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Romanesque Slides by Students

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  • 1. ROMANESQUE SLIDES by Amity’s young art historians 1.Christ and His Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (15-1) Eeman 2.Church of Sant Vincenc, Cardona (15-3) Catie C. 3.The Abbey at Cluny (15-9) Ben 4.Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy (page 484) Mollie 5.Abbey Church of Notre-Dame (15-12) Priya 6.Church of San Clemente (15-14) Phil 7.Church of Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe, Poitu (15-15) Grace 8.Church of Sant’Ambrogio, Milan (15-16) Tori 9.Speyer Cathedral (15-17) Guillermo 10.Dover Castle (15-24) Aliyah 11.South Portal and Porch, Priory Church of St. Pierre Moissac (15-26) Shoba 12.Capital: Suicide of Judas (15-29) Jason 13.Christ in Majesty (15-30) Kavita 14.Tower of Babel (15-31) Mary 15.Crucifix (15-32) George 16.Tomb Cover with Effigy of Rudolf of Swabia (15-34) Katie Z. 17.The Mouth of Hell, Winchester Psalter (15-38) Mike
  • 2. Christ and His Disciples on the Road to Emmaus • Cloister of the Abbey of Santo Domingo, Silos, Castile, Spain, c. 1100 • Pier relief, life-size figures three men, under arch supported by columns • Bodies seem boneless, slow curves, joints seem to melt, drapery frames delicate curves • Heads framed by halos • Tranquility in Christ’s figure: large, cruciform halo, short staff • Scene of Christ and two disciples on road from Jerusalem to Emmauus • Scallop shell on Christ’s satchel: badge pilgrims wear on journey to shrines in Spain • Figurative, narrative, didactic (Christian story) art
  • 3. Church of San Vincenc Cardona, Spain – 11th century • • • • • Masonry building Catalon-Lombard style (builders) 2-story narthex Low, narrow aisles and two apses Crossing tower for choir—very important • Benedictine Plan: Apses of different sizes, narrow aisles, and stepped outline • Strip buttresses – bands of masonry in ceiling
  • 4. The Abbey at Cluny • Created as a place of prayer and a Benedictine Monastery Sacked and almost completely destroyed during the French Revolution Image on right is a reconstruction drawing Abbey is unique because it had an independent status Located in Cluny, Saône-etThe abbot answered to the Pope, not to local bishops Loire,France, founded by William I in 910 CE The Abbey at Cluny made up most of the city of Cluny The Churches at Cluny combined the needs of the monks and visiting pilgrims needs The Abbey at Cluny reflects the widespread use of stone during Romanesque Period Reflects Romanesque focus on religion and rebirth of Art and Architecture • • • • • • • •
  • 5. Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy -Abbey Church of Conques, Conques, France -Late 9th or 10th century with later additions -Silver gilt over a wood core w/ added gems and cameos of various dates -Height: 33” -Christians turned to the martyrs, or the heroes of their church, to answer their prayers and connect them with god -Western churches wanted to be close to earthly remains of the martyrs -Bodies, parts of bodies, things associated with the Hold Family, or the saints were kept inside richly decorated boxed, or reliquaries. -Could be simple boxes or a specific symbol / shape -Stainte Foy was a 12 year old Roman girl who was martyred in the town of Agen for refusing to worship pagan gods.
