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    • Stacey Meyer
      St. Mary’s College of Maryland
      M.A.T. 2011
      Learning Styles and Study HabitsTeaching Students to Take Control of their Own Learning
    • Participants
      AP Environmental Science Class
      11th-12th grade students
      23 students in the class
      20 White, 3 minority
      4 students in the FARMS program
    • Problem
      Few study methods
      Ineffective studying
      Mismatch between preferences & methods
    • Literature Review
      Learning styles are composed of up to 21 elements
      When learning styles and instruction are matched, students achieve, feel more confident, and even enjoy learning!
      Students can be taught to work with their strengths and match their learning style preferences while studying.
    • Research Questions
      How do AP Environmental Science students study?
      Do their methods of study match their learning style preferences?
      Will students adjust their study methods to match their preferences if taught how to?
      What do students who changed their methods have to say about it?
    • Methods
    • Findings/Interpretations
      How do AP Environmental Science students study?
      To study for pretest & chapter quizzes most outlined, some read the chapter, and a few tried other methods like self-quizzing.
    • Findings/Interpretations
      Do their methods of study match their learning style preferences?
      Yes and No
      Reported tactile/kinesthetic preferences but used outlines as their main study method.
      Even students matched preferences could improve effectiveness
    • Findings/Interpretations
      Will students adjust their study methods to match their preferences if taught how to?
      Few changes made when studying for pretests
      Several changes when studying for chapter quizzes
      More reading (p<0.05)
      Less reliance on outlines (p<0.001)
      New Strategies used
      Self-quizzing (p<0.05)
      Text Annotations, task cards, webs/concept maps
    • Findings/Interpretations
      What do students who changed their methods have to say about it?
      “WHERE WERE YOU FOUR YEARS AGO?? This would helped me on so many tests in the past!”
      “[This] opened up my eyes to new ways to study”
      “I didn’t realize that there were some strategies that I wasn’t using that would actually help me”
    • Findings/Interpretations
      20/21 agreed
      knowing more about how they learn will help them study better & perform better on quizzes
      21/21 reported
      learning new study tools/methods was helpful
      21/21 believed
      Using these new study tools will help them perform better on tests/quizzes.
      On the posttest more students felt that they studied effectively.
    • Conclusions
      Although some high school students may be aware of their preferences, they may not know HOW to work to their strengths.
      If students are encouraged to try out a variety of study strategies they can discover which methods work well with their preferences.
      Students will take the new strategies that they learn and use them in your class, in other classes, and in the future!
    • Limitations
      Small sample size
      Specific course
      Learning Styles Index
      Quizlet bias
    • Practical Application/Future Research
      Start out earlier in the year
      Longer study/intervention
      Track grades with methods
    • References
      Boström, L., & Lassen, L. M. (2006). Unraveling learning, learning styles, learning strategies and meta-cognition. Education+ Training, 48(2/3), 178-189.
      Callan, R. J. (1996). Learning styles in the high school: A Novel Approach. NASSP Bulletin, 80(577), 66-71.
      Carns, A. W., & Carns, M. R. (1991). Teaching study skills, cognitive strategies, and metacognitive skills through self-diagnosed learning styles. School Counselor, 38(5), 341. doi:Article
      Charkins, R. J., O'Toole, D. M., & Wetzel, J. N. (1985). Linking teacher and student learning styles with student achievement and attitudes. Journal of Economic Education, 16(2), 111-120. doi:Article
      Dunn, R. (1990, October). Rita Dunn answers questions on learning styles. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Retrieved from
      Dunn, R., Griggs, S., Olson, J., Beasley, M., & Gorman, B. (1995). A meta-analytic validation of the Dunn and Dunn model of learning-style preferences. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(6), 353-362.
      Dunn, R., Honigsfeld, A., Doolan, L. S., Bostrom, L., Russo, K., Schiering, M. S., Suh, B., et al. (2009). Impact of learning-style instructional strategies on students' achievement and attitudes: Perceptions of educators in diverse institutions. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(3), 135-140.
      Hong, E., Milgram, R. M., & Rowell, L. L. (2004). Homework motivation and preference: A learner-centered homework approach. Theory into practice, 43(3), 197-204.
      Lovelace, M. K. (2005). Meta-analysis of experimental research based on the Dunn and Dunn model. Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 176-183. doi:Article
      Marino, J. F. (1993). Homework: A fresh approach to a perennial problem. Momentum, 24(1), 69-71.