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  • 1. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.1 Digestion
  • 2. 6.1.1 Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.
    • Large food molecules are polymers, which must be broken down into monomers (via hydrolysis) in order to be absorbed into the blood.
  • 3. 6.1.2 Explain the need for enzymes in digestion.
    • Enzymes speed up the rate at which polymers are broken down into monomers.
  • 4. 6.1.3 State the source, substrate, product and optimum pH conditions for one amylase, one protease and one lipase.
  • 5. 6.1.4 Draw and label a diagram of the digestive system.
    • Locate: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus, liver, pancreas, gall bladder.
  • 6. 6.1.5 Outline the function of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
    • Stomach - primary site for protein digestion.
    • Small intestine- primary site for nutrient absorption.
    • Large intestine- water used in the digestive process is reabsorbed back into the body .
  • 7. 6.1.6 Distinguish between absorption and assimilation.
    • Absorption- the transfer of nutrients from the digestive tract into the blood stream, usually through villi in the small intestine.
    • Assimilation- uptake of nutrients from blood stream into body tissue. Occurs after absorption.
  • 8. 6.1.7 Explain how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption of the end products of digestion.
    • Villi have a large surface area, gated ion channels, and are dense in mitochondria, which provide energy for the active transport of nutrients.
  • 9. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.2 The Transport System
  • 10. 6.2.1 Draw a diagram of the heart showing all four chambers, associated blood vessels and valves.
    • Note that the left side is actually thicker than the right side. The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, whereas the right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • 11. 6.2.2 State that the coronary arteries supply heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients.
  • 12. 6.2.3 Explain the action of the heart in terms of collecting blood, pumping blood, and opening and closing of valves.
    • Atria- collect blood into heart
    • Ventricles- send blood out of the heart.
    • The direction of flow is controlled by atrio- ventricular and semilunar valves. When open, blood flows from the atrium to the ventricle. When closed, blood remains in the atrium.
  • 13. 6.2.4 Outline the control of the heartbeat in terms of myogenic muscle contraction, the pacemaker, nerves, the medulla of the brain and adrenalin .
    • Myogenic- a term meaning the heart beats “of its own accord”. The signal for each heartbeat originates from the heart itself, not from the brain, through the SA node.
    • The medulla of the brain does regulate heart rate, using nerves and hormones to speed it up (adrenaline) and slow it down.
  • 14. 6.2.5 Explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins.
    • Arteries - generally move blood away from the heart. Have thick walls but no interior valves.
    • Veins - generally move blood toward the heart. Have thinner walls and interior valves to prevent backflow.
    • Capillaries - bridges between arteries and veins. Capillary tissue is only 1 cell width thick, enabling diffusion in and out of the vessels.
  • 15. 6.2.6 State that blood is composed of plasma, erythrocytes, leucocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) and platelets.
    • Plasma - fluid portion of blood
    • Erythrocytes- red blood cells.
    • Leucocytes- white blood cells
      • Phagocytes - engulf and ingest antigens
      • L ymphocytes - produce antibodies
    • Platelets - aid in blood clotting
  • 16. 6.2.7 State that the following are transported by the blood: nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, antibodies and urea. Blood transport in a human body
  • 17. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.4 Gas Exchange
  • 18. 6.4.1 Distinguish between ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration.
    • Ventilation - the movement of air into and out of the lungs from muscular contractions of the rib cage and diaphram. Ventilation leads to…
    • Gas exchange- the transfer of gas between alveoli and capillaries in the lung due to concentration gradients. Gas exchange leads to…
    • Cell respiration- the harvesting of glucose to convert ADPATP. Cell respiration occurs in the cellular tissue.
  • 19. 6.4.2 Explain the need for a ventilation system.
    • A ventilation system is needed to maintain concentration gradients in the alveoli.
  • 20. 6.4.3 Describe the features of alveoli that adapt them to gas exchange.
    • 1) large total surface area
    • 2) a wall consisting of a single layer of flattened cells
    • 3) moist lining
    • 4) dense network of capillaries
  • 21. 6.4.4 Draw a diagram of the ventilation system including trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs.
  • 22. 6.4.5 Explain the mechanism of ventilation in human lungs.
