Sat ii biology review

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Sat ii biology review

  1. 1. SAT II Biology Review 2003
  2. 2. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Biology – The science of life </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Living Things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis/Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory and Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable hypothesis  theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued support  law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 X </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Chemical Basis of Life <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Molecule – H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Compound – CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants and Products </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic Covalent Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Acids and Base </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociation of Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O  H+ and OH- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H+ OH- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen ion > hydroxide ion 0-6.9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base or Alkaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen ion < hydroxide ion 7.1-14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equal amounts 7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Log scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Water <ul><li>Key factors to life </li></ul><ul><li>Polar molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion and adhesion properties </li></ul><ul><li>Solid, gas and liquid forms </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful solvent </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Chemistry of Molecules containing Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception – CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C:H:O ration 1:2:1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Disaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose (glu + glu) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose (glu + fru) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose (glu + gal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis reaction (water removed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starches – plant storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen - animal storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose – plant structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon monomer (fatty acid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 to 24 carbons in length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic (nonpolar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triclycerides (3 f.a. + glycerol) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipid (2 f.a. + phosphate group) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol ( hydrocarbon rings) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone Structure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 different kinds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peptide bonds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis to join amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis breaks the peptide bonds with the addition of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes, hormones, channels, carriers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Protein Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary level – linear polypeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary level – regular repeating elements of folding (alpha and beta pleats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary level – folding due to bonding between side chain of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary level – interactions between different polypeptides to form a single functional unit </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Enzyme Action </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotide units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double stranded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen bases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purine – A and G </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine T and C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic acid (RNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single stranded </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several different types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A-U-G-C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Biology of Cells <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of structure and function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells come from preexisting cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Types of Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal Plant </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuoles* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrioles </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plants – cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eubacteria – peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi - chitin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Mosaic Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilipid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cellular Organization <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular Organism </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cell Transportation <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration gradient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis - WATER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyp o tonic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>isotonic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules are not hydrophobic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ pull” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Active Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t matter is hydrophobic or hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulk Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis - IN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicle formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis - OUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cells and Energy <ul><li>Lock & Key Model or Induced Fit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ase” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not used up! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzymes help </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substrate specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors influencing Enzyme action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme concentration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy stored in bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemiosmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP:Cash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose:Check </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen:Bank </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Biochemical Pathway </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6 H 2 O ------- > glucose + 6 O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Visible Spectrum </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thylakoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photosystems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light Dependent Reaction(PII and PI) </li></ul><ul><li>Light Independent Reaction (Calvin Cycle) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Light-Dependent Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid - > Water, NADPH, ATP </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Light-Independent Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvin Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon fixation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products from light reaction are used – NADPH, ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RuBP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PGAL or G3P </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Mitochondrial structure </li></ul><ul><li>Series of small steps </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic vs. Anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>The Major Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kreb’s Cycle(ATP, NADH, FADH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Glycolysis <ul><li>Location – cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Substrates – glucose, 2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Products – 2 pyruvates, </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP, 2 NADH </li></ul><ul><li>No Oxygen Required </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) <ul><li>If oxygen is present PYRUVATE continues </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into the Krebs Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzyme A shuttles in a 2-carbon molecule, releasing CO2 as Acetyl Co-A into the Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>NADH produced </li></ul>
