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  • 1. Iowa State University COMS 309 TEAM WORK - 2 Simanta Mitra, Ph.D. Department of Computer Science Iowa state University
  • 2. Iowa State UniversitySoftware Engineering 2
  • 3. Iowa State University Agenda So far – Tuckmans forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages and S.C.O.R.E. and. Learn about Benne & Sheats Team Roles Learn about Belbins Team Roles Learn about Individual Differences (Jungs Psychological Types) Discuss what YOU can do towards team successSoftware Engineering 3
  • 4. Iowa State University Benne & Sheats Team Roles TASK ROLES SOCIAL ROLES INDIVIDUAL ROLES TO AVOIDSoftware Engineering 4
  • 5. Iowa State University Task Roles Initiator: taking the initiative; for example, convening the group, suggesting procedures, changing direction, providing new energy and ideas. (How about if we.... What would happen if... ?) Information-seeker: Asks for clarification “Lisa D. or Laura, could you please tell me what you said about disconfirming responses?” Information-giver: Provides helpful information “Jake has some books about conflict we could use.” Elaborator: Takes other peoples initial ideas and builds on them with examples, relevant facts and data. Coordinator: Identifies and explains relationship between ideas – makes them cohesive. Relates statements made by one group member to another “Krista’s comment relate well to what Erik was saying.” Energizer: Stimulates group to take action “How many of you are willing to bring in a video on conflict for the next class? Software Engineering 5
  • 6. Iowa State University Task Roles Summarizer: Expands upon another’s ideas I think what Kristina and Jennifer are suggesting is that we first explain nonverbal before we turn to verbal communication.” Evaluator-critic: Assesses the group’s work by higher standards “This is okay, but I think Lisa needs to give more feedback.” Recorder: Keep notes (minutes) about meeting “Last class we did not get to J-P’s presentation. Dave and Michelle had just finished theirs.” Procedural Technician: Takes responsibility for tasks “I checked out the VCR for Adam and LeighAnne’s presentations.”Software Engineering 6
  • 7. Iowa State University Personal and Social Roles Encourager: Affirms, supports, praises – provides positive attitude. Harmonizer: reconciles disagreements. Emphasizing shared views among members can reduce tension. Compromiser: yields position for sake of group. Gatekeeper: makes sure everyone has a chance to express themselves. Regulates the flow of communication to keep things moving. Observer: provides feedback to the group about how it is functioning. Follower: Accepts without contributing to decision.Software Engineering 7
  • 8. Iowa State University Individual Roles to Avoid Aggressor – Makes personal attacks using belittling and insulting comments, for example, "Thats the most ridiculous idea Ive ever heard." Blocker – Opposes every idea or opinion that is put forward and yet refuses to make own suggestions, for example, "Thats not a good idea." Recognition Seeker – Uses group meetings to draw personal attention to him or herself. May brag about past accomplishments or relay irrelevant stories. Self-confessor – Uses the group meetings as an avenue to disclose personal feelings and issues.Software Engineering 8
  • 9. Iowa State University Individual Roles to avoid Disrupter– Uses group meetings as fun time and a way to get out of real work. Distracts other people by telling jokes, playing pranks, or even reading unrelated material. Dominator – Tries to control the conversation and dictate what people should be doing. Often exaggerates his or her knowledge Help Seeker – Actively looks for sympathy by expressing feelings of inadequacy. Acts helpless, self deprecating and unable to contribute.Software Engineering 9
  • 10. Iowa State University Belbins Team RolesSoftware Engineering 10
  • 11. Iowa State University Belbins Team RolesSoftware Engineering 11
  • 12. Iowa State University Individual Traits and BehaviorsSoftware Engineering 12
  • 13. Iowa State University Jungs PsychologicalTypes (Myers-Briggs Indicator)Extrovert IntrovertSensing IntuitiveThinking FeelingJudging Perceiving
  • 14. ExtrovertIowa State University – Introvert Our orientation E–  I – Thoughts, feelings, People, activity, talking writing (internal world) (external world)  Think/reflect first, then act  Readily takes initiative  Needs “private” time to reflect  “Act first, think later”  One-on-one relationship or  Enjoys a wide variety and conversations change in people and  Great listeners relationships  Enjoys focusing on a project  Very approachable  Develop ideas through discussion
  • 15. IowaSensing (S) – Intuitive (N) State University How we gather information S – Facts – real & tangible -  N – Possibilities – Inspiration - now future  Carefully thought out  Use personal feelings to make conclusions decisions  Lives in the present  Comfortable with fuzzy data  “Do something” rather than  Inventing new possibilities is “think about it” automatic  Fantasy is a dirty word  Sometimes considered absent-  Common sense solutions minded
  • 16. Thinking (T) - Feeling (F)Iowa State University How we decide  T – Decision through logic  F - Decision through and truth emotion  More important to be right  Follow hunch to make quick than liked conclusions  Viewed as unemotional  Sensitive to feelings of  Focus on tasks others  Provides objective and  Toxic reaction to critical analysis disharmony, prefer to accommodate  Takes things too personally
  • 17. Iowa State University Judging (J) Perceiving (P) How we react to the world J – planned, orderly, reach  P – flexible, closure quickly spontaneous, stay open  Get things done  Lives for the moment  Punctual  Works well under  Likes to use a list, make pressure and deadlines plans  Creative  Structure and order  Works best and avoids  Multitasks stress when keeps ahead  Avoids commitments, it of deadlines and not interferes with flexibility given too much information at one time
  • 18. Iowa State University Cultural InfluencesCultural Norms Impact on meetings What to do at first few meetingsHigh respect for authority people may hesitate to Emphasize why it is challenge or offer ideas; this important for everyone to depresses innovation participate, i.e., more ideas and perspectivesFear of shame or loss of face People are less willing to Talk about why intelligent take risks if they fear losing risks are important; face encourage a sense that “we are all in this together.”Contextual more than direct It may be harder to “read” Develop a trustingforms of communication contextual cues, leading to relationship; directly ask for miscommunications input or ask people to write input rather than speak itProblem solving that is less Some people go straight for Learn to recognize, valuelinear and analytical in the solution; others think in and use different ways ofapproach terms of processes thinking to the group’s advantage
  • 19. Iowa State University What can YOU do?Software Engineering 19
  • 20. Iowa State University Now that we know a bit about effective teams (SCORE), team roles, and individual differences we should try and apply this towards making our teams successful.Software Engineering 20
  • 21. Iowa State University Handing problems Anticipate and prevent group problems whenever possible. (Rapid Response) Neither over-react nor under-react - Leader options:  Do nothing  Off-line conversation (minimal intervention)  Impersonal Group Time (low intervention)  Off-line Confrontation (medium intervention)  In-group Confrontation (high intervention)  Expulsion from team (do not use; instead:)  Contact course team
  • 22. Iowa State University What can you do? Be committed to team goals Attend (nearly all) team meetings Show respect for others Arrive on time for (nearly all) team meetings Consider suggestions from others Adopt suggestions from others Provide help to other team members Ask for help form other team members Communicate clearly with other team members Try to understand what others say Share knowledge with othersIntroduce new ideasOpenly express opinions Complete assignments on timeDo research and gather information Complete assignments with acceptable quality Do a fair share of the work 22
  • 23. Iowa State University SUMMARYSoftware Engineering 23
  • 24. Iowa State University Summary Tuckmans stages of Team formation S.C.O.R.E Benne and Sheats Team Roles Belbins Team Roles Individual traits cultural differences Individual ResponsibilitySoftware Engineering 24
  • 25. Iowa State University THE ENDSoftware Engineering 25