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IB Biology Complete assessment statements Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Unit 1: Statistical Analysis Unit 1: Statistical Analysis
  • 2. 1.1.1 State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data.
    • Error bars can be used to show either the range of the data or the standard deviation.
  • 3. 1.1.2 Calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of values.
    • Students may use a scientific calculator, and are not required to know the formula.
  • 4. 1.1.3 State that the term standard deviation is used to summarize the spread of values around the mean.
    • Standard deviation- 68% of all values lie within +/- 1 standard deviation of the mean. 95% of values lie within +/- 2 standard deviations of the mean.
  • 5. 1.1.4 Explain how the standard deviation is useful for comparing the means and the spread of data between two or more samples.
    • When comparing data between two sample sets, the closer the means and the standard deviations, the more likely the samples came from the same population.
  • 6. 1.1.5 Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t and the appropriate tables.
    • Criteria for t -test :
      • Normal distribution
      • Sample size of at least 10
    • The t -test can be used to compare two sets of data and measure the amount of overlap.(two-tailed, unpaired t test).
    • If the value of t is > the critical value at .05, then there is a significant difference between the two sets of data, and the null hypothesis should be rejected.
  • 7. 1.1.6 Explain that the existence of a correlation does not establish that there is a causal relationship between two variables.
    • A student takes an exam during a lightning storm. The student fails the exam. Did the lightning cause the student to fail? No, not necessarily.
    • Correlation does not imply causation.
  • 8. Unit 2: Cells Lesson 2.1 Cell Theory
  • 9. 2.1.1 Outline the Cell Theory.
    • The Cell Theory
    • Proposed by Rudolf Virchow in 1855:
      • 1) Living organisms are composed of cells.
      • 2) Cells are the smallest unit of life.
      • 3) Cells come from
  • 10. 2.1.2 Discuss the evidence for the cell theory
    • 1665 Hooke- examines cork under microscope.
    • 1674 Leeuwenhoek- observes simple organisms in pond water.
    • 1838 Schleiden- studies plant tissue under microscopes
    • Schwann - studies animal tissue under microscopes.
    • Virchow - Proposes the Cell Theory.
  • 11. 2.1.3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life.
    • Kingdom Protoctista (sometimes called Protista) consist primarily of unicellular organisms. Each individual carries on the full spectrum of metabolic reactions associated with life.
    • Pictured here is a paramecium.
  • 12. 2.1.4 Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles, and cells.
    • Molecules : 1 nm
    • Membranes : 10 nm (on organelles)
    • Viruse s: 100 nm
    • Bacteria : 1 um
    • Organelles : up to 10 um
    • Most cells : up to 100 um
    • Note : measurements above are in 2 dimensions, remember all structures
  • 13. 2.1.5 Calculate linear magnification of drawings.
    • What is the actual size of this specimen in micrometers ( u m)?
    • Actual size = measured length/magnification
    • 60mm/5 = 12mm
    • 12mm x 1000 u m =12,000 u m
  • 14. 2.1.6 Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size.
    • As a cell grows larger in volume, its metabolic demands increase faster than the surface area’s ability to meet those needs, hence a maximum size is reached.
  • 15. 2.1.7 State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties.
    • Emergent properties arise from the interaction of component parts: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  • 16. 2.1.8 Explain how cells in multicellular organisms differentiate.
    • Cells can differentiate from each other by selectively turning genes on and off.
    • Each type of cell switches on those genes specific to it’s particular role in the body.
  • 17. 2.1.9 State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways .
    • Mouse embryonic stem cells with a fluorescent marker.
  • 18. 2.1.10 Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells.
    • Stem cells from bone marrow have been used in the therapeutic treatment of leukemia.
  • 19. Unit 2: Cells Lesson 2.2 Prokaryotic Cells
  • 20. 2.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of E. Coli as an example of a prokaryote.
    • Locate the following:
    • Cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, naked DNA (nucleoid), pili
  • 21. 2.2.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.2.1 with the functions of each named structure.
    • Cell wall- protection.
    • Cytoplasm - intracellular fluid containing organelles, enzymes, and other molecules.
    • Nucleoid - contains naked (non- membrane bound) DNA.
    • Ribosomes - synthesize proteins.
    • Plasma membrane- controls what enters and leaves the cell.
    • Flagella - cell motility.
    • Pili - adhesion to other cells and sexual reproduction.
  • 22. 2.2.3 Identify structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E. Coli .
  • 23. 2.2.4 State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission.
  • 24. Unit 2: Cells Lesson 2.3 Eukaryotic Cells
  • 25. 2.3.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell.
  • 26. 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure.
    • Ribosomes - synthesize protein.
    • Rough endoplasmic reticulum- a network of membrane tubes, dotted with ribosomes, which help transport substances about the cell.
    • Lysosome - contain digestive enzymes which help break down macromolecules.
    • Golgi apparatus- process and package proteins for secretion.
    • Mitochondria - move high energy electrons from glucose to ATP.
    • Nucleus - contains DNA, the genetic material for a cell.
  • 27. 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells.
  • 28. 2.3.4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    • Prokaryotic Cells :
    • Naked DNA
    • DNA in cytoplasm
    • No mitochonria
    • 70s ribosome (s=svedberg unit, measurement of the size of organelles.)
    • Eukaryotic Cells :
    • DNA/Protein combination
    • DNA in nuclear envelope
    • Mitochondria
    • 80s ribosomes
    • (s=svedberg unit, measurement of the size of organelles.)
  • 29. 2.3.5 Describe three differences between plant and animal cells.
  • 30. 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components.
    • Cellulose - carbohydrates make up the cell wall and (like scaffolding) help give the cell a definite shape.
    • Glycoproteins - compose an extracellular matrix which aids in support, adhesion and movement.
  • 31. Unit 2: Cells Lesson 2.4 Membranes
  • 32. 2.4.1 Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes.
  • 33. 2.4.2 Explain hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the plasma membrane.
    • The exterior heads (circles in picture) are hydrophilic. The fatty acid tails (zigzag in picture) are hydrophobic. The bilayer configuration serve as a barrier to many molecules.
  • 34. 2.4.3 List the functions of membrane proteins.
    • Hormone binding sites
    • Enzymes
    • Electron carriers during photosynthesis and cell respiration
    • Channels for passive transport
    • Pumps for active transport
  • 35. 2.4.4 Define diffusion and osmosis
    • Diffusion- The movement of any molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Example: gas leak.
    • Osmosis- the passive movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
  • 36. 2.4.5 Explain passive transport across membranes in terms of diffusion.
    • Passive diffusion of water is continually occurring, changing the water balance of the cell. Therefore a cell must constantly struggle to maintain homeostasis by shuttling solutes in and out.
  • 37. 2.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes.
    • Protein pumps embedded in the plasma membrane help move molecules in and out of a cell against their concentration gradient. This requires energy, in the form of ATP.
  • 38. 2.4.7 Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within and out of a cell.
    • 1) Protein is synthesized in the ribosome of the rough ER
    • 2) golgi apparatus processes and packages into a vesicle
    • 3) vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and releases protein.
  • 39. 2.4.8 Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and reform.
    • Fluid mosaic model- phospholipid molecules are like buoys bobbing in the ocean, and can move laterally.
    • Exocytosis - the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane to release protein. Enlarges size of overall membrane.
    • Endocytosis - the engulfing of material from outside the cell into a vesicle which breaks off inside the cell. Reduces size of overall membrane.
  • 40. Unit 2: Cells Lesson 2.5 Cell Division
  • 41. 2.5.1 Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis and cytokinesis.
    • Key to diagram:
      • I = interphase
      • G1 = growth 1
      • S = synthesis
      • G2 = growth 2
      • M = mitosis
      • Cytokinesis follows shortly
    • After mitosis.
  • 42. 2.5.2 State that tumors (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division.
    • Uncontrolled cell growth can occur in any living organism.
  • 43. 2.5.3 State that Interphase is when many metabolic activities occur.
    • Interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many biochemical reactions occur, as well as DNA transcription and DNA replication. Interphase is divided into three stages:
    • 1 ) G1 (growth 1) - general metabolic activity
    • 2) S (synthesis) - DNA replication
    • 3) G2 (growth 2) - general metabolic activity
  • 44. 2.5.4a Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis
    • Prophase
      • Supercoiling of chromosomes
      • Become visible under microscope
      • Centrioles migrate toward opposite poles
      • Spindle microtubules appear
      • Nuclear membrane disappears
  • 45. 2.5.4b Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis
    • Metaphase
      • Chromosomes move toward equatorial plane
      • Spindle microtubules attach to centromeres
  • 46. 2.5.4c Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis
    • Anaphase
      • Centromeres uncouple
      • Sister chromosomes move towards opposite poles
  • 47. 2.5.4d Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis
    • Telophase
      • Nuclear membrane reforms
      • Chromosomes relax into chromatin, becoming less visible
      • Spindle microtubules disappear
  • 48. 2.5.5 Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei.
    • During DNA replication, each chromosome in the nucleus produces an identical “mirror” of itself.
    • At this point they are called chromatids, and are attached at the centromere.
    • The chromatids then separate during mitosis, producing two identical daughter nuclei.
  • 49. 2.5.6 State that growth, embryonic development and tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.
    • Growth - cell increase in both surface area and volume.
    • Tissue repair- cells divide to replace damaged or lost cells.
    • Asexual reproduction- single celled organisms reproduce via mitosis.
  • 50. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.1 Chemical Elements and Water
  • 51. 3.1.1 State the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things.
    • Carbon - forms 4 covalent bonds, ex: CH 4
    • Hydrogen - forms 1 covalent bond, ex: H 2
    • Oxygen - forms 2 covalent bonds ex: CO 2
  • 52. 3.1.2 State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms.
      • Nitrogen
      • Sulfur
      • Calcium
      • Phosphorus
      • Potassium
      • Iron
  • 53. 3.1.3 State one role for each of the elements named in 3.1.2.
    • Nitrogen and Sulfur - found in proteins.
    • Calcium - found in bones.
    • Phosphorus - found in nucleic acids (DNA & RNA.)
    • Sodium & Potassium- help transmit nerve impulses.
    • Iron - found in hemoglobin (carries oxygen in blood.)
  • 54. 3.1.4 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of water molecules to show their polarity and hydrogen bond formation.
    • Dashed blue lines represent hydrogen bonds.
  • 55. 3.1.5 Outline the thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water.
    • Thermal - water has a high specific heat.
    • Cohesive - water molecules tend to attract each other, which results in high surface tension
    • Solvent - polarity of water gives it strong solvent properties.
  • 56. 3.1.6 Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms .
    • Coolant - animals loose heat by sweating.
    • Transport medium- blood, plant fluid.
    • Metabolic medium- many metabolic reactions take place in water.
  • 57. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life
    • Lesson 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids
    • and Proteins
  • 58. 3.2.1 Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
    • Organic compounds- contain carbon and are found in living organisms. (Exceptions: hydrogencarbonates, carbonates, and oxides of carbon).
    • Inorganic compounds- do not contain carbon.
    Lactose molecule.
  • 59. 3.2.2a Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.
    • Amino Acid
  • 60. 3.2.2b Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.
    • Glucose
    • Ribose
  • 61. 3.2.2c Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.
    • Fatty Acid
    • Glycerol
  • 62. 3.2.3 List three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    • Monosaccharides - glucose, galactose, fructose.
    • Disaccharides - maltose, lactose, sucrose.
    • Polysaccharides - starch, glycogen, cellulose.
    Starch granules visible in plant cells.
  • 63. 3.2.4 State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.
    • Glucose, lactose , fructose and sucrose are all simple sugars which function as short term energy storage molecules.
    • Glycogen is a polysaccharide, stored in the liver, which functions as longer term energy storage than simple sugars.
    • Cellulose - helps cell walls in plants maintain their structure and rigidity.
  • 64. 3.2.5 Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between organic macromolecules.
    • Condensation - the removal of water from monomers during the synthesis of polymers.
    • Hydrolysis - the addition of water to polymers which result in a break down to monomers.
  • 65. 3.2.6 State three functions of lipids.
    • 1) Energy storage
    • 2) Heat insulation
    • 3) Buoyancy
    Adipose (fat) cell.
  • 66. 3.2.7 Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage.
    • Carbohydrates and lipids both
    • store energy, but the way they
    • store energy differs.
      • Lipids - store more energy per unit of mass, not soluble in water.
      • Carbohydrates - store less energy per unit of mass, but is more accessible, and is soluble in water, therefore it is easier to transport in blood and plant fluid.
  • 67. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.5 Proteins
  • 68. 7.5.2 Outline the difference between fibrous and globular proteins, with reference to two examples of each protein type.
    • Fibrous protein- have consistant repeating sequences, which form long pieces of tissue, eg. muscle fiber, collagen.
