Knowledge management

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  • 1. Knowledge Management Dr. Smita Chandra Librarian Indian Institute of Geomagnetism Email: smitac@iigs.iigm.res.in Ph.: 9930454568
  • 2. First, what is Knowledge In simplest terms, knowledge is the ability of an actor to respond to a body of facts and principles accumulated over a period of time.  One way to look at knowledge is as the apogee of the following continuum – data information knowledge  Data = 1 unit of fact; Information = aggregation of data; Knowledge = potential for action on information  Data and information have intrinsic properties, the quality of knowledge depends on the properties of the agent
  • 3. Knowledge  The creation and diffusion of knowledge have become ever more important factors in competitiveness in today‘s knowledge economy.  Being viewed as a commodity or an intellectual asset, it possesses some paradoxical characteristics that are radically different from other valuable commodities. Use of knowledge does not consume it.  Transfer of knowledge does not result in losing it.  Knowledge is abundant, but the ability to use it is scarce.  Much of an organization‘s valuable knowledge walks out the door at the end of the day. 
  • 4. From industrial era to knowledge age Forty-five years ago, nearly half of all workers in industrialized countries were making or helping to make things; today that proportion is down to 20% (Drucker, 1994; Bart, 2000).  An organization in the Knowledge Age is one that learns, remembers, and acts based on the best available information, knowledge, and know-how. Companies need to learn from their past errors and not reinvent the wheel again and again. 
  • 5. KM definition  Knowledge management is the deliberate and systematic coordination of an organization‘s people, technology, processes, and organizational structure in order to add value through reuse and innovation. This coordination is achieved through creating, sharing, and applying knowledge as well as through feeding the valuable lessons learned and best practices into corporate memory in order to foster continued organizational learning.
  • 6. KM Objectives Facilitate a smooth transition from those retiring to their successors who are recruited to fill their positions.  Minimize loss of corporate memory due to attrition and retirement.  Identify critical resources and critical areas of knowledge so that the corporation ―knows what it knows and does it well—and why.‖  Build up a toolkit of methods that can be used with individuals, with groups, and with the organization to stem the potential loss of intellectual capital. 
  • 7. KM Objectives
  • 8. Knowledge Assets  There are two types of knowledge assets  Tacit knowledge: That type of knowledge which people carry in their mind, and is, therefore, difficult to access.  Explicit knowledge: That type of knowledge which has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in
  • 9. The Two Major Types of Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Tangible Intangible Physical objects, e.g. in documents or databases Mental objects, i.e. it's in people's head's Context independent Context affects meaning Easily shared Sharing involves learning Reproducible Not identically replicated
  • 10. KM Examples Larsen & Toubro : Know Net  Infosys : Learn Once Use Anywhere 
  • 11. KM Models There are some KM Models:  Nonaka/Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral (1995)  ADAM’s Model (2000-01)  The Choo Sense-making KM Model (1998)  WIIG KM Model
  • 12. Nonaka‘s four model of knowledge conversion
  • 13. Nonaka‘s four models of knowledge conversion explanation  Socialisation ◦ (tacit to tacit) is the process of learning through sharing experiences that creates tacit knowledge as shared mental models and professional skills e.g. expert consensus achieved during medical meetings  Externalization ◦ (tacit to explicit) is the process of conversion of tacit into explicit knowledge, for example, the translation of clinical trial result into a recommendation for clinical practice  Internalization ◦ (explicit to tacit) is the process of an individual learning by repeatedly executing an activity applying some type of explicit knowledge, e.g., absorbing the relationship between actions and results as new personal tacit knowledge  Combination ◦ (explicit to explicit) is the process of enriching the available explicit knowledge to produce new bodies of knowledge, for example, combining medical and organizational knowledge into a decision support system
  • 14. ADAM’s Model (2000-01)
  • 15. The Choo Sense-making KM Model (1998)
  • 16. WIIG’s KM Model
  • 17. Knowledge Form by WIIG Model  Public Knowledge  Sharing Knowledge  Personal Knowledge
  • 18. CONTINUE…  The knowledge which is explicit and can be learned and shared, called Public Knowledge.  The knowledge which is an intellectual assets and held exclusively by employees and shared during work or embedded in technologies, called Sharing Knowledge.  The knowledge which is the least accessible, but the most complete form of knowledge. It‘s usually tacit and used without knowing, called Personal Knowledge.