      • I nhalation
        • External intercostal muscles- contract
        • Internal intercostal muscles- relax
        • Diaphram- contracts
        • (positive) Pressure decreases
        • Volume increases
      • Exhalation
        • External intercostal muscles- relax
        • Internal intercostal muscles- contract
        • Diaphram- relax
        • (positive) Pressure increases
        • Volume decreases
  • 23. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.3 Defense Against Infectious Disease
  • 24. 6.3.1 Define pathogen .
    • Pathogen- an organism or virus that causes a disease.
  • 25. 6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not viruses.
    • Antibiotics block metabolic pathways found in bacteria, but not in eukaryotic cells. Viruses reproduce using the metabolic pathways of the host cell and are not affected by antibiotics.
  • 26. 6.3.3 Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defense against pathogens.
    • The skin is a physical, waterproof barrier to pathogens. Mucus is continually secreted by mucous membranes, which flush out pathogens from openings into the body.
  • 27. 6.3.4 Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
    • Phagocytes engulf pathogens which have managed to cross the bodies barriers and penetrated into tissue.
  • 28. 6.3.5 Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
    • Antigen- a molecule considered foreign by the body’s immune system.
    • Antibody- a globular protein manufactured by the immune system which recognizes and targets a specific antigen
  • 29. 6.3.6 Explain antibody production.
    • Many different types of lymphocytes exist. Each type recognizes one specific antigen and responds, upon encountering such antigen, by dividing rapidy to form clones. The clones then secrete specific antibodies against the antigen
  • 30. 6.3.7 Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system.
    • HIV destroys cd-4
    • T-cells, which impairs the body’s ability to fight pathogens.
  • 31. 6.3.8 Describe the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS.
    • Cause - RNA based virus which attacks human CD-4 T cells.
    • Transmission : through sexual contact and blood.
    • Social Implications : was first stigmatized as a “gay” disease, although currently more heterosexuals worldwide are affected than homosexuals. In sub-saharan Africa (as well as several other locations), AIDS has reached crisis epidemic proportions.
  • 32. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.1 Defense Against Infectious Disease
  • 33. 11.1.1 Describe the process of clotting.
    • 1) Platelets and damaged cells release clotting factors.
    • 2) Prothrombinthrombin
    • 3) Fibrinogenfibrin, which captures red blood cells.
  • 34. 11.1.2 Outline the principle of challenge and response, clonal selection and memory cells as the basis of immunity.
  • 35. 11.1.3 Define active immunity and passive immunity.
    • Active immunity- immunity due to the production of antibodies by the organism itself after the body’s defense mechanisms have been stimulated by invasion of foreign microorganisms.
    • Passive immunity- immunity due to the acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active immunity has been stimulated, including via placenta or in the colostrum.
  • 36. 11.1.4 Explain antibody production.
    • 1) Macrophage presents antigen to helper T cell
    • 2) Helper T cell activates B cell
    • 3) B cells divide to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells, which secrete antibodies.
    • Plasma cells- fight the pathogen immediately.
    • Memory cells- stay in body, armed and ready if the pathogen appears in again in the future
  • 37. 11.1.5 Describe the production of monoclonal antibodies, and include one use in diagnosis and one use in treatment.
    • Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing cancerous tumor cells with B-cells. This hybrid cell then proliferates and produces antibodies in perpetuity.
    • Diagnosis- used to detect HIV in the blood stream, as well as HCG in pregnancy tests.
    • Treatment- emergency treatment of rabies, blood and tissue typing for transplants
  • 38. 11.1.6 Explain the principle of vaccination.
    • A vaccine introduces the disabled pathogen in some for to the body, stimulating an immune response. Memory cells are created and circulate in the body, in case the real pathogen ever shows up.
  • 39. 11.1.7 Discuss the benefits and dangers of vaccination.
    • Benefits: total elimination of diseases, prevention of pandemics and epidemics, decreaded health-care costs and prevention of harmful side-effects of disease.
    • Dangers : possible toxic effects of mercury in vaccines, possible overload of immune system, possible links with autism
  • 40. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis.
  • 41. 6.5.1 State that the nervous system consists of the CNS, PNS and cell called neurons that can carry rapid electrical impulses.
