Financial Reporting
Framework for Small- and
Medium-Sized Entities

(FRF for SMEs™ )
Presentation by:
Patrick Mulherin, CP...
Outline
•

Overview of Financial Reporting environment

•

Why the need for a new reporting framework?

•

Who can use it?...
Financial Reporting Environment
•

Small- and medium-sized entities make up a large portion
of business in the United Stat...
2013 American Institute of CPAs ©
Why the need?
•

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis financial
statements may not be necessary
•

•

Spe...
Who can use the framework?
•

Small, owner-managed, for profit businesses
•

No Industry specific guidance

•

Users have ...
Features/Characteristics
•

Actual framework, constructed by CPAs and business professionals
from around the country.

•

...
Comparisons
FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP
FRF for SMEs™
•

Intangibles
•

All intangibles are amortized
over their estimated useful
live...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP
FRF for SMEs™
•

Revenue

U.S. GAAP
•

Revenue

•

Broad, principle-based

•

Specific criteri...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP
FRF for SMEs™
•

Variable Interest Entities
(VIEs)

U.S. GAAP
•

Variable Interest Entities
(V...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP
FRF for SMEs™
•

Fair Value

U.S. GAAP
•

Fair Value

•

Uses term “Market Value”

•

Uses ter...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP
FRF for SMEs™
•

Income Taxes
•

•

Policy choice to account for
income taxes using the taxes
...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Installment Sales
•

•

•

Revenue recognized at time of
sale, even if cash i...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Long-term contracts
•

Can choose between Percentage
of Completion or Complet...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Receivables
•

Allowed to recognize an
allowance for bad debts

Tax Basis
•

...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Inventories

Tax Basis
•

Inventories

•

Measured at lower of cost or
net re...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Prepaid Expenses
•

Recognized as an asset and
amortized to expense

•

Tax B...
FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis
FRF for SMEs™
•

Property, Plant & Equipment
•

Depreciation calculated on the
cost less expec...
Additional Resources
•

Additional information available
at aicpa.org/FRF-SMEs

Patrick Mulherin, CPA
pmulherin@sek.com
Co...
Questions?
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities
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Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities

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Financial Reporting Framework for Small and medium-sized entities. AICPA financial statements for privately held firms. AICPA has announced a new financial reporting framework which makes more sense for small entities than GAAP statements.

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Insight presentation - Financial Reporting Framework for Small- & Medium-Sized Entities