  • 19. Knowledge Types by WIIG Model  Factual Knowledge  Conceptual Knowledge  Expectational Knowledge  Methodological Knowledge
  • 20. Continue…  That type of knowledge which deals with data and measurements, and directly observable and verifiable, called Factual Knowledge.  That type of knowledge which deals with systems, concepts and perspectives, called Conceptual Knowledge.  That type of knowledge which deals with hypothesis, judgments and expectations held by knowers, called Expectational Knowledge.  That type of knowledge which deals with reasoning, strategies and decision making methods, called Methodological Knowledge.
  • 21. KM Life Cycle
  • 22. Key attributes of KM Ruggles and Holtshouse (1999) identified the following key attributes of knowledge management:  Generating new knowledge.  Accessing valuable knowledge from outside sources.  Using accessible knowledge in decision making.  Embedding knowledge in processes, products, and/or services.  Representing knowledge in documents, databases, and software.  Facilitating knowledge growth through culture and incentives.  Transferring existing knowledge into other parts of the organization.  Measuring the value of knowledge assets and/or impact of knowledge management.
  • 23. Terms Used in KM There are some terms used in KM:  Knowledge architect  Knowledge assets  Knowledge bridge  Knowledge Workers  Knowledge Economy
  • 24. Knowledge architect  Knowledge architect is the staff member who oversees the definitions of knowledge and intellectual processes and then identifies the technological and human resources required to create, capture, organize, access and use knowledge assets.
  • 25. Knowledge assets  Knowledge assets, also called intellectual capital, are the human, structural and recorded resources available to the organization. Assets reside within the minds of members, customers, and colleagues and also include physical structures and recorded media.
  • 26. Knowledge bridge  Knowledge bridge is the connection that a KM expert builds between the business processes and the technological, sociological, personal, financial, sales, creative, and customer oriented functions of the organization.
  • 27. Knowledge Workers  Employees and managers who contribute significantly to the intellectual capital of the company are called knowledge workers.
  • 28. Knowledge Economy  The knowledge economy is a term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge in the frame of economic constraints, or to a knowledge-based economy.
  • 29. The value of Knowledge assets  Knowledge assets are often described as the intellectual capital of an organization ◦ The value of intellectual capital is often intangible ◦ A popular measure is the difference between the cost of capital assets and the cost of replacing them
  • 30. The value of KM  It is important to manage knowledge assets because : ◦ Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas ◦ Improve decision making ◦ Improve customer service by streamlining response time ◦ Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster ◦ Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees' knowledge and rewarding them for it ◦ Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes
  • 31. The development of KM Knowledge began to be viewed as a competitive asset in the 80s, around the same time information explosion started becoming an issue  The trend was fueled by the development of IT systems which made it simple to store, display, and archive classified, indexed information  The process received a fillip after Ducker (and others) stressed the role of knowledge as an organisation resource and Senge popularized ‗learning organisations‘  Seeds of KM may also be found in business practices  like TQM and BPR to which KM is often compared.
  • 32. The sources of KM  Today KM draws from a wide range of disciplines / practices – ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Cognitive Science Groupware, AI Library and Information Science Document Management Decision support systems Technical writing Organizational Science Many more
  • 33. Organizational Perspectives on Knowledge Management Wiig (1993) considers knowledge management in organizations from three perspectives, each with different horizons and purposes: 1. Business Perspective—focusing on why, where, and to what extent the organization must invest in or exploit knowledge. Strategies, products and services, alliances, acquisitions, or divestments should be considered from knowledge-related points of view. 2. Management Perspective—focusing on determining, organizing, directing, facilitating, and monitoring knowledge-related practices and activities required to achieve the desired business strategies and objectives. 3. Hands-on Perspective—focusing on applying the 
  • 34. Why Is KM Important Today? The major business drivers behind today‘s increased interest in and application of KM lie in four key areas: 1. Globalization of business. 2. Leaner organizations. We are doing more and we are doing it faster, but we also need to work smarter as knowledge workers, adopting an increased pace and workload. 3. “Corporate amnesia.” We are more mobile as a workforce, which creates problems of knowledge continuity for the organization and places continuous learning demands on the knowledge worker. We no longer expect to spend our entire work life with the same organization. 4. Technological advances. 
