Psychology's Scientific
Method
Objectives






5 Basic steps in the scientific research
Types of research & research settings
Analyze & interpreting...
Psychology’s Scientific Method
Scientific Approach
an organized way of using experience and
testing ideas to increase know...
Research settings & types of
research
A theory is a broad idea or set of
closely related facts that
attempts to explain an...
Psychology’s Scientific Method
5 steps of scientific method
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Observe phenomena
Formulate question, hypothe...
Research settings & types of
research


Types of research:






Descriptive
Correlational
Experimental

Research set...
Research settings & types of
research


Descriptive research:






Observation
Surveys & Interviews
Standardized tes...
Research settings & types of
research


Correlational research:correlation
formula






Systematic observation of var...
Research settings & types of
research


Experimental Research:


IV & DV

independent
variable
(the possible
cause)

dep...
Research settings & types of
research


Caution about experimental research






Validity
Experimenter bias
Particip...
Validity


The extent to which an experiment is
measuring what you intend to measure.





Depression & anxiety
Aggres...
Experimenter Bias


The influence of the experimenters own
expectations on the outcome of the
research.
Participant Bias


The influence of the participant’s
expectations on their behavior in the
experiment.
Placebo Effect
A placebo is a bogus treatment that
has the appearance of being
genuine.
A placebo effect occurs when subje...
Single Blind Study
Well-designed experiments
control for the effects of
expectations by creating
conditions under which
pa...
Double Blind Study
Studies in which both participants
and experimenters are unaware of
who has obtained the treatment are
...
Analyzing and Interpreting
Data


Descriptive statistics – describe and summarize
data for large groups of participants
...
Analyzing and Interpreting
Data


Measure of dispersion:


Range



Normal distribution: bell-shaped curve



Standard...
Analyzing and Interpreting
Data


Inferential statistics:

methods used to indicate
whether or not data sufficiently supp...
Mode

9

Mean & Median

% Giving birth for 1st time

8
7

6
5
4

3
2
1

0

13

16

19

22

25

28

Mother’s Age

31

34

3...
Analyzing and Interpreting Data


Reaching conclusions from data


Statistical significance






Size of correlation...
Challenges of Conducting
Ethical Research
Ethics of Research with Human
Participants
Ethics of Research with Nonhuman
Anim...
Ethics of Research with
Human Participants
1. Freedom from Coercion
2. Informed consent
3. Limited deception

4. Adequate ...
Ethics of Research with
Nonhuman Animals
1. Necessity

2. Health
3. Humane
treatment
Becoming a consumer of
Psychological Research







Distinguish between group results and
Individual needs
Avoid ove...
Basic introduction to research methods
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Basic introduction to research methods

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Basic introduction to research methods

  1. 1. Psychology's Scientific Method
  2. 2. Objectives     5 Basic steps in the scientific research Types of research & research settings Analyze & interpreting data Conducting and evaluating research-ethics in research
  3. 3. Psychology’s Scientific Method Scientific Approach an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to increase knowledge: 1. 2. 3. 4. Curious Skeptical Objective Think critically Begins with theory…
  4. 4. Research settings & types of research A theory is a broad idea or set of closely related facts that attempts to explain and predict something. Steps of the Scientific Method
  5. 5. Psychology’s Scientific Method 5 steps of scientific method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Observe phenomena Formulate question, hypothesis, & prediction Test prediction with research Draw conclusions Evaluate & collaborate
  6. 6. Research settings & types of research  Types of research:     Descriptive Correlational Experimental Research settings   Laboratory Natural observation
  7. 7. Research settings & types of research  Descriptive research:     Observation Surveys & Interviews Standardized tests Case studies
  8. 8. Research settings & types of research  Correlational research:correlation formula    Systematic observation of variables within a sample of people Concerned with how variable change together Correlation coefficient   Positive (r=.68) Negative (r=-.77)
  9. 9. Research settings & types of research  Experimental Research:  IV & DV independent variable (the possible cause) dependent variable (the outcome measured)
  10. 10. Research settings & types of research  Caution about experimental research     Validity Experimenter bias Participant bias Placebo effect
  11. 11. Validity  The extent to which an experiment is measuring what you intend to measure.    Depression & anxiety Aggression & Fear The soundness of the conclusions
  12. 12. Experimenter Bias  The influence of the experimenters own expectations on the outcome of the research.
  13. 13. Participant Bias  The influence of the participant’s expectations on their behavior in the experiment.
  14. 14. Placebo Effect A placebo is a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine. A placebo effect occurs when subjects who have not received the independent variable have results similar to subjects who do.
  15. 15. Single Blind Study Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of the treatment and are called single blind studies.
  16. 16. Double Blind Study Studies in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of who has obtained the treatment are called double-blind studies.
  17. 17. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Descriptive statistics – describe and summarize data for large groups of participants  Mean: average  Median: midpoint in rank-ordered data  Mode: score appearing most often
  18. 18. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Measure of dispersion:  Range  Normal distribution: bell-shaped curve  Standard deviation: degree to which scores in ordered distribution are spread out
  19. 19. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Inferential statistics: methods used to indicate whether or not data sufficiently support hypothesis.   Statistical significance .05, .01, .001
  20. 20. Mode 9 Mean & Median % Giving birth for 1st time 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 13 16 19 22 25 28 Mother’s Age 31 34 37 40
  21. 21. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Reaching conclusions from data  Statistical significance    Size of correlation Difference of means are greater than chance Two issues for significance   Larger sample size is better Statistical difference does not equal practical significance
  22. 22. Challenges of Conducting Ethical Research Ethics of Research with Human Participants Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals
  23. 23. Ethics of Research with Human Participants 1. Freedom from Coercion 2. Informed consent 3. Limited deception 4. Adequate debriefing 5. Confidentiality
  24. 24. Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals 1. Necessity 2. Health 3. Humane treatment
  25. 25. Becoming a consumer of Psychological Research      Distinguish between group results and Individual needs Avoid overgeneralization Look beyond a single study Avoid making causal attributions Consider the source of information

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