Stakeholders - meeting their needs


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Stakeholders - meeting their needs

  1. 1. Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  2. 2. <ul><li>Stakeholders are groups of people who have an interest in a business organization or project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone who has a stake in the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They can be seen as being either external or internal to the organization </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  3. 3. <ul><li>Project success is often a matter of perception and that perception is in the eyes of the stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This should good reason to worry about the stakeholders and their expectations. </li></ul></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  4. 4. <ul><li>TAKE CARE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is rare for a complete list of stakeholders to be identified at first pass. Unsuspected stakeholders have a habit of popping out of the woodwork at inconvenient times, often with very negative attitudes because they were somehow overlooked. </li></ul></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  5. 5. <ul><li>Create a </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  6. 6. <ul><li>Owners (I) </li></ul><ul><li>Shareholders (I) </li></ul><ul><li>Managers (I) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff or employees (I) </li></ul><ul><li>Customers (E) </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers (E) </li></ul><ul><li>Community (E) </li></ul><ul><li>Government (E) </li></ul><ul><li>I = Internal </li></ul><ul><li>E = External </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  7. 7. <ul><li>Internal stakeholders are those who are ‘members’ of the business organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Owners and shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and employees </li></ul><ul><li>External stakeholders are not part of the firm </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  8. 8. <ul><li>Some groups can be both internal and external stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Such as staff or shareholders who are also local residents </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any others? </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. Owners and Shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>The number of owners and the roles they carry out differ according to the size of the firm </li></ul><ul><li>In small businesses there may be only one owner (sole trader) or perhaps a small number of partners (partnership) </li></ul><ul><li>In large firms there are often thousands of shareholders, who each own a small part of the business </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. Managers: </li></ul><ul><li>organize </li></ul><ul><li>make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul><ul><li>control </li></ul><ul><li>are accountable to the owner(s) </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. Employees or Staff: </li></ul><ul><li>A business needs staff or employees to carry out its activities </li></ul><ul><li>Employees agree to work a certain number of hours in return for a wage or salary </li></ul><ul><li>Pay levels vary with skills, qualifications, age, location, types of work and industry and other factors </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Customers: </li></ul><ul><li>Customers buy the goods or services produced by firms </li></ul><ul><li>They may be individuals or other businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Firms must understand and meet the needs of their customers, otherwise they will fail to make a profit or, indeed, survive </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  13. 13. <ul><li>5. Suppliers: </li></ul><ul><li>Firms get the resources they need to produce goods and services from suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses should have effective relationships with their suppliers in order to get quality resources at reasonable prices </li></ul><ul><li>This is a two-way process, as suppliers depend on the firms they supply </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  14. 14. <ul><li>6. Community: </li></ul><ul><li>Firms and the communities they exist in are also in a two-way relationship </li></ul><ul><li>The local community may often provide many of the firm’s staff and customers </li></ul><ul><li>The business often supplies goods and services vital to the local area </li></ul><ul><li>But at times the community can feel aggrieved by some aspects of what a firm does </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  15. 15. <ul><li>7. Government: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic policies affect firms’ costs (through taxation and interest rates) </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation regulates what business can do in areas such as the environment and occupational safety and health </li></ul><ul><li>Successful firms are good for governments as they create wealth and employment </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  16. 16. <ul><li>8. Sponsor : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project sponsor is more of a leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>than a manager. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Senge and colleagues (1999) say, in essence, that leaders are people who “walk ahead,” people genuinely committed to deep changes in themselves and in their organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship is a vital role and one that can greatly relieve the burden on the project manager, whose primary responsibility is to manage the work of the project. (WIDEMAN) </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  17. 17. <ul><li>Project start-up : strategic linkages and the project’s vision, mission, objectives, risks, and constraints; identify the right project manager; sell the project to upper managers and other project stakeholders; communicate the importance of the project mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Project is running : works with the PM and stays informed regarding project progress and status. (good news and bad. The sponsor maintains credibility in the minds of the project team and the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Project is ending : monitors project close-out, ensuring that the desired results have been delivered and tracked, documentation is complete, and actions have been determined for improving project processes as a result of project reviews. </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
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  19. 19. <ul><li>Participate in senior management’s overall project prioritization and resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the project’s level of priority and maintain that level of management’s interest in the project </li></ul><ul><li>Alert the project manager if circumstances, economics, or the environment changes and, if necessary, arrange to accelerate, slow down, redirect, or even abort the project </li></ul><ul><li>Have oversight responsibility for the project’s progress, control, and successful delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Report progress to upper management </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
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  21. 21. Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  22. 22. Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  23. 23. Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  24. 24. <ul><li>It is the project manager’s job to get internal stakeholders enthusiastic about the project and contributing their best – MOTIVATION! </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite people to join the project team, a person who joins the team voluntarily will have a positive attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview every team member to ensure support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell functional managers, who will be contributing people or services to the project, on the project importance and relative priority within the enterprise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have users form their own users’ group </li></ul></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  25. 25. <ul><li>The Project Manager must encourage team members to continue doing their best by maintaining a positive project culture. This requires the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining visible, clear, and consistent objectives that are understood and well worthwhile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring open, honest, accurate, and continuing communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating evident benefit to individual team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid removal of obstacles to performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible recognition and reward for excellence </li></ul></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ Today, managing the public image of major civil engineering projects is at least as important as managing their physical creation. Poor public perception can damage or stop a project as surely as bad ground or shortage of labor and materials. The (English) Channel Tunnel is a classic example: for much of its formative period it existed in an often-destructive climate of adverse public opinion. Most of this was avoidable but it resulted in the project team spending much of its time fighting a rearguard action rather than simply getting on with the job.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Lemley, formerly chief executive of Transmanche-Link (TML) </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  27. 27. <ul><li>EXAMINE THE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINE THE TYPE OF INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>CATEGORIZE THE LEVEL OF INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>GATHER INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>USE THE INFORMATION GATHERED </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP a Project Public Relations Program </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®
  28. 28. <ul><li>BE HONEST </li></ul><ul><li>Involve stakeholders in project planning </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in touch with stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Get buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Influence stakeholders </li></ul>Mário Henrique Trentim, PMP®