  1. 1. Financial Reporting Framework for Small- and Medium-Sized Entities (FRF for SMEs™ ) Presentation by: Patrick Mulherin, CPA Cory Cuffley, CPA, MAC
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of Financial Reporting environment • Why the need for a new reporting framework? • Who can use it? • Features/Characteristics • Comparisons of the FRF for SMEs to Tax and GAAP basis • Additional resources • Questions
  3. 3. Financial Reporting Environment • Small- and medium-sized entities make up a large portion of business in the United States • The AICPA estimates there to be about 20 million SMEs in the United States • Multiple frameworks available for use • Major changes coming with certain aspects of financial reporting • Lease accounting
  4. 4. 2013 American Institute of CPAs ©
  5. 5. Why the need? • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) basis financial statements may not be necessary • • Special reporting frameworks such as tax or modified cash, may not be sufficient for users • • GAAP basis statements tend to be very detailed and unnecessary depending on the client’s situation FRF for SMEs™ is a lot closer to GAAP than the other Special Purpose Frameworks The AICPA recognized this need, which led them to develop this tailored framework. • Self contained, Special Purpose Framework (SPF)
  6. 6. Who can use the framework? • Small, owner-managed, for profit businesses • No Industry specific guidance • Users have access to owners/management of the companies • No standard definition of a small- and medium-sized entity • When GAAP reporting is not required. • No contractual or regulatory reporting requirements • Incorporated or unincorporated • Non-issuers with no intent on going public
  7. 7. Features/Characteristics • Actual framework, constructed by CPAs and business professionals from around the country. • Accrual Based • • • Blend of traditional methods and accrual income tax methods Fewer book to tax adjustments Potentially Cost effective • • • Cost saving recognized if the situation permits Includes comprehensive information that is also relevant Tailored • • Fits the needs of the small- and medium-sized market No one Precluded from using
  8. 8. Comparisons
  9. 9. FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP FRF for SMEs™ • Intangibles • All intangibles are amortized over their estimated useful lives. U.S. GAAP • Intangibles • Intangibles amortized over useful lives and evaluated for impairment upon triggering event. • Indefinite-lived intangibles (Goodwill) evaluated for impairment annually.
  10. 10. FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP FRF for SMEs™ • Revenue U.S. GAAP • Revenue • Broad, principle-based • Specific criteria for recognition • No industry-specific guidance • Industry-specific guidance • Percentage of Completion and Completed Contract methods. • Percentage of Completion and Completed Contract methods.
  11. 11. FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP FRF for SMEs™ • Variable Interest Entities (VIEs) U.S. GAAP • Variable Interest Entities (VIEs) • No concept of VIEs • Yearly analysis of potential VIEs • No consolidation of VIEs • Potential consolidation requirement even w/no equity ownership
  12. 12. FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP FRF for SMEs™ • Fair Value U.S. GAAP • Fair Value • Uses term “Market Value” • Uses term “Fair Market Value” • Limited circumstances in which Market Value is required (business combinations, heldfor-sale securities, etc.) • Detailed framework for measuring; including F.V. hierarchy • Standardized disclosures. • Significantly less required disclosures
  13. 13. FRF for SMEs™ vs. U.S. GAAP FRF for SMEs™ • Income Taxes • • Policy choice to account for income taxes using the taxes payable method or deferred income taxes method No evaluation or accrual of uncertain tax positions U.S. GAAP • Income Taxes • Must account for income taxes using the deferred income taxes method • Must evaluate and accrue uncertain tax positions
  14. 14. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Installment Sales • • • Revenue recognized at time of sale, even if cash is collected in installments Sales Returns • Tax Basis Allowed to recognize an allowance for probable returns Installment Sales • • Revenue is recognized when sale price is fixed and all events have occurred Sales Returns • No allowance • Returns only allowed when they occur
  15. 15. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Long-term contracts • Can choose between Percentage of Completion or CompletedContract Method Tax Basis • Long-term contracts • Generally, entities must use Percentage of Completion method • Completed-Contract method allowed in certain circumstances
  16. 16. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Receivables • Allowed to recognize an allowance for bad debts Tax Basis • Receivables • Not permitted to recognize an allowance • Must use specific charge-off method • Only after all collection efforts have been exhausted and deemed worthless • No intention of pursuing collections in the future
  17. 17. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Inventories Tax Basis • Inventories • Measured at lower of cost or net realizable value • Measured at lower of cost or market value • Losses recorded when probable and estimable. Similar to an allowance • Losses allowed only when offered for sale at lower prices or is actually sold/discarded
  18. 18. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Prepaid Expenses • Recognized as an asset and amortized to expense • Tax Basis • Prepaid Expenses • Expenses paid in a year are only deductible in year in which it applies Similar to U.S. GAAP • Not required to capitalize if period of rights or benefits is under 12 months long
  19. 19. FRF for SMEs™ vs. Tax Basis FRF for SMEs™ • Property, Plant & Equipment • Depreciation calculated on the cost less expected residual value • Does not recognize Section 179 and Bonus depreciation deductions • Property, Plant & Equipment Assets contributed by owner are valued at Market Value • Tax Basis • Most PP&E depreciated under Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS), causing more rapid depreciation than FRF for SMEs™ • Additional Section 179 and Bonus depreciation deductions available • Assets Contributed by owner are valued at the owner’s tax basis
  20. 20. Additional Resources • Additional information available at aicpa.org/FRF-SMEs Patrick Mulherin, CPA pmulherin@sek.com Cory Cuffley, CPA, MAC ccuffley@sek.com
  21. 21. Questions?
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