Are you given a chance to attend the meetings? Always 3.33% Often 16.67% Sometimes 22.22% Rarely 14.44% Never 43.33%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 80 Q19:- Working hours at JK cements Ltd is satisfactory? Interpretation: - According to this graph 57% of the employees are agree, 16% of employees are neutral, 10% employees are disagree, 5% employees are highly disagree and 12 % employees are highly agree that working hours of J&K cements ltd are satisfactory. Highlyagree Agree Neutral Dis satisfactoy Highlydis satisfactory Working hours at jk cements ltd is satisfactory?Highlyagree 12.22% Agree 57.78% Neutral 15.56% Dissatisfactoy 10.00% Highlydissatisfactory 4.44%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 81 Q20:- How do you rate the company’s response to the employee’s issues and problems? Interpretation: - According to this graph 21% of the employees are satisfactory, 38% of employees are neutral, 24% employees are dissatisfactory, 13% employees are highly dissatisfactory and 3 % employees are highly satisfactory that the company gives the response to the employee‟s issues and problems. Highlysatisfied Satisfactory Neutral Dissatisfactory Higlydissatisfactory How do you rate the company'sresponse to the employees issues and problems? Highlysatisfied 3.33% Satisfactory 21.11% Neutral 37.78% Dissatisfactory 24.44% Higlydissatisfactory 13.33%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 82 Q21:- Which of the following factors which motivates you most? Interpretation: - According to this graph 36% of the employees are those who will get motivated by promotion, 32% of the employees will get motivated by increase in salary, 24% will get motivated by recognition and rests 8% of employees will get motivated by leaves. Salaryincrease Promotion Leave Recognition Which of the following factors which motivates you most? Salaryincrease 32.22% Promotion 35.56% Leave 7.78% Recognition 24.44%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 83 Q22:- How satisfied are you with the facilities provided? Interpretation: - According to this graph 43% of the employees are satisfactory, 27% of employees are neutral, 1 7% employees are dissatisfactory, 7% employees are highly dissatisfactory and 7 % employees are highly satisfactory with the facilities provided by the organization. Highlysatisfied Satisfied Neutral Dis satisfied Highlydis satisfied How satisfied are you with the facilities provided? Highlysatisfied 6.67% Satisfied 43.33% Neutral 26.67% Dissatisfied 16.67% Highlydissatisfied 6.67%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 84 Q23:- How satisfied are you with your job? Interpretation: - According to this graph 50% of the employees are satisfactory, 33% of employees are neutral, 10% employees are dissatisfactory, 2% employees are highly dissatisfactory and 24% employees are highly satisfactory that they are satisfied with their jobs. Highlysatisfied Satisfied Neutral Dis satisfied Highlydis satisfied How satisfied are you with your job? Highlysatisfied 4.44% Satisfied 50.00% Neutral 33.33% Dissatisfied 10.00% Highlydissatisfied 2.22%
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 85 Chapter 6 APPENDIX  Questionnaire  Code sheet  bibliography
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 86 QUESTIONNAIRE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES Dear Sir, It gives me great pleasure to introduce myself as the student of the GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL, HUBLI. As a part of MBA program, I request you to spare a few minutes of your precious time in answering the questions below .I assure you that the information is purely for academic purpose and will be kept confidential. INFORMATION OF THE RESPONDENT Age : Department : Designation : Experience : “Put a tick mark against the suitable option” 1 According to you how is the communication process of the company? a) Highly satisfactory b) satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dis satisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory 2 How good is your relationship with your colleagues? a) Very good b) Good c) Average d) Bad e) Very bad 3 Is your performance is recognized and rewarded? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 4 How do you rate the promotion policy adopted by your organization A) Highly satisfactory b) satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dis satisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory 5 Have you been recommended for promotion in the past few months a) Yes b)No
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 87 6 How do you rate the performance appraisal system (bonus, arrears, and gratuities) in your organization? A) Highly satisfactory b) satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dis satisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory 7 Are you given clear instructions regarding your work by your higher authority? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 8 Are you utilized fully to your capacities and potential? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 9 How do you find your job? a) Challenging b) Interesting c) Ok d) Uninteresting e) Monotonous and repetitive 10 What do you feel about pay Package? a) Highly satisfactory b) satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dis satisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory 11 How do you rate the working environment of the company? a) Highly satisfactory b) satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dissatisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory 12 Your work is according to your qualification and skills? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 88 13 Authority appreciates the efforts put by you? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 14 In case if you commit a mistake are you given a chance to correct it? a) Always b) Often c) Sometimes d) Rarely e) Never 15 Do you get de motivated if you don‟t meet the company standards? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 16 Are you satisfied with accident compensation paid? a) Yes b) No 17 The management gives you enough support and encouragement to keep you motivated? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 18 Are you given a chance to attend the meetings? a) Always b) Often c) Sometimes d) Rarely e) Never 19 Working hours at JK cements Ltd is satisfactory? a) Highly agree b) Agree c) Neutral d) Disagree e) Highly Disagree 20. How do you rate the company‟s response to the employee‟s issues and problems? a) Highly satisfactory b) Satisfactory c) Neutral d) Dis satisfactory e) Highly Dissatisfactory