    • CNS = Central Nervous System: (brain and spinal cord)
    • PNS = Peripheral Nervous System .
  • 42. 6.5.2 Draw and label a diagram of the structure of a motor neuron.
    • Show dendrites, cell body with nucleus, elongated axon, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier and motor end plates.
  • 43. 6.5.3 State that nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to the CNS by sensory neurons, and from the CNS to effectors by motor neurons
  • 44. 6.5.4 Define resting potential and action potential .
    • Resting potential- the difference in charge between the inside and outside of a neuron when an electrical impulse is not being propagated. Usually about -70 mv.
    • Action potential- the reversal and restoration of an electrical difference between the inside and outside of a nerve cell during propagation of an impulse.
  • 45. 6.5.5 Explain how a nerve impulse passes along a non-myelinated neuron (axon).
    • Na + ions- upon stimulation, Na + ion channels open and Na+ rushes into the cell.
    • K + ions- Shortly after Na + rushes in, K + ion channels open and K + rushes out of the cell.
    • Voltage gated ion channels- control when ions cross the membrane.
    • Active transport- restores Na + and K + to their original place, via the sodium/potassium pump.
    • Changes in membrane polarization- happen in sequence, starting with stimulation of the sensory nerve
  • 46. 6.5.6 Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.
    • Ca + influx
    • Release, diffusion and binding of the neurotransmitter
    • Depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane
    • Subsequent removal of neurotransmitter
  • 47. 6.5.7 State that the endocrine system consists of glands which release hormones that are transported in the blood. Epinephrine- released by the adrenal glands
  • 48. 6.5.8 State that homeostasis involves maintaining the internal environment at a constant level or between narrow limits.
      • Homeostatic Factors:1) blood pH
      • 2) oxygen and CO 2 concentrations
      • 3) blood glucose
      • 4) body temperature
      • 5) water balance
  • 49. 6.5.9 Explain that homeostasis involves monitoring levels of variables and correcting changes in levels by negative feedback mechanisms.
  • 50. 6.5.10 Explain the control of body temperature, including:
    • Blood - transfers heat between tissues of the body.
    • Hypothalamus - regulates with hormones.
    • Sweat glands/skin arterioles- release heat from body.
    • Shivering- generates heat in muscle tissue to warm body.
  • 51. 6.5.11 Explain the control of blood glucose concentration .
    • Glucagon - raises blood sugar by triggering the release of glycogen.
    • Insulin - lowers blood sugar.
    • Alpha islet cells- produce glucagon.
    • Beta islet cells- produce insulin.
    • Islet cells are located in the pancreas.
    • Glycogen is stored in the liver.
  • 52. 6.5.12 Distinguish between Type I and Type II Diabetes.
    • Type I Diabetes- often begins in childhood, caused by inability of beta islet cells to produce insulin. Most likely genetically caused.
    • Type II Diabetes- often has onset in adulthood, usually due to inefficient insulin secretion or decreased insulin sensitivity. May be due to obesity and other environmental factors.
  • 53. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.2 Muscles and Movement
  • 54. 11.2.1 State the role of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement.
    • 1) A nerve impulse reaches muscle.
    • 2) The impulse triggers muscle contraction.
    • 3) Muscles are attached to bone by tendon.
    • 4) Bone moves.
    • 5) Bones are attached to other bones by ligaments.
  • 55. 11.2.2 Draw a diagram of the human elbow joint.
    • Identify: cartilage, synovial fluid, tendons, ligaments, radius, ulna, bicep, tricep.
  • 56. 11.2.3 Outline the function of each of the structures named in the elbow joint.
    • Cartilage and synovial fluid- cushion against friction.
    • Tendons - connect bone to muscle.
    • Ligaments - connect bone to bone.
    • Humerous - connected to bicep and tricep muscle.
    • Radius/Ulna - help rotate forearm.
    • Bicep/Tricep - help lift and lower forearm.
  • 57. 11.2.4 Compare the movements of the hip joint and the knee joint.
    • Hip joint- flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction.
    • Knee joint- flexion, extension.
  • 58. 11.2.5 Describe the structure of striated muscle fibers.
