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Medieval Student Slides

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  • 1. MEDIEVAL ART Slides by Amity’s finest young art historians
  • 2. Eagle Brooch o o o o o o o o o o o One of a pair, 14.3 cm 6th century (Early Middle Ages), Spain Crystal., garnets, gilt, and bronze Visigoths migrated across southern France to Spain o Metalworkers: create colorful jewelry Bird is in flight: outstretched wings and tail Profile head, large round eye, curved beak Cabochon: polished but unfaceted crystals o In center of bird o In the circle that represent the bird’s body Eye: round amethyst in whit meerschaum frame Pendant jewels originally hung from the tail Functional jewelry: fastened tunic at neck One of most important motifs in Western art o First, ancient sun symbol o Then, symbol of imperial Rome o Later, emblem of Saint John the Evangelist
  • 3. The Cross, Church of Saint Giulia, Brescia, Italy Late 7th – early 9th century AD Gold, silver, wood, glass w/gold medallion of 3 rd century •Made by Lombards, a group of metal working people migrating from the plains of Hungary to Italy •Byzantine cross (equal-length arms, widening at ends) •200 jewels and cameos •Center is relief carving of Christ surrounded by halo of divine light •Made to glorify God with color and light
  • 4. Gunnersmark Brooch • • • Norse • Used a crafted mold to produce a glittering surface and speed up the process of creation • • • • • Decorative and held up clothes Used animal forms and silver gilt to make decorative Brooch pin attached by arched bow Surface covered in geometric, human, animal forms Similar to other early Medieval Art; focus on portability and animal forms Represents the need for travel and portability while also dignity and wealth Forms inspired from nature Denmark. 6th Century, Silver Gilt, height 5 ¾”
  • 5. Page with Man: Gospel Book of Durrow -Probably made in Scotland or Northern England -Ink and tempura on parchment -Format of book reflects Roman Christian models -Paintings are “an encyclopedia of contemporary designs” -Book had four gospels, each introduced with a page showing the symbol of its evangelist author -Shows the gospel of St. Matthew -His symbol, the man, is shown -Man wears a startling, unshaven face and stares grimly from his rounded shoulders -The hair framing his face follows the tonsure of the early Celtic church -Tonsure –ceremonial hairstyle that distinguishes monks from laymen -Seems to float w/ dangling feet against a neutral ground
  • 6. -Medium : Stone (Sandstone) -Freestanding Cross -It is from the Hiberno Saxon (Early Medieval) -representative of the early series of cross manufacture -relies on abstract non-figurative art, and is probably based on crosses of wood or metal -Influenced by metal working traditions. Seems to have been made as a reliquary cross. Reliquary Cross is a cross that holds holy relics -Celtic ring in the back that supports the cross, Celtic ring is interpreted as halo or glory -outlined with a ropelike, convex moldings and covered with spirals and interlace - large bosses (broochlike projections)that form a cross within a cross ; resemble the jewels that were similarly placed on metal crosses Composed of 3 sections 1. a base 2. Shaft 3.Capestone South Cross, Ahenny County Tipperary, Ireland, 8th century, Stone
  • 7. • Colophon Page, Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and Commentary on Daniel by Gerome 8th century, July 27th 970, the book was finished in 1008 • Liebana in the northern kingdom of Austruias • Tempura on parchment • Emeritus and Senior created the work, but Beatus wrote Commentary on the Apocalypse • Byzantine Period • Colophon provides details for the construction of the book, this is merely a painting in the colophon • Intended to go the Monastery of San Salvador at Tabara, Leon, Spain • “There, over thy first roof, Emeritus sat for three months bowed down and racked in every limb by the copying.”