    • Globular protein- asymmetrical, occur as individual units which may contain several polypeptide chains, eg. hormones, enzymes.
  • 69. 7.5.3 Explain the significance of polar and non-polar amino acids.
    • Because the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, globular proteins will “line up”, with their hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas matching those of the plasma membrane. This helps position the proteins correctly.
  • 70. 7.5.4 State four functions of proteins, giving a named example of each.
    • Enzymes- catalase
    • Structural- collagen
    • Transport- hemoglobin
    • Hormones- insulin
  • 71. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.6 Enzymes
  • 72. 3.6.1 Define Enzyme and Active Site .
    • Enzyme- a globular protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction, usually by speeding it up.
    • Active site- the location where a substrate binds to an enzyme. The substrate is the reactant of a chemical reaction.
  • 73. 3.6.2 Explain enzyme-substrate specificity.
    • Enzymes are specific to certain substrates, like a lock is to a certain key. The shape of the active site determines which substrates the enzyme can act upon.
  • 74. 3.6.3 Explain the effects of temperature, pH and substrate concentration on enzyme activity.
    • Temperature- there is an optimum temperature at which most enzymes perform. Deviating from this in either direction will slow the reaction.
    • pH- there is an optimum pH at which most enzymes perform. Deviating from this in either direction will also slow the reaction.
    • Substrate concentration- as substrate concentration increases, so does the rate of the reaction, until it is running at maximum efficiency, at which point the rate reaches a plateau.
  • 75. 3.6.4 Define denaturation .
    • Denaturation - a change in the shape of an enzyme, which in turn, affects the shape of the active site, compromising it’s ability to act upon a substrate. Often caused by temperature or pH variations.
  • 76. 3.6.5 Explain the use of lactase in the production of lactose-free milk.
    • Lactase is an enzyme which breaks down the sugar lactose, naturally found in milk. Lactose free milk is made by adding lactase during the industrial process of preparing the milk for sale and distribution.
    • Some people are lactose intolerant (with a high proportion of the Asian population), and if not for the treatment of milk with lactase would be unable to consume it healthfully.
  • 77. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.6 Enzymes
  • 78. 7.6.1 State that metabolic pathways consist of chains and cycles of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
    • The products of the first reaction, become the reactants of the second reaction, and so on. Enzymes catalyze each step.
  • 79. 7.6.2 Describe the induced fit model.
    • The induced fit model is an extension of the lock and key model. It is important in accounting for the broad specificity of some enzymes.
  • 80. 7.6.3 Explain that enzymes lower the activation energy of the chemical reactions that they catalyze.
  • 81. 7.6.4a Explain the difference between competitive and non-competitive inhibition, with reference to one example of each.
    • Competitive inhibition an inhibiting molecule structurally similar to the substrate molecule binds to the active site, preventing substrate binding. Example- the antibiotic Prontosil in bacteria .
  • 82. 7.6.4b Explain the difference between competitive and non-competitive inhibition, with reference to one example of each.
    • Non-competitive inhibition- the inhibiting molecule binds to the enzyme, but not at the active site. This causes a conformational change in the overall enzyme, including its active site, which reduces activity. Example- cyanide binds to proteins in the cytochrome complex, inhibiting cell respiration.
  • 83. 7.6.5 Explain the control of metabolic pathways by end-product inhibition, including the role of allosteric sites.
    • An accumulation of product E goes back and inhibits the conversion of A , -> slowing the rate of the whole sequence.
    • Allostery is a form of non-competitive inhibition. End products of a metabolic sequence can bind to allosteric sites earlier in the metabolic pathway, regulating the entire chain of events. Example- ATP can inhibit components of glycolysis.
  • 84. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.7 Cell Respiration
  • 85. 3.7.1 Define Cell Respiration.
    • Cell Respiration- the controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.
  • 86. 3.7.2 State what happens to glucose during cell respiration.
    • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the cytoplasm during cell respiration, with a small yield of ATP.
  • 87. 3.7.3 Explain what happens during anaerobic respiration.
    • Pyruvate is converted either to lactate or ethanol, with no further yield of ATP .
    • Lactate:
      • C 3 H 4 O 3 (pyruvate) + 2 NADH ---> 2 C 3 H 6 O 3 (lactic acid) + 2 NAD +
      • Ex: human muscle tissue.
    • Ethanol:
      • C 3 H 4 O 3 (pyruvate) + 2 NADH ->2C 2 H 5 OH (ethanol) + 2CO 2
    • Ex: yeast
  • 88. 3.7.4 Explain what happens during aerobic respiration.
    • Inside the mitochondria, pyruvate is broken down into CO2 and H20, with a large yield of ATP.
  • 89. Unit 8: Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis Lesson 8.1 Cell Respiration
  • 90. 8.1.1 Explain oxidation and reduction.
    • Oxidation - involves the loss of electrons from an element. Also frequently involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen.
    • Reduction - involves a gain in electrons. Also frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen .
  • 91. 8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation.
    • Glycolysis - In the cytoplasm, one hexose sugar is converted (lysis) into two tree-carbon atom compounds (pyruvate) with a net gain of two ATP and two NADH + H + .
    • Phosphorylation - is a process in which ATP is produced from ATP. During glycolysis, this is a substrate leve phosphorylation.
    • C6(molecule) -> 2C 3 (molecules)
  • 92. 8.1.3 Draw and label the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographs .
  • 93. 8.1.4a Explain aerobic respiration.
    • Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate- one carbon is removed from the C3 molecule (link reaction).
    • Krebs Cycle- produces trios phosphate, precurser to glucose.
    • NADH + H+- carrier molecules created during the Krebs cycle.
    • Electron Transport Chain- chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
    • Role of oxygen- acts as a final electron acceptor for electrons which have gone through the ETC.
  • 94. 8.1.4b Picture of link reaction and Krebs Cycle.
  • 95. 8.1.5a Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis.
    • 1) NADH and FADH2 release high energy electrons into the electron transport chain.
    • 2) As the electrons move down the cytochrome chain toward oxygen, H+ ions are propelled against their concentration gradient from the matrix into the intermembrane space.
    • 3)H+ ions flow back to the matrix via gated ATP synthase, which uses energy from the flow to make ATP.
  • 96. 8.1.5b Picture of electron transport chain.
  • 97. 8.1.6 Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondrion and its function .
    • 1) Cristae form a large surface area fort he electron transport chain.
    • 2) The space between the outer and inner membranes is small.
    • 3) The fluid contains enzymes of the Krebs cycle.
  • 98. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.8 Photosynthesis
  • 99. 3.8.1 State what happens during photosynthesis with regard to energy.
    • During photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy.
  • 100. 3.8.2 State that light from the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths.
    • ROY G. BIV:
    • Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. These are the wavelengths that compose the visible spectrum.
  • 101. 3.8.3 State that chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment.
    • Plant cells appear green due to the pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts, the light converting organelles found in plant cells.
  • 102. 3.8.4 Outline the differences in the absorption of red, blue and green light by chlorophyll.
    • Blue light is most readily absorbed by chlorophyll, followed by red light. Green light is either transmitted or refracted, which is why plants appear green to the eye.
  • 103. 3.8.5 State that light energy is used to split water molecules.
    • Photolysis- the splitting of water which results in oxygen, hydrogen and electrons.
  • 104. 3.8.6. Explain how carbon dioxide is “fixed” during photosynthesis.
    • ATP and H + ions aid in the transfer of high energy electrons from glucose to carbons which originated from carbon dioxide.
    • The attachment of high energy elections to a carbon backbone is termed carbon fixation .
  • 105. 3.8.7 Explain how the rate of photosynthesis can be measured.
    • The rate of photosynthesis can be measured in three ways:
        • 1) Production of oxygen
        • 2) Uptake of carbon dioxide
        • 3) Indirectly by the measurement of biomass
  • 106. 3.8.8 Outline the effects of temperature, light intensity and CO2 concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
    • Light intensity and CO 2 concentration impact photosynthesis similarly. As the variable increases, photosynthetic rate increases, until maximum efficiency is reached, at which point the rate plateaus.
    • Usually, there is an optimum temperature at which photosynthesis occurs, and any deviation in either direction reduces the rate.
  • 107. Unit 8: Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis Lesson 8.2 Photosynthesis
  • 108. 8.2.1 Draw the structure of a chloroplast as seen in electron micrographs.
  • 109. 8.2.3 Explain the light-dependent reaction.
    • 1) photoactivation of photosystem II
    • 2) photolysis of water
    • 3) electron transport
    • 4) cyclic and non-cyclic phosphoryliation
    • 5) photoactivation of photosystem I
    • 6) reduction of NADP+
  • 110. 8.2.4 Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis.
    • Electron transport causes the pumping of protons to the inside of the thylakoids. They accumulate (pH drops) and eventually move out to the stroma through ATP synthase. This flow provides energy for ATP synthesis.
  • 111. 8.2.5 Explain the light-independent reactions.
    • 1) Carbon fixation- CO 2 is fixed to RuBP to form glycerate 3- phosphate (GP).
    • 2) Reduction - GP is reduced to trios phosphate (TP).
    • 3) Regeneration - RuBP is regenerated, and able to begin another turn on the cycle (with the help of Rubisco).
  • 112. 8.2.6 Explain the relationship between the structure of the chloroplast and its function.
    • 1) Thylakoids have a large surface area for light absorption.
    • 2) The area inside the thylakoid is small, which facilitates the buildup of protons used in chemiosmosis.
    • 3) the fluid filled stroma surrounding the thylakoid contains enzymes which facilitate the calvin cycle.
  • 113. 8.2.7 Explain the relationship between the action spectrum and the absorption spectrum of photosynthetic pigments in green plants.
    • The absorption spectrum illustrates the efficiency with which certain wavelengths of color are absorbed by pigments.
    • The action spectrum is a measure of overall photochemical activity.
  • 114. 8.2.8 Explain the concept of limiting factors in photosynthesis.
    • Light intensity- as light intensity increases, photosynthetic rate increases, until a maximum efficiency is reached.
    • Temperature - each plant species has an optimum temperature range at which photosynthesis operates. To deviate in either direction reduces photosynthetic rate.
    • Concentration of CO2- as concentration of CO2 increases, photosynthetic rate increases, until a maximum efficiency is reached.
  • 115. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.3 DNA Structure
  • 116. 3.3.1 Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.
    • The phosphate and sugar are always the same, and are always found in the backbone. The base is in in the center of the double helix.
  • 117. 3.3.2 State the names of the four bases in DNA.
    • The base found in each nucleotide of DNA is one of four possible types:
      • A- adenine
      • T- thymine
      • G- guanine
      • C- cytosine
    Adenine
  • 118. 3.3.3 Outline how the DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand.
    • The bonds between the phosphate group and the sugar (pentagon) are covalent, and make the ‘backbone’ of the ladder.
  • 119. 3.3.4 Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complimentary base pairing and hydrogen bonds.
    • Weaker, hydrogen bonds exist in the center of the double helix, between base pairs (A-T, C-G).
  • 120. 3.3.5 Draw a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA .
  • 121. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.1 DNA Structure
  • 122. 7.1.1 Describe the structure of DNA including antiparallel strands, 3’-5’ linkages, and hydrogen bonding between purines and pyrimadines .
    • Antiparallel - each side of the double helix runs in an opposite direction, just like opposing sides of a road.
    • 3’-5’ linkages- occur between sugars.
    • Purines - adenine and guanine
    • Pyrimadines - cytosine and thymine
    • Hydrogen bonds- occur between interior bases, a purine across from a pyrimadine.
  • 123. 7.1.2 Outline the structure of nucleosomes
    • A nucleosome consists of DNA wrapped around eight histone protein molecules and held together by another histone protein.
  • 124. 7.1.3 State that nucleosomes help to supercoil chromosomes and help to regulate transcription.
  • 125. 7.1.4 Distinguish between unique or single-copy genes and highly repetitive sequences of nuclear DNA.
    • Highly repetitive sequences (satellite DNA) constitutes 5-45% of the genome.
    • Sequences are typically between 5 and 300 base pairs per repeat, and may be duplicated as many as 100,000 times per genome.
  • 126. 7.1.5 State that eukaryotic genes can contain exons and introns.
  • 127. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.4 DNA Replication
  • 128. 3.4.1 Explain DNA Replication
    • 1) Unwinding of the double helix.
    • 2) Separation of strands by helicase.
    • 3)Formation of new complementary strands by DNA polymerase.
  • 129. 3.4.2 Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA.
    • Adenine can only pair with thymine, and guanine can only pair with cytosine. This way, when one side of the strand is exposed, it can only couple with its complementary base pair, making a mirror image of the original.
  • 130. 3.4.3 State that DNA replication is semi- conservative.