  35. 35. Kreb’s cycle <ul><li>Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Complete oxidation of Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetyl Co-A + oxaloacetic acid to form Citric Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetic acid, 3NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH2 and 1 CO 2 per molecule of pyruvate </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Cristae – inner membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAD+, FAD+, ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH, FADH2, ADP, P </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ATP is generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H+ move by facilitated diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP synthase allows H+ to return </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is the final electron acceptor ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36 ATP </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. FERMENTATION <ul><li>No OXYGEN present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid  muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol + CO 2  yeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOXIC! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ENERGY MADE! </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Eukaryotic Chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super coiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centromere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Homologous Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Diploid (2n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haploid Cells (n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gamete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Karyotype </li></ul>
  40. 40. Cell Division <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Fission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Cell cycle </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Diploid cells that are identical </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase – resting stage & preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase – chromatids shorten and thicken. Nuclear membrane breaks apart, spindles appear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase – chromosomes move to the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase- sister chromatids separate (these are now referred to as chromosomes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase – complete separation and cytokinesis begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage furrow - animal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell plate - plant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Animal -vs- Plant Comparison
  44. 45. Meiosis – The Formation of Gametes
  45. 46. <ul><li>Production of haploid (gametes) cells </li></ul><ul><li>Two successive cell divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interphase I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase I – synapsis, tetrad formation, crossing over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase I – homologous separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase I - haploid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interkinesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meiosis II – similar to mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Spermatogenesis <ul><li>Seminiferous tubules of testes </li></ul><ul><li>daily </li></ul><ul><li>4 haploid sperm </li></ul>
  47. 48. Oogenesis <ul><li>Ova formation </li></ul><ul><li>monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Primary oocyte in ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Single ova + 3 polar bodies </li></ul>
  48. 49. Genetics <ul><li>Mendelian Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austrian monk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden peas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GENES – units of inheritance that codes for a particular trait </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Allele – forms of a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygote </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygote </li></ul><ul><li>mutation </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Laws of Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Dominance – of two contrasting characteristics, the dominant one is expressed and the recessive is masked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Segregation – each trait is transmitted as an unchanging unit, independent of other traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Independent Assortment – each character for a trait operates as a unit </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>Punnett Square </li></ul><ul><li>Monohybrid cross </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Dihybrid Cross </li></ul><ul><li>two traits </li></ul><ul><li>AAbb  Ab, Ab, Ab, Ab possible alleles </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Non-Mendelian Inheritance Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-Linkage </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Sex Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nondisjunction/mutations occur </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Sex-linked Characteristics <ul><li>Certain genes have been identified that are carried on the sex chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Traits are more common in Males </li></ul><ul><li>Females can only express the trait in her phenotype if her genotype is homozygous for the trait! Otherwise she is a carrier </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., hemophilia, colorblindness, male pattern baldness and Drosophila (fruit fly) eye color </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>Pedigree Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of a particular phenotype over several generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends/Patterns? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homozygous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterozygous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-linked </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>Inherited Defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PKU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sickle cell anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karyotyping </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. DNA – Molecule of Life <ul><li>Nucleotide unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine – cytosine and thymine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purine – adenine and guanine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent bond – side chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bond – nitrogen base </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>The Double Helix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson & Crick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chargaff’s Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A=T </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G=C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary base pairing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi conservative Replication </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. DNA Replication <ul><li>Double helix unwinds </li></ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase </li></ul><ul><li>Antiparallel </li></ul><ul><li>Lead and Lag Sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5’  3’ direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TEMPLATES </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Central Dogma of Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA  RNA  Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transcription translation </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>The Genetic Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codon Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of three nucleotides that correspond to an amino acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64 possible codons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 different amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methionine is AUG </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA – carries information for protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA – carries amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosome during protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA – interacts with ribosome to permit protein synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Compare and Contrast DNA & RNA Create a Venn Diagram
  64. 65. DNA Biotechnology
  65. 67. The Origin of Life <ul><li>Planet  4.6 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Life on earth  1 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>Early atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic organisms </li></ul></ul>
  66. 68. Evolution <ul><li>Change in a population’s gene pool </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random mutations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Darwin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection - fitness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification with descent </li></ul></ul>