    • Myofibrils - bundled muscle filaments
    • Light bands- primarily actin filaments
    • Dark bands- protein discs found between sarcomeres
    • Mitochondria - provide energy for contraction.
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum- similar to smooth ER with large stores of calcium.
    • Nuclei- fibers are multinucleated.
    • Sarcolemma- membrane surrounding muscle fiber
  • 59. 11.2.6 Draw the structure of skeletal muscle fibers as seen in electron micrographs.
    • Identify: sarcomere, light and dark bands, actin (thin) filaments, myosin (thick) filaments, sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  • 60. 11.2.7 Explain how skeletal muscle contracts by the sliding of filaments.
    • 1) Calcum ions flood sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    • 2) Myosin binds to ATP -> ADP +P -> Myosin in high energy configuration (SET).
    • 3) Actin/myosin cross-bridge forms.
    • 4) Myosin releases ADP + P -> relaxes to low energy state, cross bridge moves actin filament.
    • 5) Myosin binds to new ATP -> releases cross-bridge.
    • 6) ATP -> ADP + P -> Myosin back in high energy configuration.
  • 61. 11.2.8 Analyze electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibers.
  • 62. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.3 The Kidney
  • 63. 11.3.1 Define Excretion.
    • Excretion- the removal from the body of the waste products of metabolic pathways
  • 64. 11.3.2 Draw and label a diagram of the kidney.
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
    • Pelvis
    • Ureter
    • Renal blood vessels
  • 65. 11.3.3 Annotate a diagram of a glomerulus and associated nephron to show the function of each part.
  • 66. 11.3.4 Explain the process of ultrafiltration.
    • Ultrafiltration- Blood pressure from the pumping heart forces fluid and materials out of the glomerulus (across a semi- permeable membrane) into the nephron.
    • Fenestrated blood capillaries- are elastic in nature to help with ultrafiltration.
    • Basement membrane- thick, layer of negatively charges tissue which helps keep negatively charged particles from crossing into the nephron.
  • 67. 11.3.5 Define osmoregulation .
    • Osmoregulation - the control of the water balance of the blood, tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism. An inability to osmoregulate may result in edema.
  • 68. 11.3.6 Explain the reabsorption of glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule.
      • Reabsorption- water and solutes which have been removed from the blood from ultrafiltration are moved back into the blood. Reabsorption involves:Microvilli- increase surface area to help facilitate reabsorption
      • Osmosis- water is diverted back into the blood due to a concentration gradient.
      • Active transport- some solutes are actively transported back into the blood.
  • 69. 11.3.7 Explain the roles of the loop of Henle, medulla, collecting duct and ADH in maintaining water balance of the blood.
    • The primary role of the Loop of Henle is to reabsorb water. Water leaves the descending loop due to a concentration gradient, sodium leaves the ascending side due to active transport.
    • ADH= antidiuretic hormone.
      • ADH increase = more water reabsorbed.
      • ADH decrease = more water released in urine.
    • Collecting duct- funnels water into the ureter for excretion
  • 70. 11.3.8 Explain the differences in the concentration of proteins, glucose and urea between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine.
    • The flow sequence is:
    • blood plasma -> glomerular filtrate -> urine
    • As fluid progresses through the renal system, nitrogenous waste (urea) moves into the filtrate and is eliminated through the urine. Glucose also moves into the filtrate but is reabsorbed back into the blood. Large proteins remain in the blood plasma, and are not moved into the glomerular filtrate.
  • 71. 11.3.9 Explain the presence of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetic patients.
    • A diabetic’s inability metabolize glucose can result in hyperglycemia.
    • Elevated levels of glucose in the blood will move into the glomerular filtrate, but will not be reabsorbed back into the blood. Instead, excess glucose will be found in the urine.
    Cross section of human ureter
  • 72. Unit 6: Human Health And Physiology Lesson 6.6 Reproduction
  • 73. 6.6.1a Draw and label diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive systems.
    • Locate the following:
      • penis
      • urethra
      • testis
      • epididymis
      • scrotum
      • vas deferens
      • bladder
      • seminal vesicle
      • cowper’s gland
      • prostate gland
      • anus
  • 74. 6.6.1b Draw diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive systems.
  • 75. 6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle.
    • Estrogen- promotes secondary sexual characteristics, thickens uterine lining.