  • 8. •This page, part of the colophon, is located at the end of the book with details about the construction of the book •Five-story tower of the Monastery in Tabara • Multicolore d geometric shapes and patterns which were common to much Medieval art • Many paintings of structures
  • 9. Battle of the Bird and The Serpent, Commentary on the Apocalypse By: Beatus & Commentary on Daniel by Gerome •Artists: Emeterius, male & Ende, female •Tempera on parchment paper 15 ¾ X 10 ¼ “ •Finished July 6th, 975 during the Ottonian Empire •Depicts; “Christ’s triumph over Evil” •Purpose was to illustrate the accessibility of religious messages to the mostly illiterate public. •Allegory of peacock and Christ, Serpent and demon. •Shows unique colorful styles and characteristics of Mozarabic work, (meaning relating to the Christian inhabitants of Spain under Muslim kings) •Similar to many other Medieval pieces, this illustrates religious stories and visuals to people who cannot interpret words. •Orginially made in the Monastery of San Salvador at Tabara, Leon, Spain
  • 10. Palace Chapel of Charlemagne 790 CE (Carolingian Empire), Aachen, Germany. Stone exterior. Architect: Odo of Metz
  • 11. Palace Chapel of Charlemagne 790 CE (Carolingian Empire), Aachen, Germany. Stone exterior. Architect: Odo of Metz • Entire complex acted as imperial palace for Charlemagne • • Entire complex is important, but most cherished is the chapel • Octagonal Carolingian nave • 8 massive pillars hold the large arcade (succession of arches) • Adorned with gold and silver and lamps, has rails and doors of solid brass • Columns and marbles for this structure brought from Rome and Ravenna • King sat on a throne made of white marble plates in the West of the second floor • Two choirs, one on East and the other on the West side • Charlemagne wanted chapel to be magnificently decorated – had massive bronze doors made at the entrance, and walls covered with marble and polychrome stone • • • Has a council hall, chapel, gallery, thermae (bathhouse), & other buildings Walls and cupola enhanced with mosaics Has Christian symbolism for figures and numbers applied as religion was a large part of medieval culture • Chapel itself also symbolizes the RELIGIOUS POWER of Charlemagne Grander than most other Medieval chapels as this one was specifically commissioned by Charlemagne– one of the most prominent rulers in history
  • 12. Page with St. Mark the Evangelist, Godescalc Gospel Lectionary Guillermo
  • 13. How artist achieves purpose: Richly illustrated, gold and silver lettering, vivid dyes, masterful understanding of Roman portraits Artist: Frankish scribe, Godescalc Location: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris Date: 781-83 CE Medium: Gold, silver, and Purple dyed vellum Period: Carolingian Empire Purpose: Supposedly Commemorate baptism of sons of Charlemagne and his wife Hildegard in Rome Meow! Meow! (Draw more (Draw more cats!) cats!) Unique features: Mark is writing and listening to a small haloed lion as his inspiration (lion is Mark’s symbol), things are overlapping and rendered to show depth, classic vine and sandaled feet give natural feel, impossible angle of knees is disturbing though Similar works: Page with Saint Matthew the Evangelist, Coronation Gospels & Page with Matthew the Evangelist, Ebbo Gospels Aspects of Medieval culture: Promote learning, propagate Christianity, and standardize Church law and practice
  • 14. Page with Psalm 23 Original location: Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht, Holland Dated: 9th century Medium: Ink on vellum or parchment Artist: Unknown Period: Carolingian Psalm 23 is a biblical text, its purpose was to display the stories within the bible. The artist achieved this purpose by not only writing out the entire psalm, but also including an illustration that literally depicts the psalm. This particular psalm, found in the impressive Utrecht Psalter, is unique because the artists did painstaking working to bring the psalm to life, word by word. It’s illustrations like this that define the Carolingian art styles, in which word and illustration are combined.
  • 15. • • • • • Queen’s Ship (Oseberg Ship) A 75 foot long wooden ship discovered in Oseored, Norway The ship served as a vessel for two women on their journey to eternity 834 The burial chamber (which held the Queen and her servant)was looted of jewelry and valuables long ago, although the ship itself attest to the wealth and prominence of the ship’s owner. This vessel propelled both oars and sails, it was designed for travel in relatively calm waters (not journeys in a vast, open sea) Design: The prow and stern of the ship rise and coil, the spiraling end having a tiny serpents head. Low relief animal carvings boarder the ship
  • 16. Viking Beast are broad-bodied creatures that are adorned on many Viking belongings, The Queen’s ship being one Their bodies are often encrusted with geometric adornments Women made huge water proof sails made of wool that gave the ship great long distance capability. Why I like this piece….I like the idea that the whole community made an effort to create such a remarkable piece. These ships are arguably the Vikings most important contribution to world architecture.
