Japanese art


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Japanese art

  1. 1. Japanese Art Mollie Farrell, Catie Clark, & Mary Spodnick
  2. 2. History: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Evidence of humans in Japan as early as 30,000 years ago First people of Japan called the Jomon (11,000-400 BCE) Pottery being made and used starting around 10,000 BCE Agriculture emerged around 5,000 BCE They remained mainly hunter-gatherers util 500 BCE Yayoi period began around 400 BCE, and is marked as the establishment of Japan as an agricultural nation Spurred on by waves of immigrants from Korea that brought with them their government and societal structure The Kofun period began in 300 CE and marks the beginning and solidification of more complex centralized government and social order Asuka period began in 552 CE with the emergence of new forms of philosophy, medicine, food, clothing, agriculture, city planning, and art -- much of it imported from Korea and China A writing system and Buddhism were also introduced in the late sixth century, and developed alongside the nation’s native religion, Shinto The Nara period, beginning in 645, is characterized by the founding of Japan’s first imperial capital During the Heian period (794-1185), Japan began to absorb and transform the Chinese and Korean influences it had been bombarded with for centuries, while also severing political ties in favor of self-reliance It was during this time that literature became popular in Japan, as writing simplified and literacy became more widespread (particularly among women, who began writing stories, including the first novel, The Tale of Genji) The Kamakura period (1185-1392) was a time of turmoil, as warring clans grew stronger and began to oppose the capital Pure Land Buddhism becomes most popular religion, that promised the faithful a life in paradise -- comforting in troubled times
  3. 3. History (cont.) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Muromachi period (1392-1573) is named for the district in Kyoto that the Ashikaga family took the shogunate headquarters to after they successfully took control of it Power of emperor gone, nation under control of warring samurai During the Momoyama period (1568-1615), clan battles increasing in size and frequency Three leaders emerged ○ Oda Nobunaga - removed the Ashikaga family from the central position of power ○ Toyotomi Hideyoshi - became singular ruler of Japan following Nobunaga’s assassination ○ Tokugawa Ieyasu - established his shogunate as the ruling clan of Japan The Edo period (1615-1868) is characterized by peace and prosperity at the cost of of a strict and oppressive government Society divided into 4 classes: ○ Samurias ○ Farmers ○ Artisans ○ Merchants Meiji period (1868-1900s) is marked by a sudden influx of influence from the Western world Ernest Fenollosa encouraged artists to stay traditional As the Modern period (1900s through today) came upon Japan, the push to become an industrialized nation increased
  4. 4. Key Ideas ● ● Japanese Art Before 1392 ○ Pottery important not only functionally but as a creative art ○ Major influences from Korea and China ○ Small to life-sized sculpture, mostly practical and religious ■ Joined-wood sculpture - pieces of sculpture cares from separate blocks of wood to hasten drying ○ Large, symmetrical architecture ○ Buddhist symbols popular: ■ Lotus flower - spiritual purity ■ Lotus throne - nirvana ■ Wheel - Chakra, the various states of existence ○ Shinto art reflects the idea that kami (deities) exist in extraordinary examples of ordinary things ○ Paintings were mostly ink on long scrolls of silk, depict historical events Japanese Art After 1392 ○ Ink painting ○ Violent times = dark paintings ○ BIG palaces, covered in gold leaf ○ Tea ceremonies ○ More color in paintings - Rimpa School (artists with similar tastes rather than similar training) ○ Woodblock painting - drawings carved into wood and printed onto paper, could be produced on grand scale ○ Artists retaining tradition while surrounded by Western influence
  5. 5. Artistic Life: ● ● Before 1392 ○ Most early pottery is thought to have been created by women, similarly to other pre-historic societies ○ Most paintings are religious and unsigned ○ Large-scale architecture often commissioned by families of power to serve the Emperor or to become temples ○ Master sculptors appear in the 10th century and begin creating larger sculptures for temples and other religious sites ○ Calligraphy practiced by court women, produced poems, prose, and diaries ○ Much of the sculpture work, particular busts and portraits, were done by traveling monks who sang as they processed through the countryside After 1392 ○ By the 16th century monks, much like Western clergymen, were painting illuminated manuscripts -- and giving them away ○ More refined art, created by famous master painters, was bought by the upper class ○ Oda Nobunaga encouraged and patronized the fine arts in order to bring back the feeling of peaceful times ○ Toyotomi Hideyoshi considered the creation of art and culture a vital part of his rule ○ Artisans mostly lower-middle class ○ Edo period brought around more wealth so that almost everyone could afford to buy art from master artists
  6. 6. The Great Wave Katsushika Hokusai. Polychrome woodblock print on paper. c. 1831. Edo period. Located in Honolulu Academy of Arts in Honolulu, Hawaii
  7. 7. The Great wave (cont.) ● ● ● ● one of thirty-six in a series called Thirty-Six views of Mt. Fugi. Most famous from the series is The Great Wave Utagawa Hiroshige was one of two main figures in Japanese landscape illustration (second being Katsushika Hokusai, creator of Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido) 18th/19th century woodblock prints invaluable in Japan at the time. Considered “souvenirs” copies printed out endlessly and sold to everyday people Prints like these end up in Europe and America, highly appreciated - prints like The Great Wave spark Japonisme style in Western art Regarding The Great Wave painting itself: ● ● ● Large wave frames Mt. Fuji in background, resembles slope+peak to the wave + it’s foam Similar color scheme ties everything together - emphasizes further comparison of Mt. Fuji and wave, emphasizes powerlessness of people against the wave.. Color of waves swallows everything in the painting, just as the wave is about to swallow its victims A view from a chaotic perspective of Mt. Fuji. Impending disaster area - huge wave about to crash onto boat + people in it
  8. 8. In comparison to a Western work ● ● ● ● ● ● Saint Matthew from the Book of Lindisfarne - good example of a common Medieval painting (religious theme, biblical writer) Both are examples of common 2D art of the time Bold, solid colors, drastic shading (very little gradients) Great wave is woodblock print, Saint Matthew is illuminated Manuscript Woodblock prints not valued in their time, illuminated manuscripts highly valued painting of St. Matthew has religious significance (glorifies Christianity, St. Matthew, the Word of God etc), Great Wave glorifies nature/landscapes of Earth (Great Wave Cont.)
