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Digital Preservation of Geoscience Information

Digital Preservation of Geoscience Information

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    Digital preservation geoscinfo Digital preservation geoscinfo Presentation Transcript

    • Digital Preservation ofGeoscience Information Smita Chandra Librarian
    • 2
    • Importance of Digital Information Preservation 1975 – Two Viking space probes sent to Mars by USA. Data generated by unrepeatable mission cost $1 billion. Recorded data on magnetic tapes was corrupted / unidentifiable after 2 decades despite being kept in climate controlled environment. Scientists could not access data, unable to decode the formats used. 3
    • Importance of Digital Information Preservation Original format developers not alive. Finally old printouts tracked and retyped. NASA therefore is the biggest supporter of Digital Preservation Projects. This illustrates wide gap in information generation and its management. 4
    • Outline of Presentation Digital information: forms and types Geoscience information Institutional Repositories (IR) Digital Preservation (DP); strategies for DP OAIS model & its implementation Indian scenario Research proposal & expected results 5
    • Digital Information Information in digital form  Born Digital  Converted from Analog Types of Digital Information  Electronic Publications  Organizational and Personal Records  Data  Learning Objects like articles, books  Software Tools  Unpublished Materials  Electronic Manuscripts  Entertainment Products  Images (Digitally designed or digitized)  Websites 6
    • Threats Media decay and failure  Massive storage failures, outdated media Access Component Obsolescence  Outdated formats, applications & systems Human and Software errors & External Events 7
    • Information Deluge Present & Future ProjectionsYawning gap between Our ability to create digital information Our infrastructure and capacity to manage and preserve it over time Cumulative effect foreseen as future “digital dark ages” 8
    • Need for Digital Preservation preserving natural/cultural heritages for promoting academic research enabling public access to legacy collections 9
    • Geoscience Information Encompasses complex human-natural system Storehouse of massive heterogeneous data sets, and a wide variety of content and data types which reflect the features of various research fields of study Every content holder aim at the needs of their particular community and work independently with a loose collaboration and integration Every content holder has their respective digital archive system with individual data structure, management policy and search interface, however, there is an inability to transform and integrate data with each other transparently Enabling and improving the interoperability for heterogeneous collections is important Source : Loudon, T.V. Geoscience after IT : Part A & Part B. Computers & Geosciences, 2000, 26(3A), 26(3A), A1-13. 10
    • Institutional Repositories (1)Definition : An institute-based repository is a set of services that an academic institution offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. Source: Clifford A. Lynch (February 2003), “Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age” ARL Bimonthly Report 226: 1-7. http://www.arl.org/newsltr/226/ir.html 11
    • Institutional Repositories (2)Main Objectives to create global visibility for an institutions scholarly research; to collect content at a single location; to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving it; to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature (e.g., theses or technical reports). 12
    • Institutional Repositories (3)IR Softwares DSpace (dspace.mit.edu) Eprints.orgSubject Specific IRs arXiv (www.arXiv.org) RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) (www.repec.org) CogPrints (www.cogprints.org) NASA Technical Report Server (ntrs.nasa.gov) Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library (www.ncstrl.org) 13
    • Institutional Repositories (4) An IR is a model for a preservation system It requires “most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of … digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution” Attributes of a “Trusted Digital Repository”“…an organisation that has responsibility for the long-term maintenance of digital resources, as well as making them available [through time and across changing technologies] to communities agreed on by the depositor and the repository .” Research Libraries Group http://www.rlg.org/longterm/attributes01.pdf 14
    • Definition: Digital PreservationThe maintenance of digital materials over the long-termwith a view to ensuring its continued accessibility. Itensures that the digital resources are stored correctlyand maintained adequately in the online world, suchthat they are available consistently for use over time.“Long-term” includes timescales of decades or even centuries 15
    • Preservation Strategies Technology preservation  Keep the hardware alive Technology emulation  Create an environment to be able to run the existing software Data migration  Convert data to new formats to run in new applications 16
    • Open Archival Information System (OAIS) SIP = Submission Information Package AIP = Archive In formation Package DIP = Dissemination Information Package Published by Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) 2002, ISO 14721 : 2003 standard An archive consists of an organization of people and systems with responsibility to preserve information and make it available to users. 17
