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How to Make Your Testing More Groovy, presentation by Paul King and Craig Smith at Agile 2009 and QJUG

How to Make Your Testing More Groovy, presentation by Paul King and Craig Smith at Agile 2009 and QJUG

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    How To Make Your Testing More Groovy How To Make Your Testing More Groovy Presentation Transcript

    • How to make your Testing © ASERT 2006-2009 more Groovy Dr Paul King Craig Smith paulk@asert.com.au craig.smith@suncorp.com.au @paulk_asert @smithcdau ASERT, Australia Suncorp, Australia
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers • Test Runners • Non-web Drivers • Other Tools © ASERT 2006-2009 • Going beyond Focus is on using the Groovy dynamic language for primarily functional and acceptance testing with a forward looking perspective. Also considers polyglot options. The techniques and lessons learned can be applied to other kinds of testing and are also applicable to similar languages. AJUG_SEP2009 - 2
    • Topics not covered in detail • Coverage – But coverage options available • Mocking – But built-in support and many libraries available • CI Support © ASERT 2006-2009 – Support in Hudson, Team City, Anthill Pro to call Groovy • Code Metrics – CodeNarc and other tools available • Build Tools – Ant, Maven, GMaven, Gant, Gradle, ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 3
    • Topics  Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 4
    • Why Test With Groovy? ? © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 5
    • Why Test With Groovy? • Wrong first question! • Perfect second question?  X © ASERT 2006-2009 Consider first the task at hand and the organization and people fit! AJUG_SEP2009 - 6
    • “People Fit” / “Organization Fit” • People – Developers (familiarity with languages) – Testers (tools language familiarity) – Responsibility to create/run/maintain – BAs/SMEs (ability to read technical tests) – Consider both development and maintenance © ASERT 2006-2009 – Expected feedback from tests (JUnit/Reports) • Organization – Maturity level – Degree of automation – Tools in use – Need for adaptability AJUG_SEP2009 - 7
    • Why Test With Groovy? • Advantages – Easy to learn – Particularly good fit if the application you are testing is built for the JVM or your developers work with Java / JVM languages – Supports polyglot programming when needed © ASERT 2006-2009 – Easy to plug and play different testing tools – Good community & tools for professional agile • Disadvantages – Requires JVM – Less advantages if your developers using Python, .Net, PHP – Maybe your testers already know Ruby AJUG_SEP2009 - 8
    • Scripting/Dynamic Languages • Advantages – Lend themselves to succinct code/DSLs – Powerful – Increased Refactoring – Increased Reuse – Less prone to Brittleness © ASERT 2006-2009 – Flexibility for tool integration – Open APIs provide extensibility • Disadvantages – Can be too low level (but many options now) – Sometimes less tool support (but changing now) AJUG_SEP2009 - 9
    • Test Characteristics • Coverage/Traceability – Requirement coverage/traceability – Code coverage: line, branch, path, state – Transactional Tracing • Purpose – Unit, Integration, System, Customer • Manageability – Removing duplication © ASERT 2006-2009 – Managing lifecycle: shared setUp/tearDown (@Before @After) • Handling test data – Data-driven, databases, Spreadsheets, tables, keywords, random, model-driven • Large Test Volumes – Speed of feedback, performance testing • Tool evolution/longevity/cost/support/documentation – Open Source/Commercial, Critical mass/popularity • Combinability AJUG_SEP2009 - 10
    • Key Testing Practices • Use testing DSL’s • Look to move up the testing stack – It used to be all about the driver – Now the driver is hidden in the framework or tool stack • Apply good testing practices – Pareto analysis, bug clusters, mutation testing, test early © ASERT 2006-2009 – All pairs/equivalence partitions/orthogonal array testing – Risk-based test selection, coding for testability, use CI – Boundary value analysis, defensive programming • Plug and play testing tools – Run different drivers with different runners and different tools • Complement automated tests with exploration • Expand testing scope – Test environment readiness, test deployments AJUG_SEP2009 - 11
    • Groovy and Testing Tool Spectrum* Utilities Runners AllPairs, Combinations Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, Polyglot languages JBehave, Cucumber, Robot Framework Logic programming Threads, Parallel / Web Database SOAP / Other Concurrency libraries Drivers Drivers REST Drivers Data-driven libraries Drivers Networking libraries WebTest DbUnit FEST © ASERT 2006-2009 XML Processing GroovyWS WebDriver DataSets Email Read/write files / JWebUnit SqlUnit XML-RPC FTP Excel / Word / CSV Reporting, Logging Tellurium groovy.sql CXF AntUnit Selenium JPA Axis2 Telnet HtmlUnit JDO JAX-WS SSH Tools Watij BigTable JAX-RS Exec iTest2, SoapUI, Twist, HttpBuilder JDBC IDEs, JMeter, Text Cyberneko editors, Recorders, Build Tools, CI * Tools/libraries/frameworks don't always neatly fall into one category – still useful conceptually AJUG_SEP2009 - 12
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing?  Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 13
    • What is Groovy? • “Groovy is like a super version of Java. It can leverage Java's enterprise capabilities but also has cool productivity features like closures, DSL support, builders and dynamic typing.” © ASERT 2006-2009 Groovy = Java – boiler plate code + optional dynamic typing + closures + domain specific languages