  • 17. Royal Rune Stone Original location-Jelling, Denmark Original date- c. 983-985 Rune stones were carved out with rock to portray art Original artist-the vikings Period-Hiberno-Saxon Purpose-The purpose for these mammoth like stones to portray important pictures and events that or passed away during that certain time period. (Ex. King Harald had one made for his father Gorm and his mother Thyra) Achieving this-The vikings were able to achieve this purpose by carving out these rocks and known as rune rocks, and portraying messages and images that relate to the important person or event Unique features-Unique features in this work include the 8 foot rune stones used, Christ is also portrayed on the one rock, Robed in the Byzantine with arms outstretched as if crucified, also interlaced with double ribbon instead of a cross Similar- many other works of art of this time portray meaningful and religious people and places as well as this piece Aspects of Medieval culture-Portrays many symbols of the Old Testament, used great detail and distinct style in all of their work
  • 18. • Heddal, Norway • 1125 - 50 AD • Walls formed by wooden boards • 4 corner posts rest on a stone foundation • Architect Unknown • Triple nave stave church • Served as a Christian church building • Chosen because it was an ancient place of worship • Close to a place of sacrifice • Building materials easily accessed Borgund Stave Church
  • 19. Exterio r • Raised central rooms in rectangular nave and narrow chancel • Exterior is most distinctive feature • Round turret above easternmost part of chancel • Cone-shaped turret and steeple are unique • Ridge turret on top of roof gives the extra height • Post-and-lintel construction • On the gables of the roof are four carved dragon heads • Similar to those found on Norse ships
  • 20. Return to Medieval Style • Architect Christie • Restoration work – 1860s onward • Pews removed • Only original benches kept • Ceiling vault taken down, walls restored • Window openings (except ones in west gable) removed • Animal motifs • Fighting snakes, flying dragons
  • 21. • Runic inscriptions found on the walls • Most of internal fittings have been removed • Would have been more artwork in the building • Statues and crucifixes • Built on a basilica plan, with reduced side isles and an added chancel and apse • Ceiling held up with “scissor beams” • In the gable field a white dove is painted on a blue background • Symbol of the Holy Spirit Interior • Main entrance doors have wrought-iron mountings/lion carved in wood
  • 22. Otto I Presenting Magdeburg Cathedral to Christ •from Milan c. 962-68. Ivory. Ottonian • served as an altar or pulpit decoration. small, 5x4.5”. One of seventeen from Magdeburg Ivory series - small ivory tiles to decorate holy spaces • religious theme, specifically Christian, glorified Christ (like many other works from this time). Christ enthroned in center, angels surround. Small figure in angel’s arms to the left is emperor Otto I • Hierarchy of scale shows that Christ and angels are seen as much more powerful and royal even than Otto I • Also shows unity of Medieval church and state - emperor shows dedication to church by presenting model to Christ
  • 23. Church of Saint Cyriakus
  • 24. Church of Saint Cyriakus •Gernrode, Germany 961-973 • Built by provincial military governor Gero of the Ottonian empire. •Interrior has 3 stories •The galleries over the aisles show Byzantine influence •The flat wooden ceiling would have originally been painted •Designed as a Basilica with a westwork •Women serve important offices in religious communities •Shows great importance of religion
  • 25. Page with Otto III Enthroned c. 996 • Ottonian Period • From Liuthar (Aachen) Gospels • Made from Otto III in monastic scriptorium near Reichanau • Page of imperial propaganda, shows basis of Otto’s authority as a near-divine being. • Shown enthroned in Heaven, surrounded by mandorla (enclosing oval figure) and symbols of the evangelists • Hand of God crowns Otto, Otto holds Orb of the World surmounted by a cross in right hand. • Throng (symbol of worldly domination) rests on crouching Tellus (personification of the earth) • White banner across emperor’s breast held by evangelists symbols. Maybe a reference to facing page. • Men bow their crowned head next to Otto. Hold Holy Lance (believed to be one that Roman soldier Longinus pierced Jesus' side) • 2 warriors face 2 bishops; symbolize union of secular and religious power under the emperor Ink, gold, and colors on vellum, 10 ½ in. X 8 ½ in., Cathedral Treasury, Aachen
  • 26. Aachen Gospels of Otto III: the Christ washing the feet of his disciples (c. 996) ie: 10th century    Part of the Liuthar (scribe)/Aachen (patron) Gospels, transcribed and illuminated for Otto III in a scriptorium near Reichenau Shows painters' narrative skill, recounts John 13 Demonstrates use of gesture and gaze to transmit meaning in Ottonian painting—Peter and the Jesus looking at each other (Peter thinks itself unworthy or something; I'm not familiar with the story)
  • 27. Aachen Gospels of Otto III: the Christ washing the feet of his disciples (c. 996) ie: 10th century     PGold light behind the Jesus suggest Heavenly Jerusalem (I still don't understand Christian Capitalisation) Spirituality and “contained by deeply felt” emotion; confer “austere grandeur of the Ottonian court.” Like other Ottonian art, draws inspiration from past to create “monumental style for a Christian, German-Roman empire”— groundwork for Romanesque and Gothic. Reflects lasting effect of Roman imperial styles, but combined with Jesuseverywhereness and Christianity (but, sadly, no sheep) characteristic of Medieval culture.
  • 28. FIN