Cancer Awareness - Kaplan University Dept. of Public Health


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Cancer awareness, including general definitions, detection, prevention, treatment, and risk factors. Emphasis on skin and prostate cancers and at-risk populations.

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Cancer Awareness - Kaplan University Dept. of Public Health

  1. 1. Cancer Awareness Dr. Sridevi Kolluri Dr. Robert Carter Kaplan University School of Health Sciences November 6, 2013
  2. 2. Cancer Awareness Sridevi Kolluri, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor, Public Health School of Health Sciences - Kaplan University
  3. 3. Webinar Agenda • Cancer 101 • Current supporting scientific evidence regarding risk factors and for prevention of cancer • Prostate Cancer Awareness • Question and Answer Session
  4. 4. Introduction • In 2011, cancer was the second leading cause of death to heart disease nationally. • The numbers worldwide are staggering with about 7.6 million deaths from cancer. • About 30% of these cancer deaths are due to five behavioral and dietary risk factors which can be prevented. • These risk factors are high Body Mass Index (BMI), low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use (WHO, 2013).
  5. 5. What is Cancer? • Cancer is a disease where abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancerous cells then spreads throughout the body through the blood (CDC, 2013). • There are over 100 different types of cancer and it is important to be educated about this disease. • The World Health organization is projecting a rise in deaths from cancer to 13.1 million in 2030 (WHO, 2013) but with awareness this number may be decreased.
  6. 6. Normal cell process • A normal cell in the human body has a life cycle that enables a person to grow. • There are many types of cells that make up the body including heart, bone, and muscle cells. • From birth the cells normally grow, divide, and die.
  7. 7. Abnormal Cell Process • When this birth/death process is not followed as it was designed then a cell mass can develop which can be benign or not. • Benign is another word for harmless, but when it becomes harmful cancer occurs. • This is because a cell mass that keeps growing without dying can interrupt normal function and do harm to the body.
  8. 8. Risk Factors (Who May be At Risk) for Cancer? • • • • • • • • Aging Tobacco use Sunlight Exposure Viruses and bacteria Hormones Family history Alcohol Poor diet, lack of physical activity or obesity
  9. 9. Preventable Actions Healthy Diet Recommendations: Make half your plate fruits and vegetables Exercise Stop smoking Protect your skin Get preventative screenings Reduce alcohol consumption Images courtesy of
  10. 10. Focus on Skin Cancer • The National Cancer Institute, estimates over 82,000 people will be diagnosed and over 12,000 will die of skin cancer this year. • For Skin cancer, the cause is known, prevention is possible, and treatment is available. National Cancer Institute. (2013). SEER Fact Sheets: Skin. Retrieved from http://seer.cancer. gov/statfacts/html/skin.html#survival.
  11. 11. Who is affected? Anyone can get skin cancer: – Men and Women – Black or White – Young and Old Those that are more at risk are those with excessive exposure to the sun without using sunscreen or other protective measures.
  12. 12. Factors to consider for greater risk: • light skin color • history of severe sunburn • family history of skin cancer • large dark-colored birthmarks • HIV Types of Cancer The 3 types of skin cancer are basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Of these, melanoma is the most serious. The effects of skin cancer can be very damaging when left untreated or unnoticed for a long time.
  13. 13. The Good News! Prevention: • Sunscreen and protective clothing • Avoiding long periods of sun exposure • Screenings • Education of prevention, types, signs, and treatment options. Treatment: ❖ Early diagnosis is best ❖ Treatment options are widely available ❖ Follow up care ❖ Future prevention
  14. 14. Early Detection • Routine physical exams • Follow-up exams because of a lump or growth. • Lab testing of blood, urine or tissue. • Screening tests, such as a Pap test, mammogram, and fecal testing • X-rays and digital imagining
  15. 15. Stages of Cancer • Four stages: I, II, III and IV depending on: • Size of tumor • Whether cancer is in lymph nodes • Has it spread to other parts of the body?
  16. 16. Get the word out! • • • • Inform people Understand the risks Get screened Healthier lifestyles
  17. 17. Prostate Cancer Awareness Robert Carter, III, Ph.D., M.P.H., FACSM Adjunct Professor, Public Health School of Health Sciences - Kaplan University
  18. 18. Outline ● Introduction to Prostate Cancer ● Men’s Health ● Trends in Incidence and Death Rates ● Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors & Symptoms ● Screening and Treatment
  19. 19. Introduction ●Most common cancer in American men ●222,590 cases in 2012 with 31,360 deaths ○1 in 6 chance of diagnosis ○1 in 34 chance of dying ●5 year survival ○100% if local or regional spread ○31.9% if spread to distant organs (liver, bladder) ●African American men elevated risk ○spreading and death
  20. 20. Function and Location o Main function ○ create part of the fluid that makes up semen. ○ Related role in urinary control ○ Not a vital organ ○ Men can live without it o Location ○ near bladder, spine & intestines Small, E., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Prostate Cancer, 2004, WB Saunders, an Elsevier imprint Theodorescu, D., Prostate Cancer: Management of Localized Disease, 20042