    • FSH- stimulates development of follicle
    • LH- stimulates the release of egg from follicles
    • Progesterone- maintains thickening of uterine lining.
  • 76. 6.6.3 Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle.
  • 77. 6.6.4 List three roles of testosterone in males.
    • 1) Development of secondary sexual characteristics.
    • 2) Enlargement of organs such as heart and lungs.
    • 3) Plays a role in the masculinization of the brain in a male fetus.
    Testosterone
  • 78. 6.6.5 Outline the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
    • 1) ovarian stimulation
    • 2) oocyte (egg) retrieval
    • 3) in vitro fertilization
    • 4) embryo transfer into uterus
  • 79. 6.6.6 Discuss the ethical issues of IVF .
    • 1) gender selection : ability to implant embryos of only one gender.
    • 2) frozen embryos : what happens to those which are not used? Who has custody?
  • 80. Unit 11: Human Health and Physiology Lesson 11.4 Reproduction
  • 81. 11.4.1 Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial (Leydig) cells, germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.
  • 82. 11.4.2 Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testes.
    • 1) mitosis
    • 2) cell growth
    • 2) two cell divisions
    • 3) cell differentiation
  • 83. 11.4.3 State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis.
    • FSH- secreted by the pituitary gland, facilitates spermatogenesis
    • LH- secreted by the pituitary gland, facilitates development of interstitial cells. The interstitial cells then secrete testosterone.
    • Testosterone- secreted by the testes, facilitates spermatogenesis.
  • 84. 11.4.4 Annotate a diagram of the ovary to show the location and function of germinal epithelium, primary follicles, mature follice and secondary oocyte.
    • Identify- developing oocytes, Graafian follicle, primary oocyte, zona pellucida.
  • 85. 11.4.5 Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary
    • 1) mitosis
    • 2) cell growth
    • 3) two divisions of meiosis
    • 4) unequal division of cytoplasm
    • 5) degeneration of polar body
  • 86. 11.4.6 Draw and label a diagram of a mature sperm and egg.
  • 87. 11.4.7 Outline the role of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in the production of semen.
    • Epididymis- an area above the testicle where sperm is stored until ejaculation.
    • Seminal vesicle- gland that contributes most of the fluid volume of semen (about 70%).
    • Prostate gland- also contributes to seminal fluid (about 10-30%).
  • 88. 11.4.8 Compare the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
    • Number of viable gametes formed from one stem cell:
    • spermatogenesis4
    • oogenesis 1
    • Timing and formation of gametes:
    • spermatogenesis- development of sperm is continuous from puberty onward.
    • oogenesis- development occurs in a monthly cycle, beginning with puberty and ending with menopause.
  • 89. 11.4.9 Describe the process of fertilization.
    • 1) acrosome reaction- acrosome releases enzymes which digest the surrounding layer of the egg.
    • 2) penetration of egg membrane by sperm
    • 3) cortical reaction- cortical granules are secreted by the egg via exocytosis, rendering the egg impermeable to future sperm.
  • 90. 11.4.10 Outline the role of human chorionic gonadoprophin (HCG) in early pregnancy
    • HCG is secreted by the embryo during early pregnancy. HCG helps signals the corpus luteum to stay active by continuing to secrete progesterone, which maintains the pregnancy.
  • 91. 11.4.11 Outline early embryo development up to the implantation of the blastocyst .
  • 92. 11.4.12 Explain how the structure and functions of the placenta, including it’s hormonal role in secretion of estrogen and progesterone, maintain pregnancy.
    • The placenta’s primary purpose is to bridge the blood supply between mother and fetus.
    • Secretion of progesterone helps maintain the uterine lining and placenta.
    • Secretion of estrogen inhibits the development of new follicles.
  • 93. 11.4.13 State that the fetus is supported and protected by the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid.
  • 94. 11.14.14 State that materials are exchanged between maternal and fetal blood in the placenta.
  • 95. 11.4.15 Outline the process of birth and its hormonal control .
    • Reduction in the level of progesterone results in the release of oxytocin . Oxytocin causes uterine contractions that trigger further release of oxytocin. In this way, the contractions get stronger and more rapid. This is an example of positive feedback.