Human Endocrine System                                
Endocrine System
<ul><li>Controls body functions by using chemicals that are made by endocrine cells.  </li></ul><ul><li>A  gland  = is a g...
Hormones <ul><li>Hormones are: </li></ul><ul><li>• Chemical messengers </li></ul><ul><li>• Produced in endocrine glands </...
Types of Hormones <ul><li>Peptide Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of short chains of amino acids </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Steroid Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring-shaped lipids made from cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass di...
<ul><li>• Steroid: </li></ul><ul><li>Pass straight through the plasma membrane. Combine with a receptor molecule in the ce...
(1) Hypothalamus <ul><li>Small region of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the release of hormones by the pituitary...
 
(2) Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Located at the base of the brain. Composed of two parts  and called the “master gland” because...
 
1.  Prolactin <ul><li>released after pregnancy, stimulates milk </li></ul><ul><li>production in females </li></ul>2.  Grow...
4.  Follicle Stimulating Hormone  (FSH) <ul><li>Stimulates the activities of the ovaries and testes. </li></ul>6.  Adrenoc...
How to remember the 6 <ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>GH </li></ul><ul><li>LH </li></ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul><ul><li>TSH </li...
(3) Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Located in the neck below the larynx and in front of the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>This gland s...
Thyroxin <ul><li>Secretion of thyroxin is regulated by TSH, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Goiter  = an overly enlarged thyroid, due to a diet deficient in iodide
(4) Thymus Gland <ul><li>Regulates the immune response, which helps your body fight disease </li></ul>
(5)  Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>Are tiny oval glands embedded in the walls of the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes...
(6)  Adrenal Gland <ul><li>Located on the top of each kidney. </li></ul><ul><li>Each gland consists of two layers: </li></...
Adrenal Cortex <ul><li>Secrete  steroid hormones  that: </li></ul><ul><li>a) regulate  water balance  and  blood pressure ...
Adrenal Medulla <ul><li>Secretes   adrenalin .  </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenalin increases the blood sugar level and accelerate...
(7) Pancreas  Islets of Langerhans <ul><li>Both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. </li></ul><ul><li>The exocrine p...
 
Pancreas   Islets of Langerhans
Insulin <ul><li>Facilitates the entrance of glucose into the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by...
Glucagon <ul><li>Stimulates the release of sugar from the liver and into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul...
<ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus  =  disorder that inhibits cells from obtaining glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to dangerous...
(8)  Gonads Ovaries & Testes
<ul><li>Produce gametes and secrete  </li></ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries  produce  estrogen  and  </li></...
<ul><li>Estrogen  helps maintain and develop female secondary sex characteristics, and stimulates the growth of the uterin...
(9)  Pineal Gland
<ul><li>Located in the brain, & secretes  melatonin  </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be involved with daily biorhythms, such...
How Hormones Work:  Feedback Mechanism <ul><li>Feedback mechanisms is a mechanism that maintain  homeostasis .       </li>...
1.  Negative Feedback <ul><li>Is a type of self-regulation associated with endocrine regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>It oper...
Room temp. rises Thermostat Room Temperature Drops Signals Section 35-1 Examples of Feedback Inhibition Maintaining Homeos...
<ul><li>When a hormone is released, the increased levels of that hormone cause the body to send another chemical back to t...
<ul><li>Positive feedback  – your body’s response results in an increase in the effect of the stimulus, (example flight-fi...
<ul><li>Body temperature first stimulates </li></ul><ul><li>the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>TRF  (thyrotropin-releasin...
Blood Sugar Regulation   <ul><li>The pancreas is an endocrine gland which produces hormones which regulate blood glucose (...
Blood Sugar Regulation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Endocrine System Pre IB

4,465

Published on

Published in: Education
5 Comments
21 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • hey i have a presentation plz can u tell me how can i download its option is not able
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • to good
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • to good.....
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Very good presentation. It is nice to students, can I copy this or please send me in pradeepnhpd@gmail.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • can i have a copy for this?nice presentation it helps alot for my review.pls send me ur presentation in ds email ad: limosjake_89@yahoo.com, tnx u so much...GOD BLS U
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,465
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
5
Likes
21
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Endocrine System Pre IB

