A soldier from the 8th Engineer Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division prepares to enter a tunnel while an armed soldier keeps guard Engineers unpack and test a Mitey-Mite blower in the jungles of Vietnam. Most effectively
The American deployment jumped from 23,300 in 1963 to 184,000 in 1966 and reached a peak of 542,000 in January 1969 under Richard Nixon's presidency.
The Tet offensive is seen as the great turning point: from then on the war, costing $30 billion a year, was widely acknowledged as un-winnable by the Americans. It was only a matter of time before mighty US imperialism was humiliatingly forced to withdraw.
Death Cards Vietnam It depicts a rifleman taking aim at a Viet Cong Guerrilla. The text in Vietnamese is "I saw you but let you live…next time you die." The back of the card depicts a crude skull and crossed bones. U.S. troops got a kick out of them and loved the idea of leaving them on bodies. Like wolves, it was a way to mark their territory. It proclaimed them the biggest and "baddest" varmints in the valley of death. The cards motivated and encouraged American troops far more than they terrified the enemy.
During the war in Vietnam more than 18 million gallons of dioxin-laden Agent Orange and other herbicides were sprayed over 10% of S.Vietnam between 1961 and 1971, poisoning and defoliating millions of hectares of forest and croplands.
CIA domestic surveillance campaign to spy on antiwar leaders and prove that they were communists
J. Edgar Hoover CIA and FBI agents were sent to college campuses to report antiwar activities and also to stir the students toward militant violence. This was done in an attempt to give protestors a bad rap but failed miserably because "no community in the United States was unaffected by the Vietnam War.
On October 15 they called for the total cessation of all activity to ponder what was going on in Vietnam. 100,000 people gathered in the Boston Commons and 250,000 gathered in Washington. Tens of thousands of soldiers in Vietnam wore black armbands that day. On November 15 they organized a march on Washington in which 500,000 protestors participated. It was the largest demonstration in U.S. history
All males were required to register for the draft within two weeks of attaining their 18 birthday
Many diverse loopholes within their classifications to permit those meeting specific criteria to lawfully avoid military service.
The abused one was Class II-A, Occupational Deferment. If your employer deemed that your skills were critical to their business, a deferment could have been part of their employment package. Although this classification favored large, politically influential, aerospace and military type contractors, it also applied to firemen, policemen, math and science teachers
On Friday, May 1, a day after Nixon’s televised address, students at Kent State University organized a demonstration to protest the invasion of Cambodia, which included burying the United States Constitution in front of the Victory Bell on the university Commons. The following Monday, May 4, an estimated crowd of 2,000-3,000 gathered on the Commons to continue their protest. Shortly after noon, members of the Ohio National Guard, which had been dispatched that weekend to control acts of civil disobedience, encountered the crowd
Students running for cover in a Kent State parking lot
An injured or slain student being moved on a stretcher
Mary Ann Vecchio screaming as she kneels over the body of student Jeffrey Miller at Kent State University on May 4, 1970. National Guardsmen had fired in to a crowd of demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine.
Allison Krause, William K. Schroeder, Jeffrey G. Miller, Sandra L. Scheuer, the four slain Kent State students
On March 16, 1968 the angry and frustrated men of Charlie Company, 11th Brigade, America Division entered the Vietnamese village of My Lai. "This is what you've been waiting for -- search and destroy -- and you've got it," said their superior officers. A short time later the killing began.
Massacre As the "search and destroy" mission unfolded, it soon degenerated into the massacre of over 300 apparently unarmed civilians including women, children, and the elderly. Calley ordered his men to enter the village firing, though there had been no report of opposing fire. According to eyewitness reports offered after the event, several old men were bayoneted, praying women and children were shot in the back of the head, and at least one girl was raped and then killed. For his part, Calley was said to have rounded up a group of the villagers, ordered them into a ditch, and mowed them down in a fury of machine gun fire.
The plan was to encourage the South Vietnamese to take more responsibility for fighting the war. It was hoped that this policy would eventually enable the United States to withdraw gradually all their soldiers from Vietnam.
-give the impression that President Nixon was mentally unstable and that his hatred of communism was so fanatical that if the war continued for much longer he was liable to resort to nuclear weapons against North Vietnam
- Vietnamese were trained by the CIA to infiltrate peasant communities and discover the names of NLF sympathizers. When they had been identified, Death Squads were sent in to execute them. Between 1968 and 1971, an estimated 40,974 members of of the NLF were killed in this way.
The fighting in Vietnam was not as intense as in World War II. Wrong….
The average infantryman in the South Pacific during World War II saw 40 days of combat in 4 years.
The average infantryman in Vietnam saw about 240 days of combat in 1 year due to the mobility of the helicopter.
One out of every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam was a casualty.
58,169 were killed and 304,000 wounded out of 2.59 million who served. The percent who died is similar to other wars, amputations or crippling wounds were 300 percent higher than in World War II. 75,000 Vietnam veterans are severely disabled.