  67. 69. <ul><li>Types of Evolution – Speciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divergent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary relationships </li></ul></ul>
  68. 70. <ul><li>Evidence for Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative Anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative embryology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular evolution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 71. <ul><li>Mechanisms of Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene pool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardy-Weinberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Random mating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No total mutations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection does not occur </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 72. Taxonomy <ul><li>Carolus Linneaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two part Latin name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binomial nomenclature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 73. Kingdom Classification <ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia </li></ul>
  72. 74. Three Domains
  73. 75. Viruses <ul><li>Non-living </li></ul><ul><li>DNA or RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Protein Capsid </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriophage </li></ul><ul><li>Lytic Cycle - virulent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys host quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lysogenic Cycle - temperate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent, copies of viral genome copied in host cell, signal  lysis </li></ul></ul>
  74. 76. Archaebacteria <ul><li>Prokaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall, lipid structure and DNA are unique </li></ul><ul><li>Methanogens </li></ul><ul><li>Halophiles </li></ul><ul><li>Thermophiles </li></ul>
  75. 77. Eubacteria <ul><li>True bacteria and blue-green </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Binary Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus, Coccus, Spiral </li></ul></ul>
  76. 78. <ul><li>Wet mount </li></ul><ul><li>Smear </li></ul><ul><li>Staining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ = thick peptidoglycan wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>purple </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- = thin peptidoglycan wall with lipid cover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pink </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 79. Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Unicellular, colonial, and multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by motility </li></ul><ul><li>Animal like, Plant like and Fungus Like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Rhizopoda) - amoeba Sarcodine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Apicomplexa) – malaria parasite Sporozoan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Ciliophora) – paramecium Ciliates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Myxomycota) – slime molds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Phaeophyta) brown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Euglenophyta) – euglena </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Bacilariophyta) - diatoms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 80. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Unicellular and Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmotile, filamentous, multinucleated </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs by absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin </li></ul><ul><li>Mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by reproductive structure </li></ul>
  79. 81. <ul><li>Divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascomycota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sac fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basidiomycota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>club </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomycota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deuteromycota – no sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lichen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 82. Kingdom Plantae <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternation of generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonvascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bryophyta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seedless vascular - spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pterophyta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed-producing vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferophyta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms – naked seed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthophyta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms – fleshy seed, flowers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 83. <ul><li>Monocot –vs.- Dicot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotyledon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floral parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root system </li></ul></ul>
  82. 84. <ul><li>Adaptations to Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomata/Guard Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular Tissue </li></ul></ul>
  83. 85. <ul><li>Alternation of Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporophyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gametophyte </li></ul></ul>
  84. 86. <ul><li>Vascular Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomata & guard cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem and phloem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root hairs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 87. <ul><li>Plant Tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collenchyma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phloem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meristematic </li></ul></ul>
  86. 88. <ul><li>Gas Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guard cell </li></ul></ul>
  87. 89. <ul><li>Flowers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen to stigma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen tube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two sperm nuclei enter ovum  double fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant embryo and endosperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ovule becomes seed and the ovary becomes the fruit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 90. <ul><li>Plant Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gibberellins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokinin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethylene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxin </li></ul></ul>
  89. 91. <ul><li>Tropisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phototropism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitropism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thigmotropism </li></ul></ul>
  90. 92. Kingdom Animalia <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryological Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protostome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterostome </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 93. Phylogeny Tree
  92. 94. <ul><li>Invertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Porifera – pore bearing (Sponges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cnidaria/Ctenophora – cnidocyst (jellyfish, sea anemone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platyhelminthes – flatworms (planaria, flukes, tapeworms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nematoda – round worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotifera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annelida – segmented worms (earthworm, leech) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mollusca – soft bodies (clam, oyster, squid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthropod – jointed appendages (insect, spider, crab) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echinodemata – spiny skinned, water vascular system (sea star, sea urchin, sand dollar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chordata – notochord, gill slits, post anal tail (vertebrates) </li></ul></ul>
  93. 95. <ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agnatha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chondrichthyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteichthyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammalia </li></ul></ul>
  94. 96. Human Systems <ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive System </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory System </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular System </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive System </li></ul>