    • OAIS: Definitions To define an Open Archival Information System  The term open means that the document was developed in an open way, and does not imply that access to any OAIS should be unrestricted  An archive is defined as an "organization that intends to preserve information for access and use by a designated community." (p. 1-8)  While an OAIS itself need not be permanent, the information being maintained has been deemed to need "Long Term Preservation"  Long term = long enough for there to be a concern about the impact of changing technologies 18
    • OAIS: Purpose and Scope Primary focus on digital information Specific aims include: A framework for the understanding and awareness of the archival concepts needed for long term preservation (access)  Terminology and concepts for describing and comparing:  Architectures and operations  Preservation strategies and techniques  Data models  Consensus on elements and processes for long term preservation  A foundation for other standards 19
    • OAIS: Applicability Applicability: Applicable to any archive, but mainly focused on organisations with responsibility for making information available for the long term Of interest to those who create information Conformance An OAIS must support the information model - but does not specify any particular method of implementation Mandatory responsibilities (section 3.1) 20
    • Implementing OAIS (1) Summing up the fundamentals :  OAIS is a reference model (conceptual framework), NOT a blueprint for system design  It informs the design of system architectures, the development of systems and components  It provides common definitions of terms, a common language and means of making comparison  But it does NOT ensure consistency or interoperability between implementations 21
    • Implementing OAIS (2) 22
    • Implementing OAIS (3) 23
    • Implementing OAIS (4) 24
    • Summing Up : OAIS The OAIS model is a foundation stone for current and future digital preservation efforts Itis already widely used to inform the development of preservation tools and repositories Itcould be used in the future as a basis for conformance 25
    • Indian Scenario (1) Open Digital Repository  Indian Institute of Science (http://etd.ncsi.ernet.in)  National Chemical Laboratory (http://dspace.ncl.res.in/dspace/index.jsp)  Indian Statistical Institute (http://library.isibang.ac.in:8080/dspace/index/jsp) Social Science Data  The Census of India  M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation Museums and Art Galleries  Ministry of Culture, GOI  The National Archives 26
    • Indian Scenario (2) Institute ResourceCentral Water Commission Command area mapsNational Bureau of Soil Survey and Soil maps and land use dataSoil MapsSurvey of India (SOI) Topographical maps, geodetic trigonometric and levelling data, gravity & geomagnetic data, GPS data, tidal data, repetitive geodetic & geophysical dataGeological Survey of India (GSI) Geological maps on various scales, geological and seismic dataNational Remote Sensing Agency Satellite imageries, land use and wasteland(NRSA) maps on different scalesIndian Meteorological Department Meteorological and seismic data(IMD)Ministry of Ocean Development Oceanic data 27(MOD)
    • Proposal for IRs in India1. Providing adequate financial and technical resources for ensuring “digital preservation” in IRs2. National Informatics Center (NIC) entrusted with framing guidelines and policy or establishing a new agency For handling digital preservation, for collaboration, sharing and avoiding duplication3. Trusted Digital Repository for accurate and reliable information4. Legally sustainable digital preservation policy5. Joining the Digital Preservation Consortium6. Attention to collection management of digital material in libraries7. Amendment of the Delivery of Books Act and Press and Registration Act to cover the digital material8. Training of manpower for the management and preservation of electronic records9. Research in the area of digital preservation 28
    • Research Objectives Testing a pilot IR in a stand alone mode Implement an OAIS-compliant layer to the IR drawing upon best practices To develop a preservation strategy and a custom made model addressing issues like planning and policy for preservation, the role of different players in the process, IPR and copyright, etc 29
    • Research Methodology Digitization Process Digital Materials ConvertedAnalog Materials Born Material Selection Process Institutional Digital Preservation Repository Long Term Short Term 30
    • Expected Results Thisresearch would identify all the components necessary for the implementation of the OAIS model for a geoscience domain specific institutional repository 31
    • 32
    • Annexure 1 Preservation Description Information Provenence Context Reference FixityContent Data Object Representation Information Physical Object Digital Object 33
    • Annexure 2 OAIS Mandatory Responsibilities:  Negotiating and accepting information  Obtaining sufficient control of the information to ensure long-term preservation  Determining the "designated community"  Ensuring that information is "independently understandable"  Following documented policies and procedures  Making the preserved information available 34
    • Annexure 3 35