Chapter 2(answer)2

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Chapter 2(answer)2

  1. 1. SYSTEM CONCEPTS LESSON 27 COMPUTER SYSTEM SOFTWARE USER Hardware
  2. 2. <ul><li>Computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices : any electronic device connected to a computer and produces input signals. </li></ul><ul><li>(Eg: keyboard , joystick, light pen, mouse, video camera, scanner, webcam, bar code reader, CCTV. ) </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Processor: - Brain of computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: CPU (central processing unit/ processor/ microprocessor) </li></ul>
  3. 3. iii. Output devices: shows people the process data information (Eg: printer, plotter, speaker, monitor, LCD projector, woofer, headphone) iv. Storage devices:- help users to store programs and data to be used at a later time. (Eg: Floppy disk, diskette, CD-ROM, DVD ROM, flash memory card, pen drive, hard disk, floppy disk.)
  4. 4. Computer system Computer Software User Computer Hardware Processor Input devices Storage Devices Output Devices Application software System software <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS program </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Utility program </li></ul><ul><li>Programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Internet explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Input Output PROCESSOR The information processing cycle LESSON 29 Storage
  6. 6. Machine Cycle Processor Fetching Storing Executing Decoding
  7. 7. Data representation Data measurement Clock speed measurement Binary digit 1= on , true , yes 0 = off, false, no Kilobyte (KB ) 1 KB = 2 10 bytes 1 hertz = 1 cycle 1 second Bit (smallest unit of data ) Megabyte (MB) 1 MB = 2 20 bytes 1 MHZ = 1,000,000 cycle 1 second Byte 1 byte =8 bits Eg: 3, a, Z Gigabyte (GB) 1 MB = 2 30 bytes 1 GHZ = 1,000,000,000 cycle 1 second 1 GHZ= 1000 MHZ Character 1 byte= one character Eg: 01000110 = F Terabyte (MB) 1 GB = 2 40 bytes
  8. 8. Morse code (1791-1872) History of character codes Telegraph (1845-1903) Hollenrith Code (1850-1929) ASCII (1963)
  9. 9. ASCII <ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII pronouced as “ask key” stands for the American standard Code For </li></ul><ul><li>Information Interchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by ASA (American standard Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: 0011000, 00110001 </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>Established to achieve compatibility between various type of data </li></ul><ul><li>processing equipment making it possible for the components to </li></ul><ul><li>communicate with each other successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>enables manufactures to produce components that are assured to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly in a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>make it possible for human to interact with a computer. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exercice 1: Tick the column with correct answers Devices Input / output Text Graphic Audio / sound Video Pointing Keyboard Input / Virtual keyboard Bar code reader Scanner Digital camera Microphone CCTV camera Webcam Digital video camera Mouse Trackball Graphics tablet Touch screen Monitor Printer LCD projector Speaker Facsimile machine Headphone Woofer
  11. 11. Motherboard
  12. 12. Components of motherboard 1
  13. 13. Components of motherboard 2
  14. 14. <ul><li>CPU (Central processing unit/ processor/ microprocessor) </li></ul><ul><li>CPU is a brain of computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated circuit chip that is capable of processing electronic signals. </li></ul>Central processing unit (CPU) LESSON 29, 37,39 What is CPU? <ul><li>It utilizes the computer memory to execute instructions </li></ul><ul><li>from application software and accomplish a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: editing a letter, drawing a picture, sorting numbers </li></ul><ul><li>intepreted </li></ul>What the functions of the CPU? <ul><li>What the 2 subcomponents of the CPU? </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit (CU) </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) </li></ul>
  15. 15. How data is processed by the CPU When a user starts a program, its instruction are transferred from storage device to the memory. The users enters the data needed by the program. The control unit the interpret and executes instructions in the memory. The Arithmetic Logic unit the performs calculation on the data in the memory. As a result, information is then stored in the memory. Information can then be sent to an output device or a storage device.
  16. 16. computer storage <ul><li>What is Computer Storage? </li></ul><ul><li>information are stored in the computer storage so that it can </li></ul><ul><li>Be retrieved whenever they are needed later on. </li></ul><ul><li>What the functions of the Computer Storage? </li></ul><ul><li>To help users store programs and data to be </li></ul><ul><li>used at a later time. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stores instructions from a computer program. </li></ul>Two types of the computer storage? 1. Primary storage 2. Secondary storage LESSON 40
  17. 17. Computer storage Volatile – the content is lost when a computer’s power is turned off LESSON 40, 42 Primary secondary Secondary storage Installed internally Installed externally Store, read, written or retrieve data Alternative storage RAM –volatile ROM – non –volatile Non-volatile permanently
  18. 18. Differences between RAM and ROM LESSON 41 RAM ROM Data & program Stores during or after processing Stored by manufacturer Content Store information temporarily Stores instructions permanently Processing time Fast, but uses a lot of power Fast, uses little power Volatility Volatile Non-volatile
  19. 19. software System software Application software Operating system Utility program Eg: Operating System 1. Linux 2. Mac os x 3. Unix 4 Windows XP Eg: Utility Program 1. Antivirus 2. File manager 3. Diagnostic utility 4 screen saver Eg: Application Software 1. Word processing 2. spreadsheet 3. Database 4 Presentation LESSON 43,44 ,48