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 89 21. Which of the following factors which motivates you most? a) Salary increase b) Promotion c) Leave d) Recognition 22. How satisfied are you with the facilities provided? a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dis-satisfied 23. How satisfied are you with your job? a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dis-satisfied e) Highly dis-satisfied
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 90 Code sheet 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 4 4 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 5 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 5 5 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 4 2 3 1 4 4 2 4 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 5 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 1 4 5 1 4 4 1 4 2 2 4 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 5 4 5 1 5 5 4 1 4 5 2 5 4 3 2 3 4 4 5 1 5 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 1 1 4 4 5 5 3 3 2 4 5 4 4 1 4 4 2 2 3 4 1 4 4 3 1 4 5 2 5 4 4 2 5 4 5 4 2 4 4 3 2 4 4 1 4 4 3 1 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 5 5 2 4 2 4 3 5 5 2 4 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 1 2 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 2 2 3 4 1 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 1 2 4 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 3 5 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 1 3 3 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 2 3 3 2 1 5 5 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 5 3 2 4 5 2 5 4 3 2 4 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 1 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 4 5 3 4 2 3 3 2 2 4 5 2 4 2 1 2 5 3 1 4 1 1 2 5 5 3 5 4 4 5 2 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 2 5 5 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 1 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 1 3 1 4 5 2 4 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 5 5 2 4 5 5 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 5 5 5 3 4 5 5 2 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 2 4 5 2 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 1 3 5 2 5 1 4 3
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 91 2 1 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 5 4 2 1 2 3 5 2 5 2 3 3 5 1 5 5 2 5 5 1 2 2 3 5 3 4 1 2 5 4 2 4 2 5 3 1 3 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 5 3 1 2 2 3 5 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 1 2 3 2 1 2 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 4 4 1 4 5 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 5 3 1 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 4 4 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 4 4 3 2 2 1 2 4 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 2 1 2 5 2 5 2 2 2 5 5 2 2 3 2 2 2 5 1 4 2 5 2 2 1 2 4 2 5 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 3 2 2 4 5 1 4 2 5 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 5 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 2 2 2 5 2 1 2 5 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 5 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 5 2 2 1 3 5 1 5 1 1 2 2 1 5 4 1 4 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 4 1 1 3 5 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 2 5 4 1 1 2 4 3 4 4 1 2 3 2 1 4 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 3 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 5 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 5 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 5 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 4 1 2 3 5 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 4 4 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 5 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 5 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 4 3 2 3 2 2 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 2 4 5 4 4 1 3 4 3 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 5 5 2 4 5 1 1 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 5 5 2 5 1 2 4 2 1 4 4 2 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 5 2 5 1 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 4 3 2 1 2 4 5 1 2 4 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 5 2 5 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 1 3 5 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 5 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 3 2 4 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 5 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 92 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 5 3 3 2 2 2 1 4 4 2 2 3 5 2 3 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 5 4 1 1 2 3 1 2 5 2 1 3 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 5 3 1 1 2 3 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 5 2 5 5 1 1 4 2 1 5 3 1 2 5 5 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 5 5 2 5 5 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 1 2 5 2 2 4 2 4 3 2 2 2 5 2 1 5 1 1 2 2 2 5 2 1 1 5 5 2 5 2 2 4 2 3 5 5 2 5 5 5 2 2 2 4 4 4 1 1 3 5 3 5 2 3 3
    • J&K CEMENTS LIMITED (Khrew) GLOBAL BUSINESS SCHOOL HUBLI Page 93 Bibliography:  Marketing Management ( Philip Kotler 10th edition)  Organizational Behavior ( K.Aswathappa)  Operations management (William Stevenson) Websites: 1. www.jkcl.co.in 2. www.jkcements.com 3. www.google.com