  21. 21. Key facts: Men’s Health ● Life expectancy for men are lower than women ● Men tend to smoke and drink more than women ● Men don’t seek medical help as often as women ● Some men define themselves by their work, which can add to stress
  22. 22. Key facts: Men’s Health ● Men are four times more likely to die of suicide and suffer from undiagnosed mental health issues than women ● There are also health conditions that affect only men… ● Prostate cancer also has a significant impact on those closest to them -- most often wife or partner. ● More than half of spouses said they feel helpless, anxious, depressed, or had a loss of intimacy (ACS, 2008).
  23. 23. 2013 Estimated US Cancer Cases Men 854,790 Women 805,500 Prostate 29% Lung & bronchus 14% Colon & rectum 9% Urinary bladder 6% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4% 29% Breast 14% Lung & bronchus 9% Colon & rectum 6% Uterine corpus 4% Non-Hodgkin lymphoma *Excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. American Cancer Society, 2013
  24. 24. 2013 Estimated US Cancer Deaths Women 273,400 Men 306,950 Lung & bronchus Prostate Colon & rectum Pancreas Leukemia 28% 10% 9% 6% 4% 26% 14% 10% 6% 6% Lung & bronchus Breast Colon & rectum Pancreas Ovary American Cancer Society, 2013
  25. 25. Disease Progression of Prostate Cancer ●Heterogeneous (Diversity) ○Some grow slow with no symptoms ○Some grow fast and metastasize (grow and spread) ○Some grow at moderate rate ●Patients die of something else ●No strategies for prevention of disease
  26. 26. Risk Factors: Prostate Cancer ●Risk Factors ○Strong Evidence ○ Age ○ Ethnicity and Race ○ Family history ○Weak Evidence ○ Medications ○ Dietary factors ○ Obesity ○ Smoking
  27. 27. Symptoms of Prostate Cancer ○Urinary Symptoms ○Erectile dysfunction ○Enlargement of prostate gland ○Blood in urine (older males) ○Bone pain or spinal cord compression
  28. 28. Screening ○Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) ■Inexpensive ■Useful for detecting enlarged prostate and advanced disease ○Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) ■Cancer screening in 90’s ■Tumor marker to identify disease progression ■Track changes in prostate health ○Tissue samples (surgical procedures) ○DRE and PSA together (very effective)!
  29. 29. Screening “Accumulating evidence indicates careful observation (active surveillance), rather than immediate treatment, can be an appropriate option for men with less aggressive tumors and for older men”(ACS, 2013)
  30. 30. Treatment ● Each case is different! ● Many factors, many opinions ○Age ○Medical history ○Disease status ● More Aggressive Approach ○Radical prostatectomy (complete removal) ■Erectile and urinary issues ● Less Aggressive Approach ○Watching, Hormonal therapy ○chemotherapy, local radiation
  31. 31. Questions for Research on Prostate Cancer: oDoes early detection extend life? oDo benefits outweigh harms? oIs there an optimal screening method for prostate cancer? oShould screening for prostate be risk based?
  32. 32. Summary: Prostate Cancer ✓Men should discuss their individual lifestyle and risk factors with a healthcare provider. ✓PSA testing, may reduce morbidity and mortality, yet best method of screening is undetermined. ✓Treatment may adversely affect patient without benefit. ✓Cost-benefit remains unknown. ✓Better nutritional choices and increased physical activity may help reduce their risk of prostate cancer as well as lower their risk of heart disease and diabetes.
  33. 33. ACS Recommendations ✓American Cancer Society and American Urological Society recommend informed consent regarding the risks and benefits of screening ✓DRE and PSA annually for men >50 yrs with life expectancy of 10 years ✓Begin screening at age 45 yrs for high risk men (black males and first degree relatives with prostate cancer diagnosed at a young age)
  34. 34. ACS Recommendations ✓Achieve and maintain a healthy weight throughout life ✓Adopt a physically active lifestyle ✓Consume a healthy diet, with an emphasis on plant foods ✓If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumption
  35. 35. Resources • CDC. (2013 August). Cancer Prevention and Control. Retrieved 2013 5-August from Center for Disease Control and Prevention: • National Cancer Institute. (2013). Risk Factors. Retrieved August 25, 2013, from What you need to know about: http: // • WHO. (2013 January). Cancer. Retrieved from World Health Organization:http://www.who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/index.html • Goldenberg, L. (2011). Retrieved from http: //
  36. 36. Resources • American Cancer Society. (2013). Skin Cancer Facts. Retrieved from http://www.cancer. org/cancer/cancercauses/sunanduvexposure/skin-cancer-facts. • MedicineNet. (2013). Skin Cancer Symptoms. Retrieved from http: // • National Cancer Institute. (2013). SEER Fact Sheets: Skin. Retrieved from • The Skin Cancer Foundation. (2013). You Are at Risk. Retrieved from • American Cancer Society. (2011). Learn about cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cancer. org/Cancer/BreastCancer/OverviewGuide/breast-cancer-overviewnew-research
  37. 37. Research: NCI/ACS/DoD Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials o Prostate Cancer Foundation and the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program (PCRP) o Phase III Randomized Study of Vitamin D, and Calcium in Preventing or Delaying Skeletal-Related Events in Patients With Bone Metastases o Vitamin D and Soy Supplements in Treating Patients With Recurrent Prostate Cancer--Wake Forest University o Vitamin D in Treating Patients With Prostate Cancer-- Roswell Park Cancer Institute Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program Prostate Cancer