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First Aid Presentation

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  • 1. First Aid
  • 2. You will learn how to…
    • Stop bleeding
    • Treat fractures
    • Care for burns
    • Treat someone in shock
    • Care for someone with hypothermia
  • 3. Bleeding (if you have gloves, wear them)
    • Have the injured person lie down
    • Clean out any obvious dirt and debris from wound if they have something impaled in them, do not remove it, if possible.
    • Use a cloth or your hand to cover the wound and apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops.
  • 4. If the bleeding continues
    • Continue to apply direct pressure to the wound
    • If the cloth you are using bleeds through, Do Not Remove it! Put more cloth on top of the wound.
    • Get the person to the emergency room as quickly as possible.
  • 5. Fractures
    • Stop any bleeding using direct pressure
    • Immobilize the area by making a splint if you are unable to get to an emergency room.
  • 6. To make a splint for a broken arm
    • Find a piece of wood that is long enough to fit above and below the broken bone.
    • Use strips of cloth or gauze if available to tie the wood to the arm above and below the broken bone.
    • The splint should be tied tight enough to provide support for the broken bone, but not so tight that it cuts off the blood supply.
    • Seek medical attention immediately
  • 7. Example of a Splint
  • 8. Burns
    • 3 Kinds of Burns:
    • First Degree- first layer of skin is burned.
    • Second Degree- first and second layers of skin are burned.
    • Third Degree- multiple layers of skin burned, resulting in permanent damage.
  • 9. 1st Degree Burn
    • Least serious of the burns.
    • Skin is usually red, sometimes with pain and swelling.
    • Treat it as a minor burn.
  • 10. 2nd Degree Burn
    • Blisters develop, skin takes on a blotchy appearance.
    • Severe pain and swelling.
    • If burn is no larger than 3 inches in diameter, treat as a minor burn.
    • If larger than 3 inches in diameter, treat as a major burn and seek medical help immediately.
  • 11. Treatment for minor burns
    • Cool the burn under cold running water until the pain subsides. Do not ice the burn.
    • Wrap the burn loosely with gauze, to decrease pain and to protect the blisters.
    • Take an over the counter pain reliver such as Tylenol or Ibuprofen.
    • Will usually heal on their own, but watch for oozing, fever, swelling and redness. This could indicate an infection.
  • 12. 3rd Degree Burn
    • Most serious of the burns and will not be painful because of permanent tissue damage.
    • Areas may be charred black or appear white.
    • Person may have difficulty breathing.
  • 13. Treating a Major Burn
    • Call 911
    • Do not remove burned clothing, but do make sure clothing is not on fire.
    • Do not immerse in cold water-this could cause shock.
    • Check to make sure they are breathing-do CPR if necessary.
    • Elevate the burned body part if possible.
    • Cover the area with a cool, moist, sterile cloth.
  • 14. Shock
    • May result from trauma, heat stroke, allergic reactions, severe infection, poisoning, or other causes.
  • 15. Signs of Shock
    • Skin is cool and clammy, may appear pale
    • Weak and rapid pulse
    • Person may seem to stare off into space
    • If conscious, they may feel faint, weak, or confused.
    • Sometimes shock may make a person overly excited or anxious.
  • 16. If a person is in shock
    • Dial 911
    • Have them lie down with their feet higher than their head.
    • Check to see if they are breathing, if they aren’t begin CPR.
    • Keep the person warm and comfortable, but do not give them anything to drink.
    • Turn them on their side if vomiting or bleeding from their mouth.
    • Wait for help to arrive.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Hypothermia Signs and Symptoms
    • Shivering
    • Slurred Speech
    • Breathing very slowly
    • Cold, pale skin
    • Fatigue, lethargy, and apathy
  • 19. Treatment for Hypothermia
    • Move person out of the cold
    • Remove wet clothing and replace with a dry covering, try not to move the person too much.
    • Insulate the person’s body from the ground.
    • Monitor their breathing, do CPR if they stop.
    • Share body heat, and if they are conscious, encourage them to drink warm non-alcholic beverages.
  • 20. What not to do if someone has Hypothermia
    • Don’t apply direct heat-this could burn the person.
    • Don’t rub or massage the person, they are at risk of having a heart attack so they should be handled gently.
    • Don’t give them alcohol-alcohol lowers the body’s ability to retain heat.
  • 21. Now a few questions…
    • How do you stop a wound from bleeding?
    • How would you make a splint for a person with a broken leg?
    • How do you treat a minor burn? Major burn?
    • What are some reasons a person may go into shock? What symptoms might they have?
    • How do you treat someone with shock?
    • What can you do for someone if they have hypothermia?