    • Semi conservative one side of the double helix is preserved during replication, whereas the other side is created new. This is opposed to conservative , where the entire DNA strand would be preserved, or dispersive , where the original is destroyed in the process of making the new strand.
  • 131. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.2 DNA Replication
  • 132. 7.2.1 State that DNA replication occurs in a 5’ -> 3’ direction.
    • The 5’ end of the free DNA nucleotide is added to the 3’ end of the chain if nucleotides which is already synthesized.
  • 133. 7.2.2 Explain the process of DNA replication .
    • Helicase - unravels double helix and breaks hydrogen bonds.
    • Deoxynucleoside triphosphates- precurser to a nucleotide.
    • DNA polymerase III- facilitates the joining of deoxynucleoside trophosphate to the synthesizing strand.
    • RNA primase- serves as an anchor for DNA synthesis to begin.
    • DNA polymerase I- removes RNA primase and replaces with nucelotides
    • DNA ligase- joins together Okasaki fragments.
    • Okasaki fragments- segments of synthesized DNA on the lag strand.
  • 134. 7.2.2 Picture
  • 135. 7.2.3 State that DNA replication is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes.
    • Unlike a zipper, which initiates and one point only, and works it’s way down, DNA replication occurs in many bubbles simultaneously on the same strand. This enables replication to occur more rapidly.
  • 136. Unit 3: Chemistry of Life Lesson 3.5 Transcription and Translation
  • 137. 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA.
    • DNA is a double helix and contains the base thymine.
    • RNA is a single helix, and contains the base uracil instead of thymine.
  • 138. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription.
    • 1) DNA unwinds.
    • 2) Helicase unzips the H- bonds between bases.
    • 3) One side of the strand, called the sense strand, becomes the template for RNA.
    • 4) RNA polymerase facilitates the binding of RNA nucleotides to the complimentary sense strand.
  • 139. 3.5.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases.
    • If bases are the “letters” in the language of DNA, codons are the words. A codon is always three bases, for example, ATG, CCC, GTA, etc.
    • As DNA codes for the building of amino acids (protein), each amino acid has it’s origin from a codon. Sometimes, one amino acid can be made from several different codons. This means that the code is degenerate .
  • 140. 3.5.4 Explain the process of translation.
    • 1) Messenger RNA attaches to ribosome.
    • 2) Ribosome ‘reads’ mRNA, one codon at a time
    • 3) For each codon sequence, a transfer RNA briefly attaches it’s complimentary anticodon to the codon.
    • 4) The amino acid associated with that tRNA is added to the growing polypeptide chain.
  • 141. 3.5.5 Explain the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide.
    • Each protein synthesized in the body originates from one particular section of DNA on a chromosome.
    • This section, called a gene , can be several hundred to several thousand base pairs long.
  • 142. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.3 Transcription
  • 143. 7.3.1 State that transcription is carried out in a 5’ -> 3’ direction.
    • The 5’ end of the free RNA nucleotide is added to the 3’ end of the RNA molecule which is already synthesized.
  • 144. 7.3.2 Distinguish between the sense and antisense strands of DNA.
    • Antisense strand- the strand transcribed by RNA polymerase by attaching complimentary RNA nucleotides (on the left of picture).
    • Sense strand- non coding (on the right of picture).
  • 145. 7.3.3 Explain the process of transcription
    • Promoter region- where transcription starts.
    • RNA polymerase- enzyme which facilitates transcription.
    • Nucleoside triphosphates- precurser to RNA nucleotide.
    • Terminator region- where transcription ends.
  • 146. 7.3.4 State that eukaryotic RNA needs the removal of introns to form mature
    • Introns are removed and exons are spliced together in the process of post-trancriptional mRNA processing.
  • 147. Unit 7: Nucleic Acids and Proteins Lesson 7.4 Translation
  • 148. 7.4.1 Explain how the structure of tRNA is recognized by a tRNA-activating enzyme that binds a specific amino acid to tRNA, using ATP
    • Each amino acid has a specific tRNA-activating enzyme. The shape of tRNA and CCA at the 3’ end help facilitate the attachment of the amino acid to the tRNA. Degeneracy plays a role here in that some amino acids have more than on tRNA they are associated with.
  • 149. 7.4.2 Outline the structure of ribosomes including protein and RNA composition.
    • Large (red) and small (blue) sub units combine to form the ribosomal unit.
    • There are two tRNA binding sites, and one mRNA binding site.
  • 150. 7.4.3 State that translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination.
    • Initiation - polypeptide chain begins.
    • Elongation - polypeptide chain is extended.
    • Termination - polypeptide chain ends.
  • 151. 7.4.4 State that translation occurs in a 5’ -> 3’ direction.
    • During translation, the ribosome moves along the mRNA towards the 3’ end. The start codon is nearer to the 5’ end than the stop codon.
  • 152. 7.4.5 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a peptide bond between two amino acids.
  • 153. 7.4.6 Explain the process of translation including ribosomes, polysomes, and start and stop codons.
    • Polysomes - a cluster on ribosomes which synthesize polypeptide chains concurrently from a single mRNA molecule.
    • Start codon- sequence that initiates polypeptide formation.
    • Stop codon- sequence that stops polypeptide formation.
  • 154. 7.4.7 Differentiate between free ribosomes and bound ribosomes.
    • Free ribosomes- synthesize proteins for use primarily within the cell.
    • Bound ribosomes- found along the rough endoplasmic reticulum, synthesize proteins primarily for secretion or for lysosomes.
  • 155. Unit 4: Genetics Lesson 4.1 Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles and Mutations
  • 156. 4.1.1 State the eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins .
    • DNA is tightly coiled, like string on a spool. The “spools” are proteins called histones.
  • 157. 4.1.2 Define gene , allele , and genome .
    • Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic.
    • Allele - one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene.
    • Genome - all the genetic information of an organism (the sum total of all possible alleles available in a particular species).
  • 158. 4.1.3 Define gene mutation .
    • Gene Mutation- occurs when there is a change in the base sequence of a gene.
  • 159. 4.1.4 Explain the consequence of a base substitution mutation in relation to the process of transcription and translation.
    • Sickle Cell Anemia- GAG has mutated to GTG causing glutamic acid to be replaced by valine, hence sickle cell anemia.
    • Ss = resistant to malaria ss = sickle cell
    • SS = no sickle cell.
  • 160. Unit 4: Genetics 4.2 Meiosis
  • 161. 4.2.1 State that meiosis is a reduction division in terms of diploid and haploid numbers of chromosomes.
    • The goal of meiosis is to make gametes.
    • Gametes - sperm and egg.
    • 2n= diploid = two sets of each chromosome present.
    • 1n= haploid = one set of each chromosome present.
    • The formation of a gamete is considered a reduction division, because the number of chromosomes.
  • 162. 4.2.2 Define homologous chromosomes .
    • Homologous chromosomes- two chromosomes that are the same size and show the same banding pattern
  • 163. 4.2.3 Outline the process of meiosis.
    • 1) Pairing of homologous chromosomes
    • 2) Two divisions
    • 3) Result: four haploid (1n) cells
  • 164. 4.2.4 Explain that non-disjunction can lead to changes in chromosome number.
    • Non-disjunction- centromeres don’t uncouple. leading to an extra or missing chromosome. Non- disjunction is the cause of Down Syndrome, which is evident by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome.
  • 165. 4.2.5 State that, in karyotyping, chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to their size and structure.
  • 166. 4.2.6 State how Karyotyping is performed.
    • Karyotyping is performed using cells collected by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, for pre-natal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities.
  • 167. 4.2.7 Analyze a human karyotype to determine gender and whether or not non-disjunction has occurred.
    • Female with Down Syndrome, due to trisomy on chromosome #21.
  • 168. Unit 10: Genetics Lesson 10.1 Meiosis
  • 169. 10.1.1a Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Prophase I- chromosomes start to supercoil. Homologous chromosomes pair up during synapsis.
    • Crossing over can occur at this stage at the chiasmata.
  • 170. 10.1.1b Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Metaphase I- homologous chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane.
  • 171. 10.1.1c Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis .
    • Anaphase I- homologous chromosomes separate, and move toward opposite poles.
    • (Note: there is no uncoupling of centromeres, as chromatids are still attached to each other.)
  • 172. 10.1.1d Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Telophase I- chromosomes arrive at poles. Spindle microtubules disappear. Cytokinesis follows, resulting in two separate cells.
  • 173. 10.1.1e Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Prophase II- new spindle microtubules attach to the centromeres.
  • 174. 10.1.1f Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis .
    • Metaphase II- chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane.
  • 175. 10.1.1g Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Anaphase II- chromosomes separate and move toward opposite poles.
  • 176. 10.1.1h Describe the behavior of chromosomes in the phases of meiosis.
    • Telophase II- spindle microtubules disappear. Nuclear membrane reforms. Chromosomes relax into chromatin.
  • 177. 10.1.2 Outline the formation of chiasmata in the process of crossing over.
    • Crossing over occurs when homologous chromosomes bend around each other. The crossing point is called the chiasmata . The result is that potions of each chromosome are interchanged.
    • Pictured : double crossing over.
  • 178. 10.1.3 Explain how meiosis results in an effectively infinite genetic variety in gametes.
    • Crossing over in prophase I- Since crossing over can occur at any point along the chromosome, there is unlimited potential for genetic variety when it occurs.
    • Random orientation in metaphase 1- Homologous chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane independently of each other, eg. If chromosome 1 from the mother is on the left, chromosome two on the left is not necessarily also from the mother.
    • Without crossing over , the number of different gametes able to be produced, is 2n, with n= haploid number.
  • 179. 10.1.4 State Mendel’s law of independent assortment.
    • Law of independent assortment- homologous chromosomes separate independently of other homologous chromosomes, allowing for many combinations in gametes, and ultimately, in the zygote that if formed by egg and sperm.
  • 180. 10.1.5 Explain the relationship between Mendel’s law of independent assortment and meiosis.
    • Independent assortment occurs during metaphase I of meiosis, when homologous chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane.
    • As chromosomes sort randomly, they create opportunities for new recombinants during fertilization, in essence shuffling the genetic deck.
  • 181. Unit 4: Genetics Lesson 4.3 Theoretical Genetics
  • 182. 4.3.1a Define: genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier, and test cross.
    • Genotype - the alleles possessed by an organism. Eg: B, b.
    • Phenotype - the characteristics of an organism. Eg: “Brown” hair.
    • Dominant allele- an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state. Ex: Bb and BB give you brown hair.
    • Recessive allele- an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. Eg: only bb gives you blond hair, not Bb.
    • Codominant alleles- pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote. Eg:
  • 183. 4.3.1b Define: genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier, and test cross.
    • Locus - the particular position on the homologous chromosomes of a gene.
    • Homozygous - having two identical alleles of a gene. Ex: BB or bb
    • Heterozygous - having two different alleles of a gene. Ex: Bb
    • Test Cross- testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive.
  • 184. 4.3.2 Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monohybrid cross using a punnett square.
    • Offspring genotypes: FF, Ff, Ff, ff
    • Offspring phenotypes: 25% homozygous dominant, 50% heterozygous, 25% homozygous recessive
  • 185. 4.3.3 State that some genes have more than two alleles (multiple alleles).
    • Human blood genotypes can be derived from three different alleles, “A”, “B”, and “O”.
  • 186. 4.3.4 Describe ABO blood groups as an example of codominance and multiple alleles.
    • The blood type “AB” is codominant because neither “A” nor “B” dominate over the other. They are both expressed phenotypically.
  • 187. 4.3.5 Explain how sex chromosomes control gender.
    • Each person is created from one egg and one sperm. The egg always contributes an X chromosome, whereas there are two different types of sperm, X sperm and Y sperm. If an X sperm fertilizes the egg, the zygote is female. If a Y sperm fertilized the egg, the zygote is male.
  • 188. 4.3.7 Define sex linkage .
    • Sex linkage- genes that are carried on the sex chromosomes, almost always the “X”.
  • 189. 4.3.8 Describe the inheritance of color blindness and hemophilia as examples of sex linkage.
  • 190. 4.3.9 State that a human female can be homozygous or heterozygous with respect to sex-linked genes.
    • Females and the Hemophilia gene:
    • XH XH = normal female = homozygous
    • XH Xh = carrier female = heterozygous
  • 191. 4.3.10 Explain that female carriers are heterozygous for X-linked recessive alleles.
    • With hemophilia, a woman who has the genotype Xh Xh would be homozygous lethal, and would bleed to death during her first menstrual cycle. The probability of obtaining this genotype is so rare, the females are routinely only characterized as being heterozygous for X- linked traits.
  • 192. 4.3.11 Predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of offspring of a monohybrid cross.