  9. 9. Bull and Puppy ● Nagasawa Rosetsu. ink and gold wash on paper. 18th century CE. Edo period. ● ● ● ● ● In comparison to She-Wolf (from Roman and Etruscan Art): -both large, beastly animals protecting smaller, happier creatures -She-wolf is much more detailed than bull, which is simply-shaded -She-Wolf meant to convey story of a legend, Bull and Puppy meant to invoke amusement Elegant screens like these painted for the appeal of merchants, who liked to show their wealth Rosetsu = student of Maruyama Okyo, who reformed Japanese paintings by introducing Maruyama-Shijo style, a style of realism through shading and concrete subject matter This is an example of a painting in Maruyama-Shijo style with Rosetsu’s humorous twist Enormous bull does not fit in frame, overpowers tiny, happy puppy puppy is white so its small frame stands out against huge bull Rosetsu able to make professional, expensive-looking work enjoyable and lighthearted, pleasing to all.
  10. 10. Artist: monk named Ikkyu. Muromachi period. mid-15th century. Ink on paper. Located in Daitoku-ji, Kyoto. Calligraphy Couplet ● ● Zen, originally intended to separate a monk from culture, was now tainted and overtaken by desire for success. Modern day’s “Zen” monks incorporated as government leaders, teachers, leaders of merchant missions Ikkyu upset with this, hated “false Zen”. Zen calligraphy such as this resulted ● Ikkyu’s calligraphy known for its intense, spontaneous spirit ● Read’s “Abjure evil, practice only the good” - Buddhist couplet ● Starts out carefully at the top, progressively gets messier and more frantic toward the end. Shows the passion in Ikkyu progress and intensify as he works ● Shows the distinct power and intensity of Zen
  11. 11. Calligraphy Couplet vs. Chi-Rho-Iota page (Book of Kells, Medieval art) -Both are elegant and meaningful calligraphy -Calligraphy couplet = ideal representation of Zen Buddhism, Book of Kells = ideal representation of Medieval Christianity -Chi-Rho-Iota page = ink on vellum, Calligraphy Couplet = ink on paper. Vellum full of material worth, paper not so much. Emphasizes Zen detachment and Medieval attachment to “goods” - Chi-Rho-Iota page extremely detailed, time consuming, glorified. Calligraphy couplet simple, easy, relaxed -both created by monks for religious reasons
  12. 12. Horyu-Ju Temple
  13. 13. Horyu-Ji Temple -Oldest wooden temple in the world -From the Asuka period -Made in 607 by Prince Shotoku but rebuilt after a fire in 670 -Prince Shotoku ruled Japan as a regent and became the most influential early proponent of Buddhism -Visitors are surprised at its modest size -Consists of a rectangular courtyard surrounded by covered corridors -Within the compound there are only two buildings -The kondo or golden hall -A five story pagoda -The kondo is filled with Buddhist images and used for worship and ceremonies -The pagoda is used a reliquary and is not entered -Other building lie outside the main compound including an outer gate, a lecture hall, a repository for sacred texts, a belfry, and dormitories for monks
  14. 14. Horyu-Ji Temple vs St. Gall Plan
  15. 15. Similarities -The lives revolved around prayer -Lived inside the church -Lived inside the temple -Both buildings included a main place to worship with dormitories to the side Differences -St Gall was a monastery -Horyu-Ji was a temple -The Monks at Horyu-Ji lived outside of the main buildings. Dorms were outside the walls of compound -The monks at St. Gall lived inside the church
  16. 16. Haniwa Sculptures
  17. 17. Haniwa Sculptures -Kofun Period- 6th century CE -Buried with the dead -Served as a link between the world of the dead, over which they were placed, and the world of the living, where they were seen -The first haniwas were cylinders used for ceremonial offerings -Gradually, they started to become living creatures (birds, horses, people) -People of various sexes, professions, and classes -Left unglazed to reveal clay bodies -Artists explored simple and bold form -They were never symmetrical, unequal arms, off center eye slits, irregular bodies -This symbolizes / flaunts a peculiar life and individuality
  18. 18. Haniwa Sculptures vs Kouros / Kore
  19. 19. Similarities Differences -Used as Funerary objects -Kouros / Kore were life like -Kore / Kouros were placed on top of a grave -They were also usually life sized -Haniwa sculptures were buried with the dead -Kouros / kore were mostly realistic -Both funerary objects -Both types of sculpture show individuality -Haniwa sculptures were usually around 3 ft tall -Showed abs, muscle, realistic proportions
  20. 20. Fun Fact! The “Gyroids” in Animal Crossing were based off of Haniwa sculptures
  21. 21. Glossary Kami- deities Jataka Tales- stories about former lives of the Buddha The Sutras- Buddhist sacred texts Mandalas- cosmic diagrams of the universe that portray the deities in schematic order Daimyo- a lord to which samurai were loyal to Fusuma- paper covered sliding doors Raku- a hand-built, low-fired ceramic developed especially for use in tea ceremony