  • 6. • • • • • • • • • • • Created by Cistercian Monks Cistercian architecture: a variation of Romanesque architecture, reflects on ideals of order, simplicity, and austerity The monastery plan makes it so that key buildings are at right angles to the cloister walk so that the building could be easily extended should the community grow Simple geometric plan: along nave with rectangular chapels off the square-ended transept arms and a shallow choir with a straight east wall A feature of Fontenay often found in Cistercian architecture is the pointed ribbed barrel vaults over the nave and pointed arches in the nave arcade and side- aisle bays Harmonious proportions + fine stonework Large windows at the end, unlike a clerestory, provides light Sets of triple windows that reminded monks of Trinity Similar to other Cistercian monasteries It reflects on architectural developments of their time in their masonry, vaulting, and proportions This simple architecture became an international style from Scotland to Germany to Spain and Italy Place of sanctuary for Cistercian Monks that represented many of there values through it’s style Abbey Church of Notre- Dame, Fontenay , Burgundy France 1139-47
  • 7. Church of San Clemente by Phil Hochman
  • 8. • • • • • constructed in Rome, Italy led by Cardinal Anastasius, built by Benedictines finished in 1123, consecrated in 1128 made primarily of marble, some parts timber Desiderius Church served as a model
  • 9. • • • rebuilding of Church of San Clemente is on top of a 4th century basilica (the top of this church served as a Church while the bottom served as a mithraeum, or place of worship for followers of Mithraism) built to honor Pope Clement I also shows the Catholic Church’s growing power
  • 10. • • • • • artist achieved amazing structure by combining elements of different centuries in one church magnificent collection of early church furniture including choir stalls, pulpit, lectern, candlestick (5th century) twelfth century inlaid floor pavement ninth century choir screens reused from old church below upper wall and ceiling decoration are eighteenth century ● also, columns are spolia, taken from Roman art
  • 11. • • • • • • moderately different from Early Christian Churches as opposed to having parallel rows of identical columns, rectangular piers disrupt the line of Ionic columns and divide the nave into bays also, most Early Christian Churches did not have spoila like the San Clemente just as many other Romanesque churches did, San Clemente exemplifies the growing power of Catholicism during that time period because central apse was not large enough to hold new abundant participants of 12 century, choir extended into the nave and defined by a lower barrier made up of ninth century relief panels most early Romanesque basilicas merely had altar area enclosed by screen wall
  • 12. • • • • • arguably the most breathtaking component is the timber roof, but actually very elaborate Jesus Christ on the cross with doves surrounding him stylized geometric patterns that repeat angels saints, and sheep shown much symmetry in all
  • 13. Church of St-Savin-Sur-Gartempe Location: Vienne, France 11th Century Slide by: Grace Leyden • • • • • • • • • Mostly made of marble Built in the time of Charlemagne, to shelter two martyrs, Savin and Cyprian Church build in honor of, and to shelter the holy relics During the Hundred years war, it was taken over and burned by Prince Edward III Housed many remarkable murals and paintings in good shape The front entry porch shows the cycle of the Apocalypse Scenes from the Old Testament are seen in the nave The vault of the nave has an area of 460 square meters of frescos Abbey buildings include the church, monastic building, and lodging/gardens • • • • • • 47 meters long Ambulatory and five chapels Has some Gothic style steeples Romanesque hall church with Exceptional internal lighting High full arched openings
  • 14. Church of Sant’ Ambrogio (379-386 CE, rebuilt 12th century CE) • • • • • Milan, Italy. Brick. Built by St. Ambrose. Very old church; built in area where many Roman martyrs were buried Dedicated to Ambrose- bishop of Milan Focal point of Milan’s religious life; city built around this church Common pilgrimage destination Features: – Central nave lighted from the clerestory, two side aisles, a semicircular apse, and an atrium • • • Very large arcaded atrium – Narthex leads into nave, which has a high ribbed vault while the side aisles have groin vaulting – 2 bell towers – Portico's (porch leading to the entrance of a building) arcade are supported by pillars, flanked by semi-columns. They have double archivolts Building has a lot of religious significance to Milan, and is one of the oldest churches. Holds many important relics that appealed to pilgrims Similar to Durham Cathedral with use of ribbed vaults, as well as many other Romanesque churches
  • 15. Speyer Cathedral Guillermo Lopez-Vila
  • 16. Founder: Conrad II, later finished by grandson, Emperor Henry IV Features: Designed to attract worshippers; accomplished by creating intricate decorations on the easily carved sandstone. Dedicated to St. Mary, and burial sight for several kings, so symbol of imperial power. Features: Total length: 134 m (from the steps at the entrance to the exterior wall of the east apse) External width of the nave (with aisles): 37.62 m (from exterior wall to exterior wall) Internal width of the nave: 14 m Height of the nave at the vertex of the vaults: 33 m Height of the eastern spires: 71.20 m Height of the western spires: 65.60 m Crypt Length: east-west 35 m; northsouth 46 m Height: between 6.2 m and 6.5 m Date/Era: 11th Century, Romanesque Location: Speyer, Germany Similar Work: Abbey Church of Notre Dame Medium: Red sandstone
  • 17. Dover Castle in Dover Built during the 12 century England Built with earthworks, wood, various stone th • • • Built over time by Romans (lighthouse) Anglo-Saxons (church) • Built to guard the city of people and religious leaders within (included guard towers, moats, and acres of courtyards)
  • 18. Dover Castle (continued) • The Great Tower (later known as the keep ((in England)) or donjon ((in France))) stood in a courtyard (called a bailey) • Stone walls surrounded every building and outdoor air, and each wall was surrounded by ditches and moats to keep out intruders • A gatehouse guarded the entry, and barns and workshops could be found within, along with a city of people and host of religious leaders • Dover Castle is Romanesque due to its immensity, both in underground tunnels and high towers. Plus, it’s almost entirely made out of stone • Dover Castle was a prosperous center for merchants, sailors, and religious figures, keeping the moderate population safe and happy
  • 19. South Portal and Porch, Priory Church of St. Pierre Moissac • Created - c.1115-30 • Design consist of Christ in Glory with seraphim. Below and on the side of him in rows are the twenty-four elders, crowned, holding chalices and musical instruments, praising him with song. The clouds of Heaven or the rippling sea provides a boundary line. • Carved portal art was a significant change in Romanesque art. Representing a combination of biblical narratives, history, and Christian symbolism. The most common themes were scenes of Christ in Majesty and the Last Judgment. • The lintel has ten concave rosettes (like dishes) inside a rope design issuing from the mouth of a grotesque animal
  • 20. South Portal and Porch, Priory Church of St. Pierre Moissac This picture helps show details of the tympanum, the arched area directly above the portal. Also illustrated with details on this site are the trumeau (the vertical supporting post between the leaves of a doorway), the jambs-on each side of the doorway, and the side walls, which are decorated with narrative sculpture.