    • B = brown hair
    • B = blond hair
    • Bb x Bb
    • BB = 25%
    • Bb = 50%
    • bb = 25%
    • Brown = 75%
    • Blond = 25%
  • 193. 4.3.12 Deduce the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals in pedigree charts.
    • This pedigree chart shows a disorder which is autosomal recessive. It is autosomal because it occurs in both males and females, and recessive because those affected came from parents who showed no symptoms.
  • 194. Unit 10: Genetics Lesson 10.2 Dihybrid Crosses and Gene Linkage
  • 195. 10.2.2 Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes.
    • Autosomes - chromosomes pairs #1- 22.
    • Sex chromosomes- X and y chromosomes, found as pair #23 (either as XX or Xy).
  • 196. 10.2.3 Explain how crossing over in prophase I (between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair) can result in an exchange of alleles .
    • Crossing over in prophase I- Since crossing over can occur at any point along the chromosome, there is unlimited potential for the exchange of alleles and genetic variety.
  • 197. 10.2.4 Define linkage group.
    • Linkage group- a group of alleles located on the same strand of DNA.
  • 198. 10.2.5 Explain an example of a cross between two linked genes.
    • Alleles are usually shown side-by-side in dihybrid crosses eg. TtBb. In representing crosses involving linkage it is more common to show them as vertical pairs:
  • 199. 10.2.6 Identify which of the offspring in such dihybrid crosses are recombinants .
    • In a test cross of:
    • The recombinants will be
  • 200. Unit 10: Genetics Lesson 10.3 Polygenic Inheritance
  • 201. 10.3.1 Define polygenic inheritance .
    • Polygenic inheritance- occurs when a phenotype is controlled by more than one gene, resulting in a mosaic of phenotypes.
  • 202. 10.3.2 Explain that polygenic inheritance can contribute to continuous variation using two examples.
    • 1) Human skin color- is thought to be controlled by at least 3 independent genes.
    • AABBCC x aabbcc
    • F1 = AaBbCc , then perform a dihybird cross
    • (AaBbCc), and there are many possible
    • outcomes, such as:
    • AABBCc, AABBcc, AABbcc, AAbbcc, etc.
    • 2) Human hair color- is also thought to be controlled but multiple genes, accounting for the large variety in shade .
  • 203. Unit 4: Genetics Lesson 4.4 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  • 204. 4.4.1 Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA.
    • 1) Denaturation of DNA via heat.
    • 2) Annealing of primers to DNA
    • 3) Elongation of DNA strand.
    • Cycle is repeated multiple times, which results in an exponential gain of the target DNA
  • 205. 4.4.2 State that gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented pieces of DNA according to their charge and size.
    • The wells are at the top of the picture. The smallest fragments move the greatest distance from the well, and are found closer to the bottom of the picture.
  • 206. 4.4.3 State that gel electrophoresis of DNA is used in DNA profiling.
  • 207. 4.4.4 Describe two applications of DNA profiling.
    • 1) Paternity testing- child shows two bands, one matches the mother, the other matches the father.
    • 2) Crime scene investigation- drops of blood and other sources of DNA from the crime scene can be compared to a suspect’s DNA.
  • 208. 4.4.5 Analyze DNA profiles to draw conclusions about paternity or forensic investigations.
    • On the left gel, the alleged father is not the actual father.
    • On the right gel, the alleged father is the actual father.
    • Of the two bands for the child, one must come from the mother and one from the father.
  • 209. 4.4.6 Outline three outcomes of sequencing the complete human genome.
    • 1) Future understanding of many genetic diseases.
    • 2) Advanced, targeted pharmaceutical production.
    • 3) Bioethical implications, e.g. potential genetic discrimination.
  • 210. 4.4.7 State that when genes are transferred between species, the amino acid sequence of polypeptides is unchanged because the code is universal.
    • Glowing Mice
    • The gene responsible for phosphorescence in jellyfish is inserted into mouse embryo’s, causing them to glow under an ultraviolet light.
  • 211. 4.4.8 Outline the basic technique for gene transfer using plasmids, a host cell, restriction enzymes, and DNA ligase.
    • 1) Select a gene of interest.
    • 2) Select a plasmid from a
    • bacterium.
    • 3) Use the same restriction enzyme to cut both gene and plasmid.
    • 4) Insert gene into plasmid and
    • ligate ligate.
    • 5) Insert plasmid into bacteria.
    • Result : Bacteria multiply
    • exponentially, making many
    • copiesof he gene.
  • 212. 4.4.9 State two examples of current uses of genetically modified crops or animals
    • 1) Delayed ripening of tomatoes.
    • 2) Herbicide resistance in crop plants.
  • 213. 4.4.10 Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic modification.
    • Golden Rice- genetically modified to contain enhanced beta-carotene, a source of vitamin A.
    • Benefit - helps combat childhood blindness in communities where there is a nutritional deficiency of vitamin A.
    • Possible harmful effects- rice crops are not contained, and it’s always of concern how a genetically modified crop will impact the ecosystem where it resides.
  • 214. 4.4.11 Define clone .
    • Clone- a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells artificially derived from a single parent cell.
  • 215. 4.4.12 Outline a technique for cloning using differentiated cells.
    • Dolly the sheep- t ake DNA from one cell and inject it into the nucleus of another cell (it’s own DNA removed). Zap with electricity to start development.
  • 216. 4.4.13 Discuss the ethical issues of cloning in humans.
    • Positive - cloning just extends what nature does naturally when identical twins are produced.
    • Negative- this power has the otential to be abused through eugenics, and the selection of certain traits over others.
  • 217. Unit 5: Ecology and Evolution Lesson 5.4 Evolution
  • 218. 5.4.1 Define evolution .
    • Evolution - the process of cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population.
  • 219. 5.4.2a Outline the evidence for evolution provided by the fossil record, selective breeding of domesticated animals, and homologous structures.
    • Fossils are remains or traces of living organisms. Fossils are often found in rock layers which can be dated using radiometric dating techniques.
    • Placing fossils in a relative time sequence help give scientists insight into the evolution of the phylogenetic tree.
  • 220. 5.4.2b Outline the evidence for evolution provided by the fossil record, selective breeding of domesticated animals, and homologous structures.
    • For centuries, humans have been selectively breeding dogs for purposes of increasing work output
  • 221. 5.4.2c Outline the evidence for evolution provided by the fossil record, selective breeding of domesticated animals, and homologous structures.
    • Homologous structures across species lines are indicative of a previous common ancestor.
  • 222. 5.4.3 State that populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support.
  • 223. 5.4.4 Explain that the consequence of the potential overproduction of offspring is a struggle for survival.
    • Overproduction in a population makes resources more scarce, spurning competition for survival.
  • 224. 5.4.5 State that the members of a species show variation.
  • 225. 5.4.6 Explain how sexual reproduction promotes variation in a species.
    • Meiosis-
        • 1)Law of independent assortment.
        • 2) Crossing over.
    • Fertilization - any individual sperm has the potential to combine with an egg.
    • Meiosis and Fertilization
  • 226. 5.4.7 Explain how natural selection leads to evolution.
    • The struggle for survival favors individuals whose qualities make them better adapted to their environment. These individuals produce more offspring, and over time the complexion of a population will shift.
  • 227. 5.4.8 Explain two examples of evolution in response to environmental change.
    • 1) Antibiotic resistance to bacteria- the rapid rate at which bacteria reproduce accelerate their resistance to antibiotics.
    • 2) Peppered moth- as the barks of trees became darker from industrial pollution, natural selection favored darker moths, which blended into the bark and were harder
  • 228. Unit 5: Ecology and Evolution Lesson 5.5 Classification
  • 229. 5.5.1 Outline the binomial system of nomenclature.
    • Binomial nomenclature- a system of identifying organisms by their genus and species name. The genus name is first, followed by the species name. The genus name is capitalized, the species name is not. Usually written in italics (if hand written underlining is acceptable).
      • Examples : Homo sapiens (humans)
      • Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)
  • 230. 5.5.2 List the seven levels of hierarchy of taxa, using two examples from different kingdoms.
  • 231. 5.5.3a Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features:
    • Bryophytes:
    • Mosses and liverworts, which require water for reproduction, even though they lack true vascular tissue (roots, stems, leaves). Therefore they are usually found in damp areas. Bryophyte gametes are
  • 232. 5.5.3b Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features:
    • Filicinophytes -ferns are plants which have true vascular tissue (roots, stems and leaves). The male gamete swims to the female gamete.
  • 233. 5.5.3c Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features:
    • Coniferophytes- cone bearing plants. Seeds are non-motile, and often depend on wind for transport.
  • 234. 5.5.3d Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features:
    • Angiosperophytes - flower bearing plants. Divided into two categories: woody and non-woody.
  • 235. 5.5.4a Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external
    • Porifera (sponges)
    • Sessile, multicellular marine animals. Lack nerves and muscles .
  • 236. 5.5.4b Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features:
    • Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, and sea anemone). Radial symmetry, usually with specialized stinging cells.
  • 237. 5.5.4c Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features:
    • Platyhelminthes : flat worms.
  • 238. 5.5.4d Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features:
    • Annelida: segmented worms
  • 239. 5.5.4e Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features:
    • Mollusca (snails, clams, cuttlefish, squid, octopus). Primarily marine based. Soft body with mantle, which may secrete a shell.
  • 240. 5.5.4f Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features:
    • Arthropoda- segmented with jointed appendages and an exoskeleton.
  • 241. 5.5.5 Apply and/or design a dichotomous key for a group of up to eight organisms.
    • Oak Classification using a dichotomous key:
      • 1a. Leaves usually without teeth or lobes: 2
      • 1b. Leaves usually with teeth or lobes: 5
        • 2a. Leaves evergreen: 3
        • 2b. Leaves not evergreen: 4
          • 3a. Mature plant a large tree — Southern live oak Quercus virginiana
          • 3b. Mature plant a small shrub — Dwarf live oak Quercus minima
          • 4a. Leaf narrow, about 4-6 times as long as broad — Willow oak Quercus phellos
          • 4b. Leaf broad, about 2-3 times as long as broad — Shingle oak Quercus imbricaria
        • 5a. Lobes or teeth bristle-tipped: 6
        • 5b. Lobes or teeth rounded or blunt-pointed, no bristles: 7
          • 6a. Leaves mostly with 3 lobes — Blackjack oak Quercus marilandica
          • 6b. Leaves mostly with 7-9 lobes — Northern red oak Quercus rubra
          • 7a. Leaves with 5-9 deep lobes — White oak Quercus alba
    • 7b. Leaves with 21-27 shallow lobes — Swamp chestnut oak Quercus prinus
  • 242. Option D: Evolution Lesson D:1 Origin of Life on Earth
  • 243. D.1.1 Describe four processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth
    • The non-living synthesis of simple organic molecules
    • The assembly of these molecules into polymers
    • The origin of self-replicating molecules that made inheritance possible
    • The packaging of these molecules into membranes with an internal chemistry different from their
  • 244. D.1.2 Outline the experiments of Miller and Urey into the origin of organic compounds.
    • Purpose - to test the hypothesis that organic molecules can form spontaneously under the right conditions.
    • Gases used: ammonia, methane and hydrogen, which created a reducing atmosphere.
    • It worked! Amino acids and other simple organic molecules were formed by the apparatus.
  • 245. D.1.3 State that comets may have delivered organic compounds to Earth.
  • 246. D.1.4 Discuss possible locations where conditions would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds.
    • Communities around deep-sea hydrothermal vents
    • Volcanos
    • Extraterrestrial locations
  • 247. D.1.5 Outline two properties of RNA that would have allowed it to play a role in the origin of life.
    • RNA is composed of a single helix, versus DNA’s double helix. The bases are exposed and ready to combine with a complement, giving them the ability to self-replicate.
    • Clay contains Zinc and other substances which help it act like a template, facilitating the replication of RNA. The theory proposes that without clay, 5- chain polymer could replicate, whereas with clay, up to 20 chain polymer could replicate.
  • 248. D.1.6 State that living cells may have been preceded by protobionts, with an internal chemical environment different from their surroundings.
    • Protobionts are abiotic spheres in which an internal environment can be maintained. Two examples are:
      • Coacervates - small spheres which maintain an internal environment different from the external environment. Can grow, shrink and split due to a semi-permeable membrane.
      • Microspheres - spheres formed upon the cooling of thermal proteins. Considered more stable than coacervates.
  • 249. D.1.7 Outline the contribution of prokaryotes to the creation of an oxygen- rich atmosphere.
    • Cyanobacteria, which are photosynthetic, converted the Earth’s early atmosphere from anoxia to one which contained free oxygen. This occurred approximately 2.7 to 2.2 billion years ago.
  • 250. D.1.8 Discuss the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotes.
