The urinary system


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The urinary system

  2. 2. The urinary system The urinary system or genitourinary system is a combination of two kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, and nephrons that work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. Sometimes if one or more of the organs are not working people can develop illnesses and diseases. To detect if someone has an illness there are diagnostic procedures which can include laboratory tests.
  3. 3. Excretory Urography(EU) Injection dye into the bloodstream and then taking an x-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye.” The dye that is used for this test is called iodine-base contrast. This test evaluate the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder. Medicine is given through IV. This test detects tumors in the upper urinary tract, bladder cancer, blood in the urine, and pain. At the end of the exam patient has to urinate to eliminate the dye and follow a diet with a lot of fluids. As the dye is injected patient might feel a burning sensation, headaches, nausea, and vomiting. The dye might cause an allergic reaction to the patient.
  4. 4. Bladder Neck Obstruction(BNO) Blockage of the bladder outlet. Often caused by an enlarged prostate gland in males.” Is a condition where the neck of the bladder does not open completely during voiding. BNO occurs mostly in 50 year old males frequently after being diagnose with prostate or had previous history of bladder stones. Also, BNO occurs due to previous history of bladder tumors, pelvic tumors, or urethral scar tissue. BNO symptoms in male are abdominal pain, slow urine flow, frequency, urgency, incontinence, and incomplete emptying when voiding.
  5. 5. Urinary Tract Infection(UTI) Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system. Most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys. Most common in women because of their shorter urethra.” Escherichia coli is the most common agent for infection. Urine contains salts and waste products that kill bacteria but once bacteria multiplies in the bladder or kidney it might cause UTI. Symptoms of UTI are; pain and burning when urinate, feeling to urinate frequently and not a lot of urine comes out, bloated stomach, urine has bad odor, pain in one side under the ribs, fevers, chills, nausea, and vomiting
  6. 6. Hemodialysis (HD) blood is circulated through a machine, which contains a dialyzer (also called an artificial kidney).the dialyzer has two spaces separated by a thin membrane, blood passes on one side of the membrane and dialysis fluid passes on the other, the wastes and excess water pass from the blood through the membrane into the dialysis fluid, which is then discarded ,the cleaned blood is returned to your bloodstream. Occasionally nausea, headaches muscle cramps or dizziness can occur due to the fast removal of extra water from your body, which may cause the blood pressure to drop. Treatment normally takes 4 to 5 hours, and usually 3 treatments a week are needed. Hemodialysis may be done in a hospital dialysis unit or at home, for which special training is needed Hemodialysis (HD)
  7. 7. Clean Catch UrineSpecimen(CC) Is a urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process to minimize contamination from the genitalia. it Is a typical urine test where a nurse or physician gives the patient a cup where patient has to put his or her urine. This Is called clean catch for the reason that before patient can urinate in the cup there are steps to follow.
  8. 8. Instructions for a Clean CatchUrine Specimen Test First step for a patient prior to this test is to wash or wipe genital area with a kit that the doctor might give that would include cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Women should wash between vagina lips. Patient should let genital area dry. Patient should urinate a little in the toilet then urinate in the cup or container. All of this is to prevent bacteria into getting into the urine test. Results of this test can indicate excessive amount of red blood cells, white blood cells, protein, and kidney or bladder infection.