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    • 1. State Assessment Preparations Garrett Wolf
    • 2. Context Clues Definition- Using the words around a word one doesn’t understand to find out the meaning. Ex: The storm was so immense that it blew away the entire neighborhood.
    • 3. Figurative Language Definition- A way of expressing yourself by using special words/terms to make phrases more interesting. Similes- Comparing two objects using the words “like” or “as.” Ex: Hurricane Katrina felt like Judgment Day. Metaphors- Exactly like similes, but without the use of “like” or “as.” Ex: The child was a twister of fury.
    • 4. Analogies- Comparing two objects that can be either different or similar. Ex: The wind in Kansas is fierce as a charging bull Is mad. Imagery- Painting a picture in one’s head using good description. Ex: The torrent of cold rain slashed at the weak skin of my shredded, orange and yellow poncho. Onomatopoeia- Describing something using sound words. Ex: Crack, went the bolt of lightning!
    • 5. Personification- Giving something non-human, a human quality. Ex: The wind howled by my window, making the shutter groan. Hyperbole- Extreme exaggeration. Ex: The pile of snow is as tall as Mt. Everest. Idiom- An expression that says one thing but means something else. Ex: It was raining cats and dogs outside! Really meaning that it was raining heavily outside. Symbolism- An image/object that represent something. Ex: The newly-wed had a stormy romance.
    • 6. Text Structures Definition- Different ways of writing text types. Sequence- A step-by-step explanation of how to do something Ex: First, the dark storm clouds rolled over the town. Then the freezing rain and hail began to fall. Lastly, the rain ceases and the empty clouds roll away. Problem/Solution- Describing a problem in the text and then a solution to the problem. Ex: The farmers fields had begun to wither away and his stream had dried up earlier that summer. As if hearing his prayers, a massive rainstorm rejuvenated his fields and filled his stream.
    • 7. Comparison/Contrast- Describing the similarities and differences between two objects. Ex: A F5 tornado can rip away entire neighborhoods, while a F1 tornado, though still dangerous, destroys a few houses. Description- Giving vivid details of an event or object. Ex: The blizzard dropped the temperature to -60, with winds up to 98 mph. It was so thick that you couldn’t see three inches in front of your face, or if you were about to walk into a wall. Cause/Effect- Because something happened, something else occurs. Ex: Since the temperature was just right, a tropical storm was created.
    • 8. Summary Definition- A short version of a story that includes all the main details and Ex: Instead of reading the entire story of The Wizard of Oz, you could read a short three to four sentence summarization. One day Dorothy’s house was swept up in a tornado and deposited into the Land of Oz. While there she is told to find the Wizard of Oz, for he is the only one who can return her to her former home in Kansas. On the journey she meets the Cowardly Lion, the Tin Man, and the Scarecrow who also want to find the Wizard, for they are lacking courage, a heart, and a brain. The entire time they try to avoid the Wicked Witch of the West who wants Dorothy’s shoes.
    • 9. Topic/Main Idea Description- The main point or subject of a story. Supporting Details- Extra details that help along the main idea of the story. Ex: Hurricanes are extremely dangerous and can destroy cities and towns in it’s path. Hurricanes are formed from tropical storms that have picked up speed. Luckily, scientists can predict when and where hurricanes will hit so people can be evacuated from danger zones. Unfortunately, the cities themselves can not be saved from the hurricanes destructive path, and can take years to re-build. Theme- The moral or lesson of a story. Ex: The theme to the book, “Spots Windy Day”, is friendship and helping out your friends and neighbors.
    • 10. Author’s Purpose Definition- The reasoning behind the author’s words. Ex: The author’s purpose in the nursery rhyme, “The Itty Bitty Spider,” was to tell the reader never to give up and you will always succeed.
    • 11. Literary Devices Definition- The way an author tries to make the story more interesting. Foreshadowing- Clues that lead the reader to something that is going to happen later in the story. Ex: An author could write that the clouds had been getting darker, the wind had been picking up, and the air more humid. Thus, foreshadowing a storm coming.
    • 12. Flashback- When someone remembers a past event that is relevant to the story. Ex: In the movie, Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs, the main character flashes back to all the times he’s disappointed his dad. Irony- A way of saying an action or attitude opposite to what is actually said Ex: You see some umbrellas on sale for a great price, but decide not to buy one. On the way home it starts to pour.
    • 13. Persuasive Techniques Definition- Different ways to persuade viewers and readers to buy something or join a group. Bandwagon- Telling the viewer/reader that everyone else is doing something and that they should too. Ex: An average person who has a leak in his roof sees a commercial for a type of “drip- stopper”. The commercial shows a lot of other people around his age and living style using the product.
    • 14. Statistics- Using numbers, such as percentages or fractions, to tell how good a product really is. Ex: A weatherman sees a commercial for a new type of sonar and the announcer says that 4 out of 5 meteorologists agree that this is the best sonar. Testimonials- When commercialists’ use quotes of people in their advertising to say what their products like. Ex: A professional singer says on a commercial, “I suggest Silencer to anybody who has breezy windows. It really helped me get a better nights sleep and be able to give it my all in the morning.”
    • 15. Glittering Generalities- Using big/fancy words to make a product look better than it really is. Ex: A commercial for sunblock uses words such as “strongest” or “longest lasting”. Unfortunately, these things cannot be proven and are most likely fake. Emotional Appeal- Words that touch the reader/viewer into wanting to buy the product. Ex: The same sunblock is being advertised and this time the advertiser is telling you that not only is this brand of sunblock the cheapest brand out there, but it also doesn’t stop you from getting that awesome tan!
    • 16. Characters Definition- People authors create or use in the stories, there are minor and major characters. There are also good and evil characters. Protagonist-The good character in the story or the hero. Ex: In the book, “Treasure Island,” the protagonist, or good guy, was Jimmy because he was the one in harms way. Antagonist- The evil character in the story or the villain. Ex: In “Treasure Island” the villain was Long John Silver and his band of pirates because they were the ones causing the harm.
    • 17. Setting Definition- The setting is where the story mainly takes place, this can either be a real or make-believe place. Ex: In “Call of the Wild” the setting to the story is in the Yukon Territory in Canada.