  • 35. KM today (catch-all?)  There is a great risk of KM overreaching itself ◦ Everything from organization learning to business and competitive intelligence has become fair game to KM ◦ There are KM components to each of these but these spaces are best left to specalized practitioners
  • 36. The scope of KM  Today most companies define the scope of KM as – ◦ KM mechanics (tools for information management) ◦ KM culture (knowledge as a social activity) ◦ KM systems (knowledge sharing as a part of an organization‘s DNA)
  • 37. KM mechanics    Information management may well be considered the first wave of KM (and is still often considered synonymous with KM) Information management tries to make the right information available to the right person at the right time through a variety of database driven information applications Information management tools try to capture the human experience of knowledge through the collecting, classifying, disseminating, searching, indexing and archival power of
  • 38. Limitations of mechanical KM Reliance on technology produces consensual knowledge (over reliance on best-practices for instance) and may stifle innovation  The notion that ‗right information‘ is predictable and flows from historical data may be flawed  Making information available is not enough, getting people to use it is more critical 
  • 39. KM culture All knowledge has a social and evolutionary facet  There is a crying need for subject knowledge to continuously re-examine and modify  It is important to keep the human and social elements of organization involved in all stored knowledge 
  • 40. KM culture through CoP    Communities of practice (or thematic groups) are popular way of injecting KM culture in an organization CoPs are for where members share information and experiences, develop new insights, assimilate and transform knowledge CoPs emphasize shared interests and work across locations and time zones (often using technology developed during KM‘s first wave)
  • 41. KM systems   KM succeeds fully when it is woven into the fabric of an organization and becomes intrinsic to an organization‘s processes Common practices include ◦ Formal KM leadership ◦ Formal rewards and recognitions for KM oriented work ◦ Tools and mechanisms that encourage knowledge sharing ◦ Development of knowledge bases ◦ Intellectual asset management ◦ Metrics to evaluate KM initiatives
  • 42. KM systems today In many ways the systemic approach is the logical culmination of KM mechanics and KM culture  Many KM systems are however not yet robust enough ◦ KM metrics (surveys, benchmarking, cost/benefit studies, service evaluation) are still an inexact science ◦ Knowledge workers are often KM resistant (KM is frequently considered an oxymoron)
  • 43. Technologies that support KM
  • 44. Technologies that support KM These technologies roughly correlate to four main stages of the KM life cycle: •    Knowledge is acquired or captured using intranets, extranets, groupware, web conferencing, and document management systems. An organizational memory is formed by refining, organizing, and storing knowledge using structured repositories such as data warehouses. Knowledge is distributed through education, training programs, automated knowledge based systems, expert networks. Knowledge is applied or leveraged for further learning and innovation via mining of the organizational memory and the application of expert systems such as decision support systems. All of these stages are enhanced by effective workflow and project management.
  • 45. KM‘s three-tiered view: Individuals • Helps people do their jobs and save time through better decision making and problem solving. • Builds a sense of community bonds within the organization. • Helps people to keep up to date. • Provides challenges and opportunities to contribute. Communities • Develops professional skills. • Promotes peer-to-peer mentoring. • Facilitates more effective networking and collaboration. • Develops a professional code of ethics that members can follow. • Develops a common language. Organizations • Helps drive strategy. • Solves problems quickly. • Diffuses best practices. • Improves knowledge embedded in products and services. • Cross-fertilizes ideas and increases opportunities for innovation. • Enables organizations to stay ahead of the competition better. • Builds organizational memory.