    • According to the theory, mitochondria were originally independent organisms that were engulfed by another independent organism. Instead of being dismantled for nutritional purposes, the host found it more beneficial to keep the mitochondria intact. Similar circumstances are believed to have
  • 251. Option D: Evolution Lesson D:2 Species and Speciation
  • 252. D.2.1 Define allele frequency and gene pool
    • Allele frequency- the percentage with which a specific allele is found in a population.
    • Gene Pool- the sum total of all alleles present in all populations of a particular species.
  • 253. D.2.2 State that evolution involved a change in allele frequency in a population’s gene pool over a number of generations.
  • 254. D.2.3 Discuss the definition of the term species .
    • New Species- result from the accumulation of many advantageous alleles in the gene pool of a population over a long period of time. In other words, new species result from Macroevolution.
    • Macroevolution- the accumulation of multiple microevolutionary steps, combined with reproductive isolation. An example would be Darwin’s finches.
  • 255. D.2.4 Describe three examples of barriers between gene pools.
    • 1) Geographical isolation- occurs when a population is physically separated, usually due to a natural disaster such as an avalanche, fire, earthquake, etc.
    • 2) Temporal isolation- due to timed barriers, e.g. reproducing during different seasons.
    • 3) Behavioral isolation- courtship mating displays may only be recognized by members of the same species, e.g. bird songs.
  • 256. D.2.5 Explain how polyploidy can contribute to speciation.
    • Polyploidy occurs when more than two sets of homologous chromosomes are present. Examples such as triploidy (3x) and tetraploidy (4x) are often due to a disruption in the meiotic sequence. Chromosomes replicate, but remain together in the same cell.
    • Once polyploidy occurs, the individual is often unable to mate with the original species, causing immediate species divergence.
  • 257. D.2.6 Compare allopatric and sympatric speciation.
    • Speciation- the formation of a new species by splitting of an existing species.
    • Sympatric speciation- occurs in the same geographical area.
    • Allopatric speciation- occurs in different geographical areas.
  • 258. D.2.7 Outline the process of adaptive radiation.
    • As populations drift or expand to different geographical locales, local environmental conditions will favor some traits over others, causing phenotypes in different areas to diverge. This can result in radiant speciation. A classic example are the Galapagos Islands, which Darwin first studied.
  • 259. D.2.8 Compare convergent and divergent evolution.
    • Convergent Evolution- individuals of different species develop similar traits in response to living in the same habitat. For example, many species of desert plants develop thick cuticles to deter water loss.
    • Divergent Evolution- occurs when different traits share a common evolutionary origin. For example, vertebrate limbs have many unique shapes, but their bone patterns trace back to a common ancestral configuration.
  • 260. D.2.9 Discuss ideas on the pace of evolution, including gradualism and punctuated equilibrium
    • Gradualism - the slow change from one form to another.
    • Punctuated equilibrium- long periods of no change and short periods of rapid evolution. Some causes are volcanic eruptions and meteor impacts on Earth.
  • 261. D.2.10 Describe one example of transient polymorphism.
    • Transient polymorphism- Before the industrial revolution, the peppered moths with lighter phenotypes were more common because they blended in with the light colored tree-trunks they rested on. With factories came soot, which darkened the tree barks. In the span of several decades, the predominant phenotype was a much darker grey.
  • 262. D.2.11 Describe sickle-cell anemia as an example of balanced polymorphism.
    • Sickle cell anemia is a homozygous recessive disorder (ss). The heterozygous individual (Ss) does not have sickle cell anemia, but is more resistant to malaria than an individual who does not carry a sickle cell gene at all (SS). This creates selective pressure to keep the sickle cell gene in the gene pool, resulting in balanced polymorphism.
  • 263. Option D: Evolution Lesson D:3 Human Evolution
  • 264. D.3.1 Outline the method for dating rocks and fossils using radioisotopes, with reference to C14 and K40.
    • The sun causes a certain percentage of Carbon to become an isotope. Living systems incorporate carbon, and have the same % of Carbon isotopes as the atmosphere. Upon death, no new carbon is incorporated into the body, and the isotopes start to decay at the half-life rate.
    • The half-life of C14 is 5730 years, and can be used to date material up to 50,000 years old. The half-file of K40 is 2.3 billion years, and can be used to date rocks over one million years old.
  • 265. D.3.2 Define half-life .
    • Half life- the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotopes of a particular substance to decay.
  • 266. D.3.3 Deduce the approximate age of materials based on a simple decay curve for a radioisotope.
    • Problem: If the half-life of C14 is 5730 years, after how many years would a sample have a quarter of it’s isotopes left?
    • Answer: 11,460 years
  • 267. D.3.4 Describe the major physical features, such as the adaptations for tree life, that define humans as primates.
    • 1) Opposable Thumb
    • 2) Acute Vision
    • 3) Large Cranial Capacity
  • 268. D.3.5a Outline the trends illustrated by the fossils of Ardiphithecus ramidus, Australopithecus, and the genus Homo.
    • A. ramidus- 5.8-5.2 million years ago . Oldest known hominid. Large canines. Evidence of bipedalism is inconclusive.
    • A. afarensis - 3.9-2.9 million years ago. Bipedal. Reduced canines.
    • A . africanus- 3.3-2.5 million years ago. Similar to A. afarensis , but slightly larger brain.
  • 269. D.3.5b Outline the trends illustrated by the fossils of Ardiphithecus ramidus, Australopithecus, and the genus Homo.
    • H. habilis- 2.6-1.4 million years ago. Used first simple, stone tools. Protrusions in face starting to reduce.
    •  H. erectus- 1.8-1 million years ago. More advanced tool, possibly used fire.
    •  H. neanderthalensis- 500,000-24,000 years ago. Short, thick bodies adapted to cold climate. Largest cranial capacity.
    •  H. sapiens- 50,000-present. Cranial capacity not as large as N. neanderthalensis , but better able to use their brains to develop agricultural and hunting skills.
  • 270. D.3.6 State that, at various stages in hominid evolution, several species may have coexisted.
  • 271. D.3.7 Discuss the incompleteness of the fossil record and the resulting uncertainties about human evolution.
    • Many fossils, from Australopithecines through the genus Homo, are incomplete. Often only partial skulls and just a few bones are found, because only a small percentage of organic matter is ever fossilized. There are also very few neanderthal fossils.
  • 272. D.3.8 Discuss the correlation between the change in diet and increase in brain size during hominid evolution.
    • As brain size increased, the ability to hunt and farm more efficiently increased. This leads to a better nutrition, which in turn supported an even greater increase in cranial capacity. In essence, an evolutionary positive feedback loop.
  • 273. D.3.9 Distinguish between genetic and cultural evolution.
    • Genetic Evolution- the random change of base pair sequences, coupled with the relative resonance of these changes based on environmental conditions.
    • Cultural Evolution- the change in practices and traditions, not through genetics but rather communicated in some form from generation to generation.
  • 274. D.3.10 Discuss the relative importance of genetic and cultural evolution in the evolution of humans.
    • Genetic evolution has profoundly influenced our physical traits, whereas cultural evolution has profoundly influenced traditions and societal touchstones. Cultural evolution accounts for art, music and language developments in society.
  • 275. Option D: Evolution Lesson D:4 The Hardy- Weinberg Principle
  • 276. D.4.1 Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg equation p 2 + 2pq + q 2 =1 is derived.
    • Assuming a STATIC population,
    • and A=p and a =q:
    • P + q = 1 (1.0 = 100%)
    • Possible genotypes are: pp, pq, qp qq
    • p x p = p 2 , etc., therefore…
    • P 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1
  • 277. D.4.2 Calculate allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies for two alleles of a gene, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
    • Cystic Fibrosis is a recessive genetic disorder. In a certain population, 2 out of every 2000 individuals have cystic fibrosis. What are the values of p & q? What percentage of the population are carriers?
    • q 2 = 2/2000=.001
    • q = √.001 = .031
    • p + .031 = 1
    • p = .969
    • 2pq = .06
    • Hence, 6% of the population are carriers.
  • 278. D.4.3 State the assumptions made when the Hardy-Weinberg equation is used.
    • Hardy-Weinberg assumptions :
        • 1) Large population
        • 2) Random mating
        • 3) Constant allele frequency over time
        • 4) No allele-specific mortality
        • 5) No mutation
        • 6) No immigration or emmigration
  • 279. Option D: Evolution Lesson D.5 Phylogeny and Systematics
  • 280. D.5.1 Outline the value of classifying organisms.
    • The organization of data about living organisms helps identify them, show evolutionary links, and enables prediction of characteristics shared by members of a group.
  • 281. D.5.2 Explain the biochemical evidence provided by the universality of DNA and protein structures for the common ancestry of living organisms.
    • All amino acids are coded for by mRNA codon sequences, which are transcribed from DNA codons. Codons are derived from the same four bases regardless of species: A,T,G and C. The universality of the code points to a common evolutionary ancestry.
  • 282. D.5.3 Explain how variations in specific molecules can indicate phylogeny.
    • Hemoglobin is found in most animals, but the nucleotide sequence can vary by species. Tracking and comparing these variations can help place species relative to each other on a phylogenetic tree.
  • 283. D.5.4 Discuss how biochemical variations can be used as an evolutionary clock.
    • DNA replication errors occur with specific frequency over time. These errors can act as a molecular clock, helping determine how closely related two branches are on the phylogenetic tree. The greater the variation in replication errors, the further apart two groups are on the tree.
  • 284. D.5.5 Define clade and cladistics .
    • Clade- a group of organisms who share common characteristics.
    • Cladistics- a taxonomic system of separating clades based on the differentiation of characteristics.
  • 285. D.5.6 Distinguish, with examples, between analogous and homologous characteristics.
    • Analogous characteristics- show similarity without necessarily having a common ancestor. Example: the spines on a porcupine and the needles on a cactus.
    • Homologous characteristics- show similarity due to the sharing of a common ancestor. Example: the flipper of a whale and the human hand.
  • 286. D.5.7 Outline the methods used to construct cladograms and the conclusions that can be drawn from them.
    • Cladograms start with an “in-group”, which contain certain characteristics. Another group is then compared to the in-group. If the second group illustrates all the same characteristics, it is placed in the in-group. If it differs in any way, it is placed in its own clade. Clades are separated from each other based on single differences, and are then placed in sequence.
    • Note that a cladograms do not make any assumptions about the time period involved in an evolutionary change, rather, they indicate that one has occurred
  • 287. D.5.8 Construct a simple cladogram.
  • 288. D.5.9 Analyze cladograms in terms of phylogenetic relationships.
    • Organisms “C” and “D” are more closely related to each other, because they both share traits “A” and “B”.
  • 289. D.5.10 Discuss relationships between cladograms and the classification of living organisms.
    • Monophyletic -a group which shares a common ancestor.
    • Paraphyletic - a group which contains some, but not all members associated with a common ancestor.
    • Polyphyletic - a group which does not share a common ancestor
    Reptiles and birds are believed to be monophyletic .
  • 290. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.1 Digestion
  • 291. 6.1.1 Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.
    • Large food molecules are polymers, which must be broken down into monomers (via hydrolysis) in order to be absorbed into the blood.
  • 292. 6.1.2 Explain the need for enzymes in digestion.
    • Enzymes speed up the rate at which polymers are broken down into monomers.
  • 293. 6.1.3 State the source, substrate, product and optimum pH conditions for one amylase, one protease and one lipase.
  • 294. 6.1.4 Draw and label a diagram of the digestive system.
    • Locate: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus, liver, pancreas, gall bladder.
  • 295. 6.1.5 Outline the function of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
    • Stomach - primary site for protein digestion.
    • Small intestine- primary site for nutrient absorption.
    • Large intestine- water used in the digestive process is reabsorbed back into the body .
  • 296. 6.1.6 Distinguish between absorption and assimilation.
    • Absorption- the transfer of nutrients from the digestive tract into the blood stream, usually through villi in the small intestine.
    • Assimilation- uptake of nutrients from blood stream into body tissue. Occurs after absorption.
  • 297. 6.1.7 Explain how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption of the end products of digestion.
    • Villi have a large surface area, gated ion channels, and are dense in mitochondria, which provide energy for the active transport of nutrients.
  • 298. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.2 The Transport System
  • 299. 6.2.1 Draw a diagram of the heart showing all four chambers, associated blood vessels and valves.
    • Note that the left side is actually thicker than the right side. The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, whereas the right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • 300. 6.2.2 State that the coronary arteries supply heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients.
  • 301. 6.2.3 Explain the action of the heart in terms of collecting blood, pumping blood, and opening and closing of valves.
    • Atria- collect blood into heart
    • Ventricles- send blood out of the heart.
    • The direction of flow is controlled by atrio- ventricular and semilunar valves. When open, blood flows from the atrium to the ventricle. When closed, blood remains in the atrium.
