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Muscels & Bones
 

Muscels & Bones

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    Muscels & Bones Muscels & Bones Presentation Transcript

    • Human Physiology
    • Overview of Body Structure
      • The body is organized into four levels:
      • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems
      • Tissues are building blocks for the human body.
      • There are 4 kinds of Body Tissues
              • Epithelial Tissue
              • Nervous Tissue
              • Muscle Tissue
              • Connective Tissue
    • 1. Epithelial Tissue
        • Lines most bodily surfaces, protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage.
        • Usually no more than a few cell layers thick
        • These cells are small, flat and thin
        • Constantly being replaced.
    • Types of Epithelial Tissue are: Columnar cells line airways, intestines, mucous membranes of the throat etc. Squamous cells are found on your skin layer
      • Nervous Tissue
        • Makes up the nervous system
        • Consists of nerve cells, called “ NEURONS ”
      • Muscle Tissue
        • Enables the movement of body structures by muscle contraction
        • Three types: SKELETAL, SMOOTH, CARDIAC
        • Some types are voluntary , while others are involuntary
      • Connective Tissue
        • Supports, protects, and insulates the body
        • Includes fat, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones, and blood
        • “ Collagen ” is a major component of many types of connective tissue
    • Tissue Types
    • Organs
      • Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium , while sporadic are the nerves , blood , connective
    • Organ Systems
      • Organs are made up of at least two different tissues
      • A group of organs that work together to perform a major activity is called an “ organ system ”
      • The human body contains 11 major organ systems
    • Examples of Organ Systems
      • Circulatory
      • Digestive
      • Endocrine
      • Nervous
      • Reproductive
      • Respiratory
      • Excretory
      • Skeletal
    • Human Locomotion *
    • Skeleton and Muscles
      • Skeleton provides protection for internal organs and allows for muscle movement of your body
      • Contains 206 bones
      • Contain over 650 muscles
      • Axial Skeleton
        • Made up of 80 bones
        • Consists of the skull, spine , ribs and sternum
      • 2. Appendicular Skeleton
        • Made up of 126 bones
        • Consists of the arms, legs, pelvis and shoulders
    •  
    • In humans, locomotion involves the interaction of:
      • 1. Bones
      • 2. Cartilage
      • 3. Muscles
      • 4. Attachments
      • A. Tendons
      • B. Ligaments
      • 5. Joints
      • 6. Integumentary System
    • 1. Bones
      • Composed mainly of calcium
      • Made up of living bone cells and connective fiber tissue
    • Bones provide:
      • Support and protection of body organs
      • Anchorage for muscles
      • Leverage for muscles
      • Bone marrow for the production of blood cells
    • Long Bone
      • Periosteum - outer covering
      • Spongy Bone - contains red marrow
      • Compact bone - smooth part of the bone
      • Epiphysis rounded ends of the bone
      • Diaphysis shaft of the bone
    • Bone cells
      • I. Osteoblast Bone-forming cells. They secrete Osteoid, which forms the bone matrix
      • II. Osteocytes . A mature osteoblast which no longer secretes matrix
      • III. Osteoclasts Function in resorption and degradation of existing bone, the opposite of osteoblasts!
      Osteocyte Osteoblast
    •  
    • Bone Marrow
      • Found in hollow cavities of bone
      • These hollow cavities are known as the Haversian canals
      • Produce:
      • red blood cells
      • white blood cells
      • platelets
    • 2. Cartilage
      • Unlike bone, cartilage is flexible and elastic
      • Found at joints, nose, and ear
      • Absorbs shock
    • Ossification
      • The process by which cartilage gradually changes into bone
      • Example : In humans, the skeleton of an embryo is made up of mostly cartilage. By adulthood, most of this cartilage changes into bone by the process of ossification
    • 3. Muscles
      • Three types of muscle (made of muscle fiber):
              • A. Skeletal muscle
              • B. Smooth muscle
              • C. Cardiac muscle
      • Muscle Fiber Every muscle contains thousands of muscle fibers.
          • Sarcolemma - a modified membrane surrounding muscle fiber increasing action potential
          • Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) modified (ER) containing sacs of Ca+ needed for muscle contractions
          • T system a system of tubes that connects the (SR) to outside the cell.
    • Muscle fiber