  1. 1. Human Endocrine System                                
  2. 2. Endocrine System
  3. 3. <ul><li>Controls body functions by using chemicals that are made by endocrine cells. </li></ul><ul><li>A gland = is a group of cells that make special chemicals for your body </li></ul><ul><li>A hormone = is a chemical messenger made in one cell or tissue that causes a change in another cell or tissue in another part of the body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hormones <ul><li>Hormones are: </li></ul><ul><li>• Chemical messengers </li></ul><ul><li>• Produced in endocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>• Travel through blood </li></ul><ul><li>• Affect the target tissues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Hormones <ul><li>Peptide Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of short chains of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B/C amino acids cannot freely diffuse across cell membranes, peptide hormones must be secreted through special vesicles and bind to specific receptors on the outside of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This causes a reaction that trigger the change of enzymes inside the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually act fairly quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exs: Insulin and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Steroid Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring-shaped lipids made from cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass directly into cells because they are “hydrophobic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptors for these hormones are on the inside of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These hormone can affect the function of genes within the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act much more slowly b/c of this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exs. Testosterone , estrogen and cortisol </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>• Steroid: </li></ul><ul><li>Pass straight through the plasma membrane. Combine with a receptor molecule in the cell cytoplasm.. </li></ul><ul><li>• Peptide            </li></ul><ul><li>  (b) Attachment to plasma membrane receptor </li></ul><ul><li>(c) stimulates a secondary messenger </li></ul><ul><li>(d)  Secondary messenger alter the action of the cell. </li></ul>Hormones Mode of Action
  8. 8. (1) Hypothalamus <ul><li>Small region of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the release of hormones by the pituitary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system. </li></ul>
  9. 10. (2) Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Located at the base of the brain. Composed of two parts and called the “master gland” because it controls the activities of other glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior pituitary is part of the Hypothalamus and does not secrete its own hormones. They are released by the storage facility in the posterior pituitary are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the kidneys to reduce water loss in the urine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction during childbirth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. 1. Prolactin <ul><li>released after pregnancy, stimulates milk </li></ul><ul><li>production in females </li></ul>2. Growth Hormone (GH) <ul><li>This hormone controls the growth of the body by stimulating the elongation of bones . </li></ul>3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) triggers ovulation and the development of the “ corpus luteum” In females. In males it stimulates the release of testosterone by the testes. B. A nterior pituitary releases 6 major hormones
  11. 13. 4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) <ul><li>Stimulates the activities of the ovaries and testes. </li></ul>6. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticoid hormones. 5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) <ul><li>stimulates the thyroid to release thyroxine </li></ul>
  12. 14. How to remember the 6 <ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>GH </li></ul><ul><li>LH </li></ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul><ul><li>TSH </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH </li></ul>Please Get Lunch For Their Aunt
  13. 15. (3) Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Located in the neck below the larynx and in front of the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>This gland secretes thyroxin which contains iodine. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the rate at which you use energy = Metabolism </li></ul>
  14. 16. Thyroxin <ul><li>Secretion of thyroxin is regulated by TSH, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the rate of metabolism in the body and is essential for normal physical and mental development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who suffers from hypothyroidism has a lower metabolic rate, which can cause obesity and sluggishness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opposite condition, known as hyperthyroidism, occurs when the thyroid produces too much thyroxine. It can lead to excessive perspiration, high body temperature, loss of weight, and a faster heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of iodine in the diet will lead to lack of thyroxin secretion. This produces enlargement of the thyroid gland and is called Goiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter - is the result of iodine deficiency in the diet. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Goiter = an overly enlarged thyroid, due to a diet deficient in iodide
  16. 18. (4) Thymus Gland <ul><li>Regulates the immune response, which helps your body fight disease </li></ul>
  17. 19. (5) Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>Are tiny oval glands embedded in the walls of the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes parathormone. </li></ul><ul><li>Parathormone controls calcium metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium is necessary for proper growth of teeth and bones, blood clotting, and nerve function. </li></ul>                                                            
