C H A P T E R Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training Jeffrey A. Potteiger 2 1
Chapter Outline Physiological responses to aerobic endurance training Special issues related to aerobic endurance training Factors related to aerobic endurance performance Designing an aerobic endurance program Types of aerobic endurance training programs Application of program design to training seasons
Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training: Respiratory Enhanced oxygen exchange in the lungs Decreased submaximal pulmonary ventilation Improved blood flow throughout the lungs Decreased submaximal respiratory rate
Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training: Musculoskeletal Increased mitochondrial size and density Increased arteriovenous oxygen difference Increased oxidative enzyme concentrations Increased myoglobin concentration Increased capillarization in muscle bed
Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance Maximal aerobic power Fiber type characteristics Lactate threshold Exercise economy Fuel utilization
Aerobic Endurance Training Program Design Variables Exercise mode (the specific activity performed by the athlete) Training intensity (the effort expended during a training session) Training frequency (the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week) Exercise duration (the length of time the training session is conducted)
T he regulation of exercise intensity is critical to designing an effective workout. Using heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, or pacing are common ways to assign and regulate intensity.
Types of Aerobic Endurance Training Fartlek: 1 time a week; for approximately 20-60 min; between LSD and pace/tempo training intensities Pace/tempo: 1-2 times a week; for approximately 20-30 min; lactate threshold (at or slightly above race pace) Long, slow distance (LSD): 1-2 times a week; for approximately 30 to 120 min or longer; approximately 70% of VO 2 max . Interval: 1-2 times a week; for 3-5 min (with a work:rest ratio of 1:1); close to VO 2 max . Repetition: 1 time a week; for 30-90 s (with a work:rest ratio of 1:5); greater than VO 2 max .
E ach type of training induces different physiological responses. A sound training program should incorporate all types of training into the athlete’s weekly, monthly, and yearly training schedule.
Sport Season Objectives Off-season (base training): Develop sound conditioning base. Postseason (active rest): Recover from competitive season. Preseason: Improve factors important to aerobic endurance performance. In-season (competition): Maintain factors important to aerobic endurance performance.
A sound year-round aerobic endurance training program should be divided into sport seasons with goals and objectives designed to improve performance gradually and progressively.
Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training Cross training is used to maintain general conditioning during periods of reduced training. Water run training involves running in water with the aid of a flotation device that keeps the athlete in a prone position with the head above water. Detraining occurs when the athlete reduces the train-ing duration or intensity or stops training altogether. Tapering involves the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique work. Resistance training gives aerobic endurance athletes faster recovery from injuries, prevention of overuse injuries, and reduction of muscle imbalances. Gender differences could affect the development of aerobic endurance training programs.
Physiological Differences Between Males and Females Muscle mass Force production Peak power output Body composition Heart size Hemoglobin concentration Muscle enzyme activity Relative use of carbohydrate and fat as fuels Biomechanical differences Running economy Oxygen cost of running Maximum aerobic, anaerobic power