    • Movement of Muscles
      • Muscles are made up of elongated
      • “ muscle fibers ” which are further divided into smaller units called “ myofibrils ”.
          • Myofibrils are made up of:
            • Thick Filaments : contain myosin
            • Thin Filaments : contain actin
    • Sliding Filament Model
        • Muscles get stimulated by nerve impulses
        • This causes myosin and actin to “slide” along one another.
        • The thick filaments pull the thin filaments closer!
    • A. Skeletal Muscle
      • Multinucleated
      • Voluntary (can be controlled)
      • Involved in locomotion
      • Attached to bone
      • Striated in appearance (striped)
    • Antagonistic Pairs
      • Muscles work as opposites
      • Example :
        • 1. Bicep contracts then triceps relaxes
        • 2. Triceps contracts then the bicep relaxes
    • Summary
      • When the bicep contracts, the arm bends upward (flexes) and therefore the bicep is known as a flexor
      • When the triceps contracts, the arm extends outward and therefore the triceps is known as an extensor
    • B. Smooth Muscle
      • Smooth are not striated in appearance
      • Involuntary (cannot control movement)
      • Found in:
      • -walls of digestive organs
      • -walls of arteries and veins
      • -walls of internal organs
    • C. Cardiac Muscle
      • Found only in the heart
      • Striated in appearance
      • Involuntary
    • 4. Attachments
      • A. Ligaments - connect bone to bone
      • B. Tendons - connect muscle to bone
    • The 4 Ligaments of the Knee
    • Tendons of the Knee
    • 5. Joints
      • Where bone meets bone in an organism
    • Types of Joints
      • Immovable joint
      • Pivot Joint
      • C. Ball-and-socket joint
      • D. Hinge joint
      • E. Gliding joint
    • A. Immovable Joint
      • Found in the skull
      • Bones that are tightly fitted together
    • B. Pivot Joint
      • Found in the neck joint.
      • Allow limited side to side rotation movements
    • C. Hinge Joint
      • Found in knees, elbows, toes.
      • Allows for bending and straightening movement or a back and forth motion
    • D. Gliding Joint
      • Found in the wrist
      • Provides limited flexibility in all directions, with the exception of pivotal movements.
      • Found in the hip and shoulder
      • Greatest range of motion. The joint can move in all directions
      E. Ball-and-Socket Joint
    • 6. Integumentary System
      • Skin
      • Makes up 15% of total body weight
      • Protects, provides the first line of defense against pathogens; regulates body temp; and helps avoid desiccation
        • Epidermis
          • Outermost layer of the skin
          • As thick as single sheet of paper
          • Contains “ keratin ” – protein that makes the skin waterproof and tough
          • Skin secretes “ sebum ” (oil)
          • Epidermal cells are constantly replaced (1 month)
          • Contains melanin – pigment that determines skin color and protects you from UV radiation;
      • Dermis
        • Layer beneath the epidermis
        • Connective tissue makes it elastic and tough
        • Contains nerve cells, hair follicles, and specialized skin cells
        • Blood Vessels help regulate body temperature
            • Vessels dilate – cools your skin
            • Vessels constrict – keeps heat in
        • Sweat glands in the dermis release heat most efficiently
      • Subcutaneous Tissue
            • Located beneath the dermis
            • Layer of connective tissue and fat
            • Acts like a ‘ shock absorber ’
            • Varies in thickness, based on location
    • Cross Section of Skin
      • IV. Hair and Nails
        • Both derived from epidermis
        • Hair
          • Protect and insulate the body
          • Made mostly of dead keratin-filled cells
          • Color based on melanin
        • Nails
          • Cells filled with keratin
          • Protect toes and fingers
    • Disorders of Locomotion
      • A. Arthritis inflammation of the joints
      • B. Tendonitis inflammation of a tendon, usually where it is attached to the bone
      • C. Osteoporosis (“porous bone”)
        • Severe bone loss, due to aging
        • Usually worse in women due to menopause and smaller bones
        • Exercise and good mineral diet helps reduce the risks.
      • Skin Disorders
      • 1. Acne
      • - most common skin problem
      • - caused by excessive secretion of sebum , which leads to an inflammatory response “ pimples ”
      • 2. Skin Cancer
      • - UV radiation leads to genetic mutations and
      • disruption of the mitotic cycle
      • - “ Carcinoma ” is cancer of non-pigmented
      • skin cells
      • - Carcinoma in pigmented cells is caused by “ malignant melanoma ”
      • 8 out of 10 skin cancer deaths)
    •