  18. 20. (6) Adrenal Gland <ul><li>Located on the top of each kidney. </li></ul><ul><li>Each gland consists of two layers: </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla </li></ul>
  19. 21. Adrenal Cortex <ul><li>Secrete steroid hormones that: </li></ul><ul><li>a) regulate water balance and blood pressure by controlling the reabsorption of sodium salt into the blood from the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>b) stimulate the conversion of fat and protein into glucose. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Adrenal Medulla <ul><li>Secretes adrenalin . </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenalin increases the blood sugar level and accelerates the heart and breathing rate. </li></ul>
  21. 23. (7) Pancreas Islets of Langerhans <ul><li>Both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. </li></ul><ul><li>The exocrine portion secretes digestive juices into the small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine portion consists of small clusters or “islands” of hormone-secreting cells called the Islets of Langerhans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Islet of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Pancreas Islets of Langerhans
  23. 26. Insulin <ul><li>Facilitates the entrance of glucose into the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin lowers blood sugar levels by promoting the movement of sugar out of the blood and into the liver where it is stored as glycogen. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Glucagon <ul><li>Stimulates the release of sugar from the liver and into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>insulin  lowers sugar level in blood </li></ul><ul><li>glucagon  raises sugar level in blood </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus = disorder that inhibits cells from obtaining glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to dangerously high blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can lead to comas or even death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I ( hereditary autoimmune disease ) “childhood diabetes” which attacks Islets of Langerhans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II ( non-insulin dependent ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ adult diabetes”due to low numbers of insulin receptors; often a result of obesity and inactivity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. (8) Gonads Ovaries & Testes
  27. 30. <ul><li>Produce gametes and secrete </li></ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries produce estrogen and </li></ul><ul><li>progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Testes produce testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Control sexual behavior and development </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Estrogen helps maintain and develop female secondary sex characteristics, and stimulates the growth of the uterine lining for pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation. </li></ul><ul><li>Testosterone is necessary for sperm production and is responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males. </li></ul>
  29. 32. (9) Pineal Gland
  30. 33. <ul><li>Located in the brain, & secretes melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be involved with daily biorhythms, such as sleep cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly responsible for mood disorders, such as “ winter depression ” or “ seasonal affective disorder syndrome ” </li></ul>
  31. 34. How Hormones Work: Feedback Mechanism <ul><li>Feedback mechanisms is a mechanism that maintain homeostasis .     </li></ul><ul><li>A feedback mechanism occurs when the level of one substance influences the level of another substance or activity of another organ. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types… </li></ul>
  32. 35. 1. Negative Feedback <ul><li>Is a type of self-regulation associated with endocrine regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>It operates on the principle that the level of one hormone in the blood stimulates or inhibits the production of another hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : TSH regulates the secretion of thyroxin by the thyroid gland. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Room temp. rises Thermostat Room Temperature Drops Signals Section 35-1 Examples of Feedback Inhibition Maintaining Homeostasis Negative feedback – your body’s response results in decreasing the effect of the stimulus (e.g. body temperature) Sensed by Heater to turn on
  34. 37. <ul><li>When a hormone is released, the increased levels of that hormone cause the body to send another chemical back to the cell that produced it to tell it make more </li></ul>2. Positive Feedback
  35. 38. <ul><li>Positive feedback – your body’s response results in an increase in the effect of the stimulus, (example flight-fight response/or the greenhouse effect) </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Body temperature first stimulates </li></ul><ul><li>the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>TRF (thyrotropin-releasing factor) is a hormone released by the hypothalamus that passes to the anterior pituitary via the portal vein . </li></ul><ul><li>TSH (Thyroid stimulating Hormone) is a hormone produced by anterior pituitary which is carried to the thyroid gland at the base of the neck. This stimulated the release of thyroxin. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxin the final hormone is released into the blood and stimulates the metabolic rate of the cells </li></ul>
  37. 40. Blood Sugar Regulation <ul><li>The pancreas is an endocrine gland which produces hormones which regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in blood sugar level triggers the release of the hormone insulin by the pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>The hormone insulin lowers blood sugar level restoring the body to its original blood glucose level in two major ways : </li></ul><ul><li>It increases the ability of body cells to take in glucose from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>It converts blood glucose to the compound glycogen -- this compound is also called animal starch and is stored in our liver and muscles. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Blood Sugar Regulation

×