  • 302. 6.2.4 Outline the control of the heartbeat in terms of myogenic muscle contraction, the pacemaker, nerves, the medulla of the brain and adrenalin .
    • Myogenic- a term meaning the heart beats “of its own accord”. The signal for each heartbeat originates from the heart itself, not from the brain, through the SA node.
    • The medulla of the brain does regulate heart rate, using nerves and hormones to speed it up (adrenaline) and slow it down.
  • 303. 6.2.5 Explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins.
    • Arteries - generally move blood away from the heart. Have thick walls but no interior valves.
    • Veins - generally move blood toward the heart. Have thinner walls and interior valves to prevent backflow.
    • Capillaries - bridges between arteries and veins. Capillary tissue is only 1 cell width thick, enabling diffusion in and out of the vessels.
  • 304. 6.2.6 State that blood is composed of plasma, erythrocytes, leucocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) and platelets.
    • Plasma - fluid portion of blood
    • Erythrocytes- red blood cells.
    • Leucocytes- white blood cells
      • Phagocytes - engulf and ingest antigens
      • L ymphocytes - produce antibodies
    • Platelets - aid in blood clotting
  • 305. 6.2.7 State that the following are transported by the blood: nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, antibodies and urea. Blood transport in a human body
  • 306. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.4 Gas Exchange
  • 307. 6.4.1 Distinguish between ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration.
    • Ventilation - the movement of air into and out of the lungs from muscular contractions of the rib cage and diaphram. Ventilation leads to…
    • Gas exchange- the transfer of gas between alveoli and capillaries in the lung due to concentration gradients. Gas exchange leads to…
    • Cell respiration- the harvesting of glucose to convert ADPATP. Cell respiration occurs in the cellular tissue.
  • 308. 6.4.2 Explain the need for a ventilation system.
    • A ventilation system is needed to maintain concentration gradients in the alveoli.
  • 309. 6.4.3 Describe the features of alveoli that adapt them to gas exchange.
    • 1) large total surface area
    • 2) a wall consisting of a single layer of flattened cells
    • 3) moist lining
    • 4) dense network of capillaries
  • 310. 6.4.4 Draw a diagram of the ventilation system including trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs.
  • 311. 6.4.5 Explain the mechanism of ventilation in human lungs.
      • I nhalation
        • External intercostal muscles- contract
        • Internal intercostal muscles- relax
        • Diaphram- contracts
        • (positive) Pressure decreases
        • Volume increases
      • Exhalation
        • External intercostal muscles- relax
        • Internal intercostal muscles- contract
        • Diaphram- relax
        • (positive) Pressure increases
        • Volume decreases
  • 312. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.3 Defense Against Infectious Disease
  • 313. 6.3.1 Define pathogen .
    • Pathogen- an organism or virus that causes a disease.
  • 314. 6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not viruses.
    • Antibiotics block metabolic pathways found in bacteria, but not in eukaryotic cells. Viruses reproduce using the metabolic pathways of the host cell and are not affected by antibiotics.
  • 315. 6.3.3 Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defense against pathogens.
    • The skin is a physical, waterproof barrier to pathogens. Mucus is continually secreted by mucous membranes, which flush out pathogens from openings into the body.
  • 316. 6.3.4 Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
    • Phagocytes engulf pathogens which have managed to cross the bodies barriers and penetrated into tissue.
  • 317. 6.3.5 Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
    • Antigen- a molecule considered foreign by the body’s immune system.
    • Antibody- a globular protein manufactured by the immune system which recognizes and targets a specific antigen
  • 318. 6.3.6 Explain antibody production.
    • Many different types of lymphocytes exist. Each type recognizes one specific antigen and responds, upon encountering such antigen, by dividing rapidy to form clones. The clones then secrete specific antibodies against the antigen
  • 319. 6.3.7 Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system.
    • HIV destroys cd-4
    • T-cells, which impairs the body’s ability to fight pathogens.
  • 320. 6.3.8 Describe the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS.
    • Cause - RNA based virus which attacks human CD-4 T cells.
    • Transmission : through sexual contact and blood.
    • Social Implications : was first stigmatized as a “gay” disease, although currently more heterosexuals worldwide are affected than homosexuals. In sub-saharan Africa (as well as several other locations), AIDS has reached crisis epidemic proportions.
  • 321. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.1 Defense Against Infectious Disease
  • 322. 11.1.1 Describe the process of clotting.
    • 1) Platelets and damaged cells release clotting factors.
    • 2) Prothrombinthrombin
    • 3) Fibrinogenfibrin, which captures red blood cells.
  • 323. 11.1.2 Outline the principle of challenge and response, clonal selection and memory cells as the basis of immunity.
  • 324. 11.1.3 Define active immunity and passive immunity.
    • Active immunity- immunity due to the production of antibodies by the organism itself after the body’s defense mechanisms have been stimulated by invasion of foreign microorganisms.
    • Passive immunity- immunity due to the acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active immunity has been stimulated, including via placenta or in the colostrum.
  • 325. 11.1.4 Explain antibody production.
    • 1) Macrophage presents antigen to helper T cell
    • 2) Helper T cell activates B cell
    • 3) B cells divide to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells, which secrete antibodies.
    • Plasma cells- fight the pathogen immediately.
    • Memory cells- stay in body, armed and ready if the pathogen appears in again in the future
  • 326. 11.1.5 Describe the production of monoclonal antibodies, and include one use in diagnosis and one use in treatment.
    • Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing cancerous tumor cells with B-cells. This hybrid cell then proliferates and produces antibodies in perpetuity.
    • Diagnosis- used to detect HIV in the blood stream, as well as HCG in pregnancy tests.
    • Treatment- emergency treatment of rabies, blood and tissue typing for transplants
  • 327. 11.1.6 Explain the principle of vaccination.
    • A vaccine introduces the disabled pathogen in some for to the body, stimulating an immune response. Memory cells are created and circulate in the body, in case the real pathogen ever shows up.
  • 328. 11.1.7 Discuss the benefits and dangers of vaccination.
    • Benefits: total elimination of diseases, prevention of pandemics and epidemics, decreaded health-care costs and prevention of harmful side-effects of disease.
    • Dangers : possible toxic effects of mercury in vaccines, possible overload of immune system, possible links with autism
  • 329. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis.
  • 330. 6.5.1 State that the nervous system consists of the CNS, PNS and cell called neurons that can carry rapid electrical impulses.
    • CNS = Central Nervous System: (brain and spinal cord)
    • PNS = Peripheral Nervous System .
  • 331. 6.5.2 Draw and label a diagram of the structure of a motor neuron.
    • Show dendrites, cell body with nucleus, elongated axon, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier and motor end plates.
  • 332. 6.5.3 State that nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to the CNS by sensory neurons, and from the CNS to effectors by motor neurons
  • 333. 6.5.4 Define resting potential and action potential .
    • Resting potential- the difference in charge between the inside and outside of a neuron when an electrical impulse is not being propagated. Usually about -70 mv.
    • Action potential- the reversal and restoration of an electrical difference between the inside and outside of a nerve cell during propagation of an impulse.
  • 334. 6.5.5 Explain how a nerve impulse passes along a non-myelinated neuron (axon).
    • Na + ions- upon stimulation, Na + ion channels open and Na+ rushes into the cell.
    • K + ions- Shortly after Na + rushes in, K + ion channels open and K + rushes out of the cell.
    • Voltage gated ion channels- control when ions cross the membrane.
    • Active transport- restores Na + and K + to their original place, via the sodium/potassium pump.
    • Changes in membrane polarization- happen in sequence, starting with stimulation of the sensory nerve
  • 335. 6.5.6 Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.
    • Ca + influx
    • Release, diffusion and binding of the neurotransmitter
    • Depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane
    • Subsequent removal of neurotransmitter
  • 336. 6.5.7 State that the endocrine system consists of glands which release hormones that are transported in the blood. Epinephrine- released by the adrenal glands
  • 337. 6.5.8 State that homeostasis involves maintaining the internal environment at a constant level or between narrow limits.
      • Homeostatic Factors:1) blood pH
      • 2) oxygen and CO 2 concentrations
      • 3) blood glucose
      • 4) body temperature
      • 5) water balance
  • 338. 6.5.9 Explain that homeostasis involves monitoring levels of variables and correcting changes in levels by negative feedback mechanisms.
  • 339. 6.5.10 Explain the control of body temperature, including:
    • Blood - transfers heat between tissues of the body.
    • Hypothalamus - regulates with hormones.
    • Sweat glands/skin arterioles- release heat from body.
    • Shivering- generates heat in muscle tissue to warm body.
  • 340. 6.5.11 Explain the control of blood glucose concentration .
    • Glucagon - raises blood sugar by triggering the release of glycogen.
    • Insulin - lowers blood sugar.
    • Alpha islet cells- produce glucagon.
    • Beta islet cells- produce insulin.
    • Islet cells are located in the pancreas.
    • Glycogen is stored in the liver.
  • 341. 6.5.12 Distinguish between Type I and Type II Diabetes.
    • Type I Diabetes- often begins in childhood, caused by inability of beta islet cells to produce insulin. Most likely genetically caused.
    • Type II Diabetes- often has onset in adulthood, usually due to inefficient insulin secretion or decreased insulin sensitivity. May be due to obesity and other environmental factors.
  • 342. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.2 Muscles and Movement
  • 343. 11.2.1 State the role of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement.
    • 1) A nerve impulse reaches muscle.
    • 2) The impulse triggers muscle contraction.
    • 3) Muscles are attached to bone by tendon.
    • 4) Bone moves.
    • 5) Bones are attached to other bones by ligaments.
  • 344. 11.2.2 Draw a diagram of the human elbow joint.
    • Identify: cartilage, synovial fluid, tendons, ligaments, radius, ulna, bicep, tricep.
  • 345. 11.2.3 Outline the function of each of the structures named in the elbow joint.
    • Cartilage and synovial fluid- cushion against friction.
    • Tendons - connect bone to muscle.
    • Ligaments - connect bone to bone.
    • Humerous - connected to bicep and tricep muscle.
    • Radius/Ulna - help rotate forearm.
    • Bicep/Tricep - help lift and lower forearm.
  • 346. 11.2.4 Compare the movements of the hip joint and the knee joint.
    • Hip joint- flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction.
    • Knee joint- flexion, extension.
  • 347. 11.2.5 Describe the structure of striated muscle fibers.
    • Myofibrils - bundled muscle filaments
    • Light bands- primarily actin filaments
    • Dark bands- protein discs found between sarcomeres
    • Mitochondria - provide energy for contraction.
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum- similar to smooth ER with large stores of calcium.
    • Nuclei- fibers are multinucleated.
    • Sarcolemma- membrane surrounding muscle fiber
  • 348. 11.2.6 Draw the structure of skeletal muscle fibers as seen in electron micrographs.
    • Identify: sarcomere, light and dark bands, actin (thin) filaments, myosin (thick) filaments, sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  • 349. 11.2.7 Explain how skeletal muscle contracts by the sliding of filaments.
    • 1) Calcum ions flood sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    • 2) Myosin binds to ATP -> ADP +P -> Myosin in high energy configuration (SET).
    • 3) Actin/myosin cross-bridge forms.
    • 4) Myosin releases ADP + P -> relaxes to low energy state, cross bridge moves actin filament.
    • 5) Myosin binds to new ATP -> releases cross-bridge.
    • 6) ATP -> ADP + P -> Myosin back in high energy configuration.
  • 350. 11.2.8 Analyze electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibers.
  • 351. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.3 The Kidney
  • 352. 11.3.1 Define Excretion.
    • Excretion- the removal from the body of the waste products of metabolic pathways
  • 353. 11.3.2 Draw and label a diagram of the kidney.
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
    • Pelvis
    • Ureter
    • Renal blood vessels
  • 354. 11.3.3 Annotate a diagram of a glomerulus and associated nephron to show the function of each part.
  • 355. 11.3.4 Explain the process of ultrafiltration.
    • Ultrafiltration- Blood pressure from the pumping heart forces fluid and materials out of the glomerulus (across a semi- permeable membrane) into the nephron.
    • Fenestrated blood capillaries- are elastic in nature to help with ultrafiltration.
    • Basement membrane- thick, layer of negatively charges tissue which helps keep negatively charged particles from crossing into the nephron.
  • 356. 11.3.5 Define osmoregulation .
    • Osmoregulation - the control of the water balance of the blood, tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism. An inability to osmoregulate may result in edema.
  • 357. 11.3.6 Explain the reabsorption of glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule.
