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Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things
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Searching in a Web-based Infrastructure for Smart Things

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Given the expected high number of accessible digitally augmented devices and their communication requirements, this paper presents our work on creating a Web-based infrastructure for smart things to …

Given the expected high number of accessible digitally augmented devices and their communication requirements, this paper presents our work on creating a Web-based infrastructure for smart things to facilitate the integration, look-up, and interaction with such devices for human users and machines. To exploit the locality of interactions with and between smart things, the proposed infrastructure treats the location of a smart thing as its main property and is therefore structured hierarchically according to logical place identifiers. We discuss the infrastructure's look-up mechanism that leverages Web patterns to foster scalability and load balancing and features an advanced caching mechanism that greatly reduces the response time and number of exchanged messages. These properties are demonstrated in an evaluation in a simulated smart environment.

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  • 1. Searching in a Web-basedInfrastructure for Smart Things3rd Int. Conf. on the Internet of Things, Wuxi, China, 2012Simon Mayer, Dominique Guinard, Vlad TrifaDistributed Systems Group, ETH Zurich, simon.mayer@inf.ethz.ch
  • 2. The Web of Things + Internet Connection + Embedded Web server + Resource-Oriented Modelling (REST) J.W. Hui and D.E. Culler. IP is dead, long live IP for wireless sensor networks, 200810/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 2
  • 3. Example: RESTful Sun SPOTs  Resources and Links between them 28.5 GETTemperature Sensor: http://host/[SpotName]/sensors/temperatureLED Switch: http://host/[SpotName]/actuators/leds/3/switch PUT ‘on’ OK M. Kovatsch, S. Mayer, and B. Ostermaier. Towards the Thin Server Architecture for the Internet of Things, 2012 10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 3
  • 4. The Web of Things – Why?  Great for open, interoperable APIs  Greatly facilitates creation of mashups  Web features for free  Bookmark your devices and their functionality  Caching for scalability, security mechanisms  People are used to exploring the Web using a browser  Seems to facilitate application developmentD. Guinard, I. Ion, S. Mayer. In Search of an Internet of Things Service Architecture: REST or WS-*? A Developer’s Perspective, 2011 10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 4
  • 5. The Web of Things – Why?  Great for open, interoperable APIs  Greatly facilitates creation of mashups  Web features for free  Bookmark your devices and their functionality  Caching for scalability, security mechanisms  People are used to exploring the Web using a browser  Seems to facilitate application developmentD. Guinard, I. Ion, S. Mayer. In Search of an Internet of Things Service Architecture: REST or WS-*? A Developer’s Perspective, 2011 10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 5
  • 6. The Web of Things – Why? REST and SOAP on devices with limited resources Power Consumption [mW] Completion Time [s] UDDI discontinued by IBM, Microsoft, SAP in 2006  Functionality removed from Windows Server in 2010 [derekskeba.com]  Google discontinued WS-* APIs in 2011 D. Yazar and A. Dunkels. Efficient Application Integration in IP-based Sensor Networks, 200910/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 6
  • 7. The Web of Things – Community WoT Workshop Series: webofthings.org/wot  2010 @ PerCom, Mannheim  2011 @ Pervasive, San Francisco  2012 @ Pervasive, Newcastle Community blog, LinkedIn Group, Twitter, ...12/21/2012 UbiRobots12 Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA 7
  • 8. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsOverview & Requirements Increasing number of networked, smart devices  More and more human-thing and thing-thing interactions Infrastructure to enable service discovery and brokerage in smart spaces Most frequent interaction with nearby devices: Interactions exhibit locality10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 8
  • 9. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsOverview & Requirements Exploit Locality of Interactions Scalability Self-Management User-friendliness  Open, easily usable APIs10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 9
  • 10. To what extent can Web technologies andpatterns be applied in the design of a smart things infrastructure?
  • 11. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsHierarchy of Management Nodes Nodes are only aware of their direct neighbors Nodes can be virtual or embodied (e.g., on routers or NAS)10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 11
  • 12. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsDevice Discovery & Registration Device Discovery  Router is knowledgable of connected network devices  IP addresses exposed via OpenWRT + LuCi Resource Discovery  Interpret any accessible information (e.g., location)  Multiple interpretation strategies (e.g., for HTML Microdata)  Extensible at run time S. Mayer and D. Guinard. An Extensible Discovery Service for Smart Things, 201110/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 12
  • 13. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Types Search within the current subtree  Exhaustive Query: Full subtree  Best-Effort Query: Until first hit  Cardinality Query: Until k hits10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 13
  • 14. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Types Search outside current subtree  Request For Query10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 14
  • 15. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Handling10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 15
  • 16. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Handling10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 16
  • 17. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Handling .../Floor5/queries/{queryID} - Query representation - # received answers Floor5/ - Pending nodes501/ 502/10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 17
  • 18. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Query Caching .../Floor5/queries/{queryID} - Query representation - # received answers Floor5/ - Pending nodes501/ 502/10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 18
  • 19. Simulation Environment 9 Nodes, 600 sensors registered to room-level nodes 4 query types, 1000 queries each, varying concurrency Strong decrease of answering time with increasing concurrency level CAQ (30) CAQ (200) BEQ EXQ Query Caching works!10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 19
  • 20. A Web-based Infrastructure for Smart ThingsSearching for Devices & Services – Automatic Load Balancing .../Floor5/queries/{queryID} - Query representation - # received answers Floor5/ - Pending nodes501/ BEQ 502/10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 20
  • 21. Simulation Environment 9 Nodes, 600 sensors registered to room-level nodes BEQs to /MainBuilding Baseline: > 90% of answers from /Floor5 Flooding of /Floor5: > 96% of answers from /Floor6 Load Balancing works!10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 21
  • 22. Conclusions Web patterns to create a smart things infrastructure “All you need is HTTP”?! “Resource-oriented Querying” scales, reduces response time, and enables automatic load balancing10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 22
  • 23. Future Work Integrate with relative indoor localization system Extend resources with semantic descriptions for M2M service provisioning Enhance current keyword-based searching mechanism10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 23
  • 24. Acknowledgements Matthias Kovatsch, Dominique Guinard, Vlad Trifa10/26/2012 IoT 2012, Wuxi, China 24

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