  20. 20. System software VS Application software LESSON 43 System software Application software Usage Enables the computer to function properly Enables users to work efficiently with documentation such as letters. Need Compulsory Optional No. of software Each computer only needs one system software Each computer have more than one software Dependency Independent Dependent Function Provides the environment in which the application run Enable users to accomplish specific tasks.
  21. 21. Differences between operating system and utility program LESSON 44 Operating system Utility program Contain instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. Perform maintenance type task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its program Computer cannot be used or started without an operating system Helps managing a computer easier, computers can still be used or started without it. Linux, Mac OSX, Unix, Windows XP Antivirus, anti-spyware, screen saver, firewall, file manager.…
  22. 22. LESSON 45 1. Define the operating system? Is a set of program that schedule task, allocates storage and Presents a default interface to the user between applications. 2. State the functions of the operating system? a) Starting a computer b) Providing a user interface c) Managing data and program, memory d) Configuring devices 3. State 3 different user interfaces of operating system. a) Command line b) menu-driven c) GUI
  23. 23. Give the correct operating system for this platforms LESSON 44,45, 54 Platforms Operating system PC platform Disk operating system (DOS), windows xp Apple platform Mac OS, MAC OS X Cross-platform Unix, Linux
  24. 24. Utility program…… Exercises <ul><li>Define the utility program? </li></ul><ul><li>Known as service program, perform maintenance type task </li></ul><ul><li>Related to the managing of a computer, its devices, or its program . </li></ul>
  25. 25. The tasks/ usages of the application software: <ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>- Enables users to create, edit, format and print textual documents. </li></ul><ul><li>-Eg: Corel word Perfect, Microsoft Word, Sun Staroffice </li></ul><ul><li>Writer </li></ul><ul><li>2. spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>-program that process information in the form of grid of column and rows. </li></ul><ul><li>-eg: Corel Quattro Pro, Microsoft Excel, Sun Staroffice Calc </li></ul><ul><li>3. Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>- Enables user to create transparencies, slides, and handouts for presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>eg: Corel presentation, Microsoft Power point, Sun staroffice impress. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Graphic Editing </li></ul><ul><li>- Program that can edit digital representation or non text- information such as drawing, charts and photograph. </li></ul>M/s 127-129 LESSON 48
  26. 26. <ul><li>Advanced features of application software : </li></ul><ul><li>MAIL MERGE </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful features of word processing. </li></ul><ul><li>to create numerous modicum of personalization </li></ul><ul><li>eg: catalogues, envelopes, form letters…. </li></ul><ul><li>2. MACRO </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel </li></ul><ul><li>Is sequence of keystrokes and instruction that are recorded and saved. </li></ul><ul><li>3. LOOKUP </li></ul><ul><li>In spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>allow to take any value entered, find it in a designated table, and return </li></ul><ul><li>a value from that same table. </li></ul><ul><li>4. PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>In spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Allow you to protect your information from being lost. </li></ul><ul><li>5. PIVOT TABLE </li></ul><ul><li>In spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>allow user to summarize and simplify task that contain a lengthy list using </li></ul><ul><li>complex criteria. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 6. DROP CAP allow you to offset the first letter of the sentences or paragraph. 7. WATERMARK Any text or graphic image that is printed to overlap the existing text in a document. either in the background or foreground. 8. CROP in graphic software. used for cropping or cutting picture down to size.
  28. 28. Proprietary Software Vs Open Source Software LESSON 56 Proprietary Software Open Source Software Definition Closed source software Not closed software Examples of software 1. MS-DOS 2. MAC OS 3. UNIX 4. Windows XP 1. OpenOffice.org 2. PHP-Nuke 3. The GIMP 4. Mozilla 1. Runs on a wide range of hardware 2. Largest market share 3. Built in utilities 1. Runs on a wide range of hardware 2. Largest number of user interface type 3. Used as server or desktop PC
  29. 29. Advantages of the software <ul><li>Stable system </li></ul><ul><li>Safe & guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>3. Easier to install </li></ul><ul><li>Can modify the source code </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper in research </li></ul>Disadvantages of the software 1. Manufacturer in pressure 2. Security is a major issues. 1. No exact knowledge 2. Codes are too complicated
  30. 30. Lesson 66 Pervasive computing <ul><li>What is Pervasive Computing? </li></ul><ul><li>Means the technology that is gracefully integrated in our everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive computing uses web technology, portable devices, wireless communication, and nomadic or ubiquitous computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of the pervasive computing? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Watch phone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wearable grass monitor </li></ul><ul><li>3. TV Remote Control Watch </li></ul><ul><li>video phone </li></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul><ul><li>SpyPen </li></ul><ul><li>Touch n Go SmartTags </li></ul><ul><li>3G technology video phone </li></ul>

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