  • 21. Capital: Suicide of Judas Location: Cathedral of Saint Lazare in Autun, France Artist: Gislebertus Date: 12th century Medium: Rigid stone work with skilled amount of texture Period: Found in the Romanesque period Purpose: This piece of art depicts various biblical scenes and figures. This Sculpture also was made to represent the agonies and passions of the Christian Faith. How artist achieved Purpose: The artist achieved this purpose by clearly showing the betrayal of Christ in the sculpture. Unique features: The stonework presented in this piece of work is very Unique. The detail used is also extremely pericise. Similar works: The prophet of Ezekiel is another work of similar art. This sculpture is also made from the same type of stone and its purpose Was to also portray the agonies and passions of the Christian Faith. Aspects of Romanesque art: Some aspects of Romanesque art include The sculpture portrays the agony of Christian Faith which is mainly portrayed by Christ betraying Judas.
  • 22. Tower of Babel Located in the Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe in Poitou, France. c 1115 CE. Dampened pigment on plaster. Created by many artists in groups.
  • 23. Tower of Babel (continued) • • • • • • Purpose was to illustrate the story of the Tower of Babel on the Church’s nave According to Bible, humans attempted to build a tower to the heavens, God punished them by changing each of their languages so they could not understand each other Painting depicts workers hauling and placing blocks to form a tower. God (far left, with halo) scolds them, body depicted as walking away from them (they will not reach God with their tower) Similar to many other works of Romanesque art, religious and Christian in subject matter Unlike other paintings in Italy, wet-plaster fresco NOT used - only slightly dampened plaster As it illustrates part of the Bible on the the nave of a church, represents Christian religion - large part of Romanesque culture
  • 24. Crucifix (mid 12th century) •Catalunya, Spain •Carved from Polychromed wood •Shows Jesus Christ on the cross •Recalls Byzantine work Volto Santo of Lucca •Said to be carved by Nicodemus who moved the body of Jesus •Not commonly depicted with clothing •Royal Robes emphasize king ship •Designs to resemble Arabic writing on his robes show honor •Sculpture similar to this common in Romanesque art •Show deep Christian Faith
  • 25. Tomb Cover With Effigy of Rudolf of Swabia: c. 1080, Bronze with niello, 6’ 5½” x 2’ 2 ½”, Cathedral of Merseburg on Saxony, Germany • • • • • • • • Bronze tomb effigies (portraits of the deceased) Oldest known tomb effigy Rudolf died in battle in 1080 Life size, king’s head modeled in high relief and stands out from body like detached shield Niello: fine linear detailing incised and filled with black alloy Spurs on his feet show he was a warrior In hands, hold scepter and orb, significant of a Christian king Large-scale work (a traditional Romanesque feature)
  • 26. Closer pictures
  • 27. •Mouth of Hell, Winchester Psalter (c. 1150) Ink and tempura on vellum Commissioned by Henry of Blois, Bishop Winchester, English king's brother Inscription: “Here is hell and the angels who are locking the doors” It's a psalter—religious text Sinners inside include rulers with crowns, monks with shaved heads: “daring” reminder about vulnerability of souls Narrative style—chaotic, full of things happening—can be traced to Carolingian Utrecht Psalter (although pen work, apparently, has become more controlled) Despite action, dominated by framing Parallels to Hellmouth images from liturgical dramas (“mystery plays”) Hell scenes (often with vulgar humor) often most popular parts