  • 46. THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF KM  Some critical KM challenges are to manage content effectively, facilitate collaboration, help knowledge workers connect and find experts, and help the organization to learn and make decisions based on complete, valid, and well interpreted data, information, and knowledge.
  • 47. KM in Libraries
  • 48. Libraries have a long history…  Librarians have been managing knowledge for about 2,500 years  Library at Alexandria established in 283 BC  Capture and store the worlds knowledge  But…
  • 49. Tradition is not enough… “While they all make varying use of corporate libraries and information systems, few knowledge workers feel that these groups can be relied on for more than a modest amount of their information needs.” James McGee and Lawrence Prusak  Managing Information Strategically (1993) 
  • 50. Explicit Knowledge Books, publications, reports  Photos, diagrams, illustrations  Computer code, decision-support systems  Presentations, speeches, lectures  Stories, lessons learned, recordings  Laws, regulations, procedures, policies  Embedded into products 
  • 51. Tacit Knowledge Awareness  Skills  Mental models  Expertise  Judgement  Wisdom  Corporate memory  The Thinker - Rodin
  • 52. Transferring Knowledge Conversations, discussions, dialogue  Questions & answers  Knowledge extraction  Advice, briefings, recommendations  Mentoring, teaching, examples  Presentations, lectures, stories  Documents, books, manuals  Education, training, demonstration  Meetings, workshops, conferences 
  • 53. Organizing Knowledge Epistemology  Cognitive approaches  Automated methods  Classification systems  Thesauri, taxonomies  Interdisciplinary issues  Linguistic issues 
  • 54. Storing Knowledge Assets Information technology infrastructure  Systems for archiving and managing knowledge  Interface for entry and administration  Data warehouse, distributed databases  Information repository, records management  Knowledge repository, knowledge map  Digital libraries, traditional libraries 
  • 55. Retrieving Knowledge Assets Access to knowledge  Browser interface  Search engine  Extraction tools  Manipulation tools  Assembly tools  Retrieval system 
  • 56. Maintaining Knowledge Assets Content integrity  System and content security  Access to content  Service standards  Migrate technology  Life cycle management 
  • 57. Migrating Knowledge Assets Paper  Punch cards  Paper tape  Magnetic tape  Computer disks  Floppy disks  Tape cassettes  Diskettes  CD-ROMS 
  • 58. How Can Libraries Improve Their Services Through KM? Creating an organizational culture of sharing knowledge Creating an organizational culture of sharing expertise Change their values Focus on creating and using intellectual assets (tacit, explicit and potential knowledge) Restructure their functions Expand their roles and responsibilities
  • 59. KM Concerns/Challenges for libraries Changing Environment Multiple Formats of Information Changing user needs (e.g. aimed at improving learning outcomes) Organizational structures that call for quality services Changing roles of librarians due to changes in information formats, delivery models and technologies.
  • 60. Applying KM Knowledge Creation Knowledge of the library‘s:  operation  users and their needs  collection  facilities  technologies available Knowledge Capturing and Acquisition  Develop ways their internal knowledge (e.g. type of reference enquiries, frequently used questions, handling
  • 61. Knowledge capturing and acquisitions Identify people‘s expertise and share through: Collating internal profiles of librarians Standardizing routine information-update reports.  Accessing external information such as online databases  Establishing links or networking with other libraries and institutions  Attending training programmes, conferences, seminars and workshops  Subscribing to listserves and online virtual communities of practice  Buying knowledge products or resources in the form of manuals, reports, etc.  
  • 62. Skills Librarians Bring to KM Indexing Abstracting Taxonomy, controlled vocabulary development o Quality filtering of information o Grant planning writing o Networking and community outreach o Needs assessment o Project management o Webpage development o o o
  • 63. Continued …  Graphical  Database design development and maintenance  Usability testing and evaluation  Curriculum development  Teaching and training  Statistical analysis  Project and program evaluation  Compiling literature  Writing for publication
  • 64. Skills and competencies needed IT literacy  A sharp and analytical mind  Innovation and enquiring  Enables knowledge creation, flow and communication within the organization. 
  • 65. THANK YOU