A.D 1605 TO 1627(22 yrs) Real name :- Mohammed Sultan Salim He took the title Nuruddin Jahangir. He was well educated ,fond of literatureand paintings. He cared about the welfare of hissubjects.
KHUSHRAU’S REBELLION Jahangir’s son Khushrau revolted againsthis father in alliance with his uncle ManSingh. Khushrau was defeated and wasimprisoned by his father. Many of his followers were put to death. Sikh Guru , Arjun who had supported theprince (Khushrau) , was imposed a heavyfine.
CONQUESTS AND CAMPAIGNS In A.D 1613 Jahangir marched againstRana Amar Singh(son of Rana Pratap)of Mewar. Amar Singh refused suzerainty andtherefore, was defeated. He remained loyal to the Mughal Empirethroughout his life. Jahangir also conquered Kangra, Avadhand Bengal.
RELATIONS WITH THEEUROPEANS Before Jahangir took the throne theEuropeans had already arrived India. Initially Jahangir was liberal with thePortuguese and granted them tradeconcessions. But the Portuguese indulged in piracyand attacked Mughal ships. Jahangir, then, refused the permission ontrade with them.
The English East India(British traders)Company succeeded in obtaining tradeconcessions. They also got permission to set up factoryat Surat.
Nur Jahan Real name : Meherunnisa Her first marriage was with agovernor of Burdwan . After her husband’s death she returnedback to her father Mirza Gias Beg. Jahangir married Nur Jahan because ofher intelligence and abilities. She would advice him on statematters and admisitration.
When Jahangir fell ill and later becameaddicted to wine, she got her familymembers appointed for higher posts. Prince Khurram rose in revolt against NurJahan and Jahangir. The last sixteen years of Jahangir’sadministration was in Nur Jahan’s hand . After jahangir’s death Khurram took over thethrown, while Nur Jahan retired from courtlife.
Shah Jahan (Khurram)SHAH JAHANThe AGE OFMAGNIFICIENCE
(A.D 1628-1658, 30 yrs) Kurram was Jahangir’s third son. He managed to remove all this rivals andascend the Mughal throne. Art and architecture flourished during hisperiod.
CONQUESTS1. Jujhar Singh rose in revolt inBundelkhand and was defeated.2. Khan Jahan Lodi of Deccan in alliancewith the ruler of Ahmadnagar revoltedand he too was defeated.3. Ahmendnagar, Bijapur and Golcondawere creating trouble.
to bring these states under his control , heappointed Aurangzeb(his son) as thesubedar of the Deccan.Shah Jahan conquered Ahmednagarwhile, Bijapur and Golconda accepted thesuzerainty of the Mughals.
Relations with EUROPEAN Traders During the reign of Akbar the Portuguesehad established factories in Hugli andBengal They imposed heavy duty on Indiantraders and began slave trade. Shah Jahan’s army defeated thePortuguese and seized Hugli. The Dutch East India Company willinglysubmitted to the Mughals.
ARTThe painterswho came fromfar and widewere lavishlyrewarded.
ArchitectureHe built Taj Mahal for his beloved wife. The walls were covered withpietra dura designs.It took 20 yrs and 3 crore rupees to complete it.
He constructed Moti Masjid in Agra
and Jama Masjid in Delhi
Red Fort had beautiful building the Diwan-i-Khas and Diwan-i-Aam andRang Mahal.
The peacock throne
Underlying the glitter of thecourt, there were signs ofbankruptcy, why? Huge sums of money was spent inconstruction of tombs palaces, mosquesand unsuccessful military expeditions
War for the Throne Shah Jahah had 4 sons:- Dara, Shuja , Aurangzeb and MuradShah Jahan was in favour of Darabecoming the emperor as he was theeldest.But when Shah Jahan got ill, Shujadeclared himself as the king and marchedto Agra.Dara and his son along with Raja JaswantSingh defeated Murad easily
Aurangzeb knew that it would be difficultto defeat Dara. Therefore, in alliance withhis younger brother Murad marched toAgra to defeat Dara. After Dara’s defeat Aurangzeb occupiedAgra and kept his father under housearrest. Shah Jahan died a broken man and wasburried next to his wife.