  95. 97. Digestive System <ul><li>The Alimentary Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory – teeth, tongue and salivary glands (amylase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bolus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HCl and Pepsin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complete breakdown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory organs – gall bladder, pancreas, liver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipase, bicarbonate, amylase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reuptake of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin K supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul></ul>
  96. 98. <ul><li>Vitamins and Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul>
  97. 99. Circulatory System <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Typing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple allele </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agglutination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor/Recipient relationship </li></ul></ul>
  98. 100. <ul><li>The Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systemic circuit </li></ul></ul>
  99. 101. Respiratory System <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm assisted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange by passive diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  100. 102. <ul><li>pH Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide  carbonic acid in plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much carbonic acid produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breath more slowly causing less carbon dioxide to be removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing rate is based on our need to rid or retain carbon dioxide! </li></ul>
  101. 103. <ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in size of chest cavity produces changes in the size of the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration </li></ul></ul>
  102. 104. Excretory System <ul><li>Urinary System </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea – a.a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uric acid – n.a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creatinine - muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nephron </li></ul></ul>
  103. 105. <ul><li>The Functional Unit  Nephron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal convoluted tubule </li></ul></ul>
  104. 106. <ul><li>Blood Pressure Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasopressin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>angiotensin </li></ul></ul>
  105. 107. Skeletal System <ul><li>Major bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ossification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haversian canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul></ul>
  106. 108. Muscular System <ul><li>Types of Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac - striated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal - striated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcomere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myosin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myofibril </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sliding filament theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction  shortening of sarcomere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Z lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy (ATP) and Calcium! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  107. 109. The Skin <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from abrasion, heat loss, water loss, infection and UV protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead, outer covering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective, blood vessels, nerves, hair glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypodermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep layer of fat </li></ul></ul>
  108. 110. Nervous System <ul><li>Neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myelin Sheath </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schwann cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action potential – all or none </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polarization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest (charge – inside, + outside) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse (charge + inside, - outside) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium-potassium pump </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters and synapsis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine (Ach) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  109. 112. <ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Command center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any nerve outside the brain and spinal cord (e.g., organs, skin) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  110. 113. <ul><li>Parts of the Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord – reflex actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum – conscious mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum – coordination, muscle, balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla – involuntary acts (BP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus – body homeostasis </li></ul></ul>
  111. 114. Senses <ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rods and Cones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound waves </li></ul></ul>
  112. 115. Endocrine System <ul><li>Jobs of the endocrine system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptide hormones – amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroid hormones – cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul>
  113. 116. <ul><li>The Anterior Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone (GH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteinizing Hormone (LH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul></ul>
  114. 117. <ul><li>The Posterior Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in the hypothalamus, but released from PP </li></ul></ul>
  115. 118. <ul><li>Thyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroxine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progesterone </li></ul></ul>
  116. 119. Immune System <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humoral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul></ul>
  117. 120. Male Reproductive System <ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gametes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminiferous tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowper's Gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul>
  118. 121. Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul>
  119. 122. <ul><li>Menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH and LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation – shedding of endometrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferative phase – new lining built up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory phase – lining maintained and enhanced in preparation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  120. 123. <ul><li>The Ovarian Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicular phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-13FSH development of follicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release of oocyte day 14, surge of LH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteal phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>hCG </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produced by the embryo to prolong the corpus luteum  lining is maintained </li></ul></ul></ul>
  121. 124. Embryology <ul><li>Zygote  Morula  Blastocyst </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner linings, digestive, reproductive, glandular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones, heart, gonads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin, hair, nails, nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  122. 125. Ecology <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exponential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  123. 126. <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  124. 127. <ul><li>Food Chain </li></ul>
  125. 128. Energy Flow in Communities
  126. 129. <ul><li>Food Web </li></ul>
  127. 130. <ul><li>Ecological Succession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer organisms – lichens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is NOT evolution! </li></ul></ul>
  128. 131. <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic and abiotic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  129. 132. <ul><li>Water Cycle </li></ul>
  130. 133. <ul><li>Carbon Cycle </li></ul>
  131. 134. <ul><li>Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul>
  132. 135. <ul><li>Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul>
  133. 136. Biomes <ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estuarine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciduous Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassland/Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul>
  134. 138. Notes

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