Stacey Meyer <br />St. Mary’s College of Maryland<br />M.A.T. 2011<br />Learning Styles and Study HabitsTeaching Students to Take Control of their Own Learning<br />
Participants<br />AP Environmental Science Class<br />11th-12th grade students <br />23 students in the class <br />20 White, 3 minority <br />4 students in the FARMS program<br />
Problem<br />Few study methods<br />Ineffective studying<br />Mismatch between preferences & methods<br />
Literature Review<br />Learning styles are composed of up to 21 elements<br />When learning styles and instruction are matched, students achieve, feel more confident, and even enjoy learning!<br />Students can be taught to work with their strengths and match their learning style preferences while studying. <br />
Research Questions<br />How do AP Environmental Science students study?<br />Do their methods of study match their learning style preferences?<br />Will students adjust their study methods to match their preferences if taught how to?<br />What do students who changed their methods have to say about it?<br />
Findings/Interpretations<br />How do AP Environmental Science students study?<br />To study for pretest & chapter quizzes most outlined, some read the chapter, and a few tried other methods like self-quizzing. <br />
Findings/Interpretations<br />Do their methods of study match their learning style preferences?<br />Yes and No<br />Reported tactile/kinesthetic preferences but used outlines as their main study method. <br />Even students matched preferences could improve effectiveness<br />
Findings/Interpretations<br />Will students adjust their study methods to match their preferences if taught how to?<br />Few changes made when studying for pretests <br />Several changes when studying for chapter quizzes<br />More reading (p<0.05)<br />Less reliance on outlines (p<0.001)<br />New Strategies used<br />Quizlet(p<0.05)<br />Self-quizzing (p<0.05)<br />Text Annotations, task cards, webs/concept maps <br />
Findings/Interpretations<br />What do students who changed their methods have to say about it?<br />“WHERE WERE YOU FOUR YEARS AGO?? This would helped me on so many tests in the past!”<br />“[This] opened up my eyes to new ways to study” <br />“I didn’t realize that there were some strategies that I wasn’t using that would actually help me”<br />
Findings/Interpretations<br />20/21 agreed<br />knowing more about how they learn will help them study better & perform better on quizzes<br />21/21 reported<br />learning new study tools/methods was helpful <br />21/21 believed<br />Using these new study tools will help them perform better on tests/quizzes. <br />On the posttest more students felt that they studied effectively.<br />p<0.05<br />
Conclusions<br />Although some high school students may be aware of their preferences, they may not know HOW to work to their strengths. <br />If students are encouraged to try out a variety of study strategies they can discover which methods work well with their preferences. <br />Students will take the new strategies that they learn and use them in your class, in other classes, and in the future!<br />
Practical Application/Future Research<br />Start out earlier in the year <br />Longer study/intervention<br />Track grades with methods<br />
References<br />Boström, L., & Lassen, L. M. (2006). Unraveling learning, learning styles, learning strategies and meta-cognition. Education+ Training, 48(2/3), 178-189.<br />Callan, R. J. (1996). Learning styles in the high school: A Novel Approach. NASSP Bulletin, 80(577), 66-71.<br />Carns, A. W., & Carns, M. R. (1991). Teaching study skills, cognitive strategies, and metacognitive skills through self-diagnosed learning styles. School Counselor, 38(5), 341. doi:Article<br />Charkins, R. J., O'Toole, D. M., & Wetzel, J. N. (1985). Linking teacher and student learning styles with student achievement and attitudes. Journal of Economic Education, 16(2), 111-120. doi:Article<br />Dunn, R. (1990, October). Rita Dunn answers questions on learning styles. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tfh&AN=9107012278&site=ehost-live<br />Dunn, R., Griggs, S., Olson, J., Beasley, M., & Gorman, B. (1995). A meta-analytic validation of the Dunn and Dunn model of learning-style preferences. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(6), 353-362.<br />Dunn, R., Honigsfeld, A., Doolan, L. S., Bostrom, L., Russo, K., Schiering, M. S., Suh, B., et al. (2009). Impact of learning-style instructional strategies on students' achievement and attitudes: Perceptions of educators in diverse institutions. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(3), 135-140.<br />Hong, E., Milgram, R. M., & Rowell, L. L. (2004). Homework motivation and preference: A learner-centered homework approach. Theory into practice, 43(3), 197-204.<br />Lovelace, M. K. (2005). Meta-analysis of experimental research based on the Dunn and Dunn model. Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 176-183. doi:Article<br />Marino, J. F. (1993). Homework: A fresh approach to a perennial problem. Momentum, 24(1), 69-71.<br />
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