      • Reabsorption- water and solutes which have been removed from the blood from ultrafiltration are moved back into the blood. Reabsorption involves:Microvilli- increase surface area to help facilitate reabsorption
      • Osmosis- water is diverted back into the blood due to a concentration gradient.
      • Active transport- some solutes are actively transported back into the blood.
  • 358. 11.3.7 Explain the roles of the loop of Henle, medulla, collecting duct and ADH in maintaining water balance of the blood.
    • The primary role of the Loop of Henle is to reabsorb water. Water leaves the descending loop due to a concentration gradient, sodium leaves the ascending side due to active transport.
    • ADH= antidiuretic hormone.
      • ADH increase = more water reabsorbed.
      • ADH decrease = more water released in urine.
    • Collecting duct- funnels water into the ureter for excretion
  • 359. 11.3.8 Explain the differences in the concentration of proteins, glucose and urea between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine.
    • The flow sequence is:
    • blood plasma -> glomerular filtrate -> urine
    • As fluid progresses through the renal system, nitrogenous waste (urea) moves into the filtrate and is eliminated through the urine. Glucose also moves into the filtrate but is reabsorbed back into the blood. Large proteins remain in the blood plasma, and are not moved into the glomerular filtrate.
  • 360. 11.3.9 Explain the presence of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetic patients.
    • A diabetic’s inability metabolize glucose can result in hyperglycemia.
    • Elevated levels of glucose in the blood will move into the glomerular filtrate, but will not be reabsorbed back into the blood. Instead, excess glucose will be found in the urine.
    Cross section of human ureter
  • 361. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.6 Reproduction
  • 362. 6.6.1a Draw and label diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive systems.
    • Locate the following:
      • penis
      • urethra
      • testis
      • epididymis
      • scrotum
      • vas deferens
      • bladder
      • seminal vesicle
      • cowper’s gland
      • prostate gland
      • anus
  • 363. 6.6.1b Draw diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive systems.
  • 364. 6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle.
    • Estrogen- promotes secondary sexual characteristics, thickens uterine lining.
    • FSH- stimulates development of follicle
    • LH- stimulates the release of egg from follicles
    • Progesterone- maintains thickening of uterine lining.
  • 365. 6.6.3 Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle.
  • 366. 6.6.4 List three roles of testosterone in males.
    • 1) Development of secondary sexual characteristics.
    • 2) Enlargement of organs such as heart and lungs.
    • 3) Plays a role in the masculinization of the brain in a male fetus.
    Testosterone
  • 367. 6.6.5 Outline the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
    • 1) ovarian stimulation
    • 2) oocyte (egg) retrieval
    • 3) in vitro fertilization
    • 4) embryo transfer into uterus
  • 368. 6.6.6 Discuss the ethical issues of IVF .
    • 1) gender selection : ability to implant embryos of only one gender.
    • 2) frozen embryos : what happens to those which are not used? Who has custody?
  • 369. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.4 Reproduction
  • 370. 11.4.1 Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial (Leydig) cells, germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.
  • 371. 11.4.2 Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testes.
    • 1) mitosis
    • 2) cell growth
    • 2) two cell divisions
    • 3) cell differentiation
  • 372. 11.4.3 State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis.
    • FSH- secreted by the pituitary gland, facilitates spermatogenesis
    • LH- secreted by the pituitary gland, facilitates development of interstitial cells. The interstitial cells then secrete testosterone.
    • Testosterone- secreted by the testes, facilitates spermatogenesis.
  • 373. 11.4.4 Annotate a diagram of the ovary to show the location and function of germinal epithelium, primary follicles, mature follice and secondary oocyte.
    • Identify- developing oocytes, Graafian follicle, primary oocyte, zona pellucida.
  • 374. 11.4.5 Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary
    • 1) mitosis
    • 2) cell growth
    • 3) two divisions of meiosis
    • 4) unequal division of cytoplasm
    • 5) degeneration of polar body
  • 375. 11.4.6 Draw and label a diagram of a mature sperm and egg.
  • 376. 11.4.7 Outline the role of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in the production of semen.
    • Epididymis- an area above the testicle where sperm is stored until ejaculation.
    • Seminal vesicle- gland that contributes most of the fluid volume of semen (about 70%).
    • Prostate gland- also contributes to seminal fluid (about 10-30%).
  • 377. 11.4.8 Compare the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
    • Number of viable gametes formed from one stem cell:
    • spermatogenesis4
    • oogenesis 1
    • Timing and formation of gametes:
    • spermatogenesis- development of sperm is continuous from puberty onward.
    • oogenesis- development occurs in a monthly cycle, beginning with puberty and ending with menopause.
  • 378. 11.4.9 Describe the process of fertilization.
    • 1) acrosome reaction- acrosome releases enzymes which digest the surrounding layer of the egg.
    • 2) penetration of egg membrane by sperm
    • 3) cortical reaction- cortical granules are secreted by the egg via exocytosis, rendering the egg impermeable to future sperm.
  • 379. 11.4.10 Outline the role of human chorionic gonadoprophin (HCG) in early pregnancy
    • HCG is secreted by the embryo during early pregnancy. HCG helps signals the corpus luteum to stay active by continuing to secrete progesterone, which maintains the pregnancy.
  • 380. 11.4.11 Outline early embryo development up to the implantation of the blastocyst .
  • 381. 11.4.12 Explain how the structure and functions of the placenta, including it’s hormonal role in secretion of estrogen and progesterone, maintain pregnancy.
    • The placenta’s primary purpose is to bridge the blood supply between mother and fetus.
    • Secretion of progesterone helps maintain the uterine lining and placenta.
    • Secretion of estrogen inhibits the development of new follicles.
  • 382. 11.4.13 State that the fetus is supported and protected by the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid.
  • 383. 11.14.14 State that materials are exchanged between maternal and fetal blood in the placenta.
  • 384. 11.4.15 Outline the process of birth and its hormonal control .
    • Reduction in the level of progesterone results in the release of oxytocin . Oxytocin causes uterine contractions that trigger further release of oxytocin. In this way, the contractions get stronger and more rapid. This is an example of positive feedback.
  • 385. Unit 9: Plant Science Lesson 9.1 Plant Structure and Growth
  • 386. 9.1.1 Draw and label plant diagrams to show the distribution of tissues in the stem and leaf of a dicotyledonous plant.
  • 387. 9.1.2 Outline three differences between the structures of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants.
    • Dicot
    • Flowers in groups of four or five
    • Seeds have two cotyledons
    • Leaves have reticulate venation
    • Monocot
    • Flowers in groups of three
    • Seeds have one cotyledon
    • Leaves have parallel venation
  • 388. 9.1.3 Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and the functions of these tissues.
    • Absorption of light- palisade mesophyll at top of leaf.
    • Gas exchange- spongy mesophyll in lower portion of leaf near stomata.
    • Support- dense, structural tissue.
    • Water conservation- regulated by stomata.
    • Transport of water- through the xylem.
    • Products of photosynthesis- transported through the phloem.
  • 389. 9.1.4 Identify modifications of roots, stems and leaves for different functions.
    • Bulb - modified leaf used for food storage.
    • Stem tuber- thickened rhizome or stolon used to store nutrients.
    • Storage root- modified root used for food storage.
    • Tendril - modified stem, leaf or petiole used by climbing plants for support and attachment.
  • 390. 9.1.5 State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems.
  • 391. 9.1.6 Compare the growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants.
    • Meristematic tissue generates new cells for growth of the plant.
    • Apical (terminal) meristems are found in roots and shoots, and facilitate vertical growth.
    • Lateral meristems facilitate horizontal growth,
  • 392. 9.1.7 Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth.
    • Auxin is a plant hormone which elongates cells. When a plant is exposed to a light source, the auxin migrates away from the source. In this way, the side of the plant farther from the light elongates, bending the plant toward the light source.
  • 393. Unit 9: Plant Science Lesson 9.2 Transport in Angiospermophytes
  • 394. 9.2.1 Explain how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake.
    • Branching- increases overall surface area
    • Root hairs- increases surface area of individual roots
    • Cortex cell walls- facilitates absorption.
  • 395. 9.2.2 List ways in which mineral ions in the soil move to the root.
    • 1) Diffusion of mineral ions.
    • 2) Fungal hyphae (in a mutualistic relationship)
    • 3) Mass flow of water in the soil carrying ions.
  • 396. 9.2.3 Explain the process of mineral ion absorption from soil into roots by active transport.
    • Integral proteins transport minerals from the soil into roots through active transport. One the minerals have crossed over into the plants, they attract water through a concentration gradient.
  • 397. 9.2.4 State that terrestrial plants support themselves by means of thickened cellulose, cell turgor and xylem.
  • 398. 9.2.5 Define transpiration .
    • Transpiration- the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems of plants.
  • 399. 9.2.6 Explain how water is carried by the transpiration stream.
    • Xylem vessel structure- dead, empty cells with no cytoplasm.
    • Transpiration pull- a vacuum is created by the evaporation of water from the stomata of the leaves. The water column moves up to fill the vacuum.
    • Cohesion - the hydrogen bonding in water causes it to ‘stick’ to itself.
    • Evaporation - works with transpiration as described above.
  • 400. 9.2.7 State that guard cells can open and close stomata to regulate transpiration.
  • 401. 9.2.8 State that the plant hormone abscisic acid causes the closing of stomata.
  • 402. 9.2.9 Explain how the abiotic factors, light, temperature wind and humidity affect the rate of transpiration in a typical terrestrial mesophytic plant.
    • Direct relationship :
      • ↑ light = ↑ rate
      • ↑ temperature = ↑ rate
      • ↑ wind = ↑ rate
    • Inverse relationship :
      • ↑ humidity = ↓ rate
  • 403. 9.2.10 Outline four adaptations of xerophytes that help to reduce transpiration.
    • Reduced leaves and spines
    • Deep roots
    • Thickened, waxy cuticles
    • Reduced number of stomata
  • 404. 9.2.11 Outline the role of phloem in active translocation of sugar and amino acids.
    • The phloem transports the products of photosynthesis, primarily sugar. Movement is from source (leaves) to sink (fruits, seeds, roots).
  • 405. Unit 9: Plant Science Lesson 9.3 Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • 406. 9.3.1 Draw and label a structure of a dicotyledonous animal-pollinated flower.
    • Identify : sepal, petal, anther, filament, stigma, style, ovary.
  • 407. 9.3.2 Distinguish between pollination , fertilization and seed dispersal .
    • Pollination- the transfer of male gametes (pollen) from anther to stigma.
    • Fertilization- the fusion of pollen with a female gamete. Pollination does not always lead to fertilization.
    • Seed Dispersal- once fertilized, the fused ovule develops into a seed. This is then contained in a fruit, which facilitates seed dispersal.
  • 408. 9.3.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the external and internal structure of a named dicotyledonous seed (non-endospermatic).
    • Identify:
      • Testa
      • Micropyle
      • Embryo root
      • Embryo shoot
      • Cotyledon
  • 409. 9.3.4 Explain the conditions needed for the germination of a typical seed.
    • Hydration - seeds need to absorb water to initiate the germination process.
    • Temperature/pH- optimum temperature and pH ranges contribute to the probability of germination.
    • Note: Light requirements (or the lack of light) vary among seeds, and are difficult to generalize.
  • 410. 9.3.5 Outline the metabolic processes of germination in a typical starchy seed.
    • Absorption of water precedes the formation of gibberellin in the cotyledon. This stimulates the production of amylase, which catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose. This subsequently diffuses to the embryo for energy production and growth.
  • 411. 9.3.6 Explain how flowering is controlled in long-day and short-day plants, including the role of phytochrome.
    • Phytochrome - a plant protein which detects the length of daylight, and in turn, can trigger flowering based seasonal changes of light.
    • Long Day Plant- will not flower unless daylight hours extend past a certain number of hours.
    • Short Day Plant- will not flower unless daylight hours are capped below a certain minium.
  • 412. Unit 5: Ecology and Evolution Lesson 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
  • 413. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
    • Ecology—the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment.
    • Ecosystem—a community and its abiotic environment.
    • Population—a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.
    • Community—a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
    • Habitat—the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
    • Species—a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  • 414. 5.1.2a Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph.
    • autotroph (producer) – an organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from inorganic substances
    • Examples: trees, plants, algae, blue-green bacteria
  • 415. 5.1.2b Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph. heterotroph (consumer) – an organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms Three Types: consumers detritivore saprotroph
  • 416. 5.1.3 Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs .
    • Consumer - obtain nutrients from other living organisms
      • Decomposer – obtain nutrients from dead organic matter.
      • Detritivore - ingests organic matter and then breaks it down, eg. earthworms, vultures.
      • Saprotroph- secretes enzymes externally and then absorbs broken down products, eg. mushrooms, bacteria.
  • 417. 5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain giving three examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms).
    • Food chains illustrate feeding relationships between members of a community.
    • One food chain in this picture is: plankton -> fish -> seagull -> eagle
    • What other food chains do you observe in this picture?
  • 418. 5.1.5 Describe what is meant by a food web.
    • Food webs, like food chains, show the feeding relationships between community members. Food webs are non-linear and branching.
  • 419. 5.1.6 Define trophic level .
    • Trophic level- the level of the food chain at
      • which an organism is found. The hierarchal levels are shown below:
    • producer -> primary consumer -> secondary consumer -> tertiary consumer
  • 420. 5.1.7 Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food web.
    • Photosynthetic organisms are always producers. With each arrow, consumers move one generation away from the producer, eg. primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer. When consumers (and producers) die they are decomposed, and their nutrients recycled.
  • 421. 5.1.8 Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, given appropriate information.
  • 422. 5.1.9 State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities .
  • 423. 5.1.10 Explain the energy flow in a food chain.
    • Energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated, and heat loss through cell respiration.
  • 424. 5.1.11 State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient.
    • When energy transformations take place, including those in living organisms, the process is never 100% efficient. Commonly, it is between 10-20%.
  • 425. 5.1.12 Explain what is meant by a pyramid of energy and the reasons for its shape.
    • A pyramid of energy shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. The units of pyramids of energy are therefore energy per unit area per unit time, eg: Jm-2yr-1
  • 426. 5.1.13 Explain that energy can enter and leave an ecosystem, but that nutrients must be recycled.
  • 427. 5.1.14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients.
    • During metabolism, living organisms build organic macromolecules in the form or polymers. Saprotrophs break down these polymers into monomers, so that they can be customized into new, specific polymers beneficial to the next organism which ingests them.
  • 428. Unit 5: Ecology and Evolution Lesson 5.2 The Greenhouse Effect.
  • 429. 5.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the carbon cycle to show the processes involved .
  • 430. 5.2.2 Analyze the changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical records.
  • 431. 5.2.3 Explain the relationship between rises in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen and the enhanced green house effect.
    • Greenhouse gases help retain atmospheric heat generated from solar radiation. As man made behaviors (deforestation, burning of fossil fuels) increase greenhouse gas levels, the warming effect is amplified beyond what occurs in the natural cycle.
  • 432. 5.2.4 Outline the Precautionary Principle
    • If an action is potentially catastrophic, the burden of proof falls upon the advocates of such action to prove that the catastrophe won’t occur before such action is implemented.
  • 433. 5.2.5 Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for strong action in response to threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effect.
    • Consider whether the economic harm of measures taken now to limit global warming could be balanced against the potentially much greater harm for future generations of taking no action now?
    • What are your thoughts?
  • 434. 5.2.6 Outline the consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems.
    • Melting of ice shelves, resulting in a global rise in sea level
    • Disruption arctic food chains with potential species extinction.
    • Release of carbon from organic matter in previously frozen soil.
  • 435. Unit 5: Ecology and Evolution Lesson 5.3 Populations
  • 436. 5.3.1 Outline how a population size can be affected by natality, immigration, mortality and emigration .
    • Natality- birth rate.
    • Mortality - death rate.
    • I mmigration - # members moving in.
    • Emigration- # members moving out.
      • Population change =
      • (natality + immigration) – (mortality + emigration)
  • 437. 5.3.2 Draw and label a graph showing the sigmoid (S-shaped) population growth curve. http://www.ibguides.com/images/biology/5.3.1.png
  • 438. 5.3.3 Explain reasons for the exponential growth phase, the plateau phase and the transitional phase between the two.
    • Exponential phase :
    • Rapid increase in population growth.
    • Natality rate exceeds mortality rate.
    • Abundant resources available. (food, water, shelter)
    • Diseases and predators are rare .
  • 439.
    • Transitional phase :
    • Natality rate starts to fall and/or mortality rate starts to rise.
    • There is a decrease in the number of resources.
    • An increase in the number of predators and diseases.
    • Population still increasing but at a slower rate.
  • 440.
    • Plateau phase:
    • No more population growth, population size is constant. 
    • Natality rate is equal to mortality rate.
    • The population has reached the carrying capacity of the environment. 
    • The limited resources and the common predators and diseases keep the population numbers constant.  
  • 441. 5.3.4 List three factors which set limits to population increase.
  • 442. Option G: Ecology and conservation G1 Community ecology
  • 443. G 1.1 Outline the factors that affect the distribution of plant species, including temperature, water, light, soil pH, salinity and mineral nutrients.
  • 444. G 1.2a Explain the factors that affect the distribution of animal species, including temperature, water, breeding sites, food supply and territory.
  • 445. G 1.2b Explain the factors that affect the distribution of animal species, including temperature, water, breeding sites, food supply and territory.
  • 446. G 1.3 Describe one method of random sampling, based on quadrat methods, that is used to compare the population size of two plant or two animal species.
  • 447. G 1.4 Outline the use of a transect to correlate the distribution of plant or animal species with an abiotic variable
    • Distribution of Organisms:
      • quadrants are distributed equal distance from each other.
      • The species of interest are identified and counted.
      • The abiotic factor being investigated is measured.
      • Pattern of distribution is determined based upon data .
  • 448. G 1. 5 Explain what is meant by the niche concept, including an organism’s spatial habitat, its feeding activities and its interactions with other species.
    • Niche Concept :
    • What?: Organism’s role in the ecosystem
      • Who?: Interactions with other organisms
        • Competition
        • Predation
        • Mutualism
      • Where?: Spatial habitat is the area inhabited by the organism and how it affects it.
      • Why? Presence of organisms keep populations in check by their feeding activities .
  • 449. G 1.6 Outline the following interactions between species, giving two examples of each: competition, herbivory, predation, parasitism and mutualism.
  • 450. Predation : A consumer (+) eats another consumer(-). Each population size affects the other. Competition: Two species rely on the same limited resource. (-,-)
  • 451. Mutualism : Both organisms benefit from the relationship. (+,+) Parasitism: Organism (+) that lives in or on another organism or host (-)
  • 452. G 1.7a Explain the principle of competitive exclusion.
    • The principle that when two species compete for the same critical resources within an environment
      • one of them will eventually outcompete and displace the other
        • the displaced species may become locally extinct, by either migration or death, or it may adapt to a sufficiently distinct niche within the environment so that it continues to coexist noncompetitively with the displacing species
  • 453. G 1.7a Explain the principle of competitive exclusion.
  • 454. G 1.8 Distinguish between fundamental and realized niches.
  • 455. growth rate Location in intertidal zone low high middle Chthamalus alone Balanus alone Fundamental Niche- where an organism is able to inhabit WITHOUT competition. Removal experiments – remove each species and see where the other grows Balanus fundamental niche Chthamalus fundamental niche
  • 456. growth rate Location in intertidal zone low high middle Realized Niche- where an organism is able to inhabit WITH competition. Where do they grow when allowed to compete? Balanus realized niche Chthamalus realized niche Balanus and Chthamalus
  • 457. G 1.9 Define biomass .
    • The total dry mass of organic matter in an ecosystem.
  • 458. G 1.10 Describe one method for the measurement of biomass of different trophic levels in an ecosystem.
  • 459. Option G: Ecology and conservation G2 Ecosystems and biomes
  • 460. G 2.1 Define gross production , net production and biomass
  • 461. G 2.2 Calculate values for gross production and net production using the equation: gross production – respiration = net production.
  • 462. G 2.3 Discuss the difficulties of classifying organisms into trophic levels.
  • 463. G 2.4 Explain the small biomass and low numbers of organisms in higher trophic levels.
  • 464. G 2.5 Construct a pyramid of energy, given appropriate information. RULE OF 10
  • 465. G 2.6 Distinguish between primary and secondary succession, using an example of each
    • Primary Succession
    • Secondary Succession
    Click for explanation
  • 466. G 2.7 Outline the changes in species diversity and production during primary succession.
  • 467. G 2.8 Explain the effects of living organisms on the abiotic environment, with reference to the changes occurring during primary succession .
  • 468. G 2.9 Distinguish between biome and biosphere .
  • 469. G 2.10 Explain how rainfall and temperature affect the distribution of biomes.
  • 470. G 2.11 Outline the characteristics of six major biomes.
  • 471. Option G: Ecology and conservation G3 Impacts of humans on ecosystems
  • 472. G 3.1 Calculate the Simpson diversity index for two local communities.
  • 473. G 3.2 Analyze the biodiversity of the two local communities using the Simpson index.
  • 474. G 3.3 Discuss reasons for the conservation of biodiversity using rainforests as an example
  • 475. G 3.4 List three examples of the introduction of alien species that have had significant impacts on ecosystems.
    • Purple loosestrife :
    • a highly aggressive plant invader of wetlands, can produce up to 2.7 million seeds per plant yearly, and spreads across approximately 480,000 additional hectares of wetlands each year. Ecosystem upset, since local fauna does not eat the plant.
    • (OUT COMPETE NATIVE SPECIES)
  • 476.
    • The brown tree snake: an invasive originating in the South Pacific and Australia, has extirpated 10 of 13 native bird species, 6 of 12 native lizard species, and 2 of 3 bat species on the island of Guam.
    • (PREDATION)
  • 477.
    • The fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi , the pathogen that causes Dutch elm disease , and the  bark beetle , which carries the pathogen, were both introduced to the United States from Europe on infected wood. The combination of these two organisms has caused the destruction of millions of elm trees (EXTINCTION)
  • 478. G 3.5 Discuss the impacts of alien species on ecosystems.
  • 479. G 3.6 Outline one example of biological control of invasive species.
    • Sometimes introducing a natural enemy from the native range of the introduced pest can be effective.
    • Prickly pear cactus that invaded Australia from the Americas has been effectively controlled by introducing a moth from South America whose caterpillar feeds on the cactus.
    • Moth larva threatens native cactus species
  • 480. G 3.7 Define biomagnification .
    • Biomagnification is the process whereby the tissue concentrations of a contaminant increase as it passes up the food chain through two or more trophic levels
  • 481. G 3.8 Explain the cause and consequences of biomagnification, using a named example.
  • 482. G 3.9 Outline the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on living tissues and biological productivity.
  • 483. G 3.10 Outline the effect of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the ozone layer.
  • 484. G 3.11 State that ozone in the stratosphere absorbs UV radiation.
  • 485. Option G: Ecology and conservation G4 Conservation of biodiversity
  • 486. G 4.1 Explain the use of biotic indices and indicator species in monitoring environmental change.
    • Indicator species are plants and animals that, by their presence, abundance, lack of abundance, or chemical composition, demonstrate some distinctive aspect of the character or quality of an environment.
    Studies in the United States show declines in spotted owls are matched by declines in other fragile species such as salamanders, frogs, some plants and other predators.
  • 487. G 4.2 Outline the factors that contributed to the extinction of one named animal species. Climate Change Retreating Glaciers/Warmer Temp. WOOLY MAMMOTH Loss of Habitat Forests outcompeted mammoth’s shrub food. Humans Inhabit newly exposed land in now favorable climate Over Hunting by humans
  • 488. G 4.3 Outline the biogeographical features of nature reserves that promote the conservation of diversity.
    • Determination of Size-
      • Single Large Site
        • Larger populations
    • Edge Effect
      • Smaller area on the “edge”
        • Higher risk of predators,
        • greater competition and
        • invasive species
    • Corridors
      • Connect isolated habitats.
        • Allows for travel between habitats.
  • 489. G 4.4 Discuss the role of active management techniques in conservation.
    • When humans intervene in the conservation of an area to restore areas and protect native species.
  • 490. G 4.5 Discuss the advantages of in situ conservation of endangered species (terrestrial and aquatic nature reserves).
  • 491. G 4.6 Outline the use of ex situ conservation measures, including captive breeding of animals, botanic gardens and seed banks.
  • 492. Option G: Ecology and conservation G5 Population ecology
  • 493. G 5.1 Distinguish between r-strategies and K-strategies .
  • 494. G 5.2 Discuss the environmental conditions that favor either r-strategies or K-strategies.
  • 495. G 5.3 Describe one technique used to estimate the population size of an animal species based on a capture–mark–release–recapture method.
  • 496. G 5.4 Describe the methods used to estimate the size of commercial fish stocks.
    • Study catches :
      • Species/Age/Length/Breeding Conditions
    • Information from Fishers :
      • Number and kinds of fish thrown back.
      • Tag and release
      • Perception of catch
    • Research Vessels :
      • Trawling assessing random samples.
      • Echolocation to monitor populations
  • 497. G 5.5 Outline the concept of maximum sustainable yield in the conservation of fish stocks . OVER FISHING CONSERVATION
  • 498. G 5.6 Discuss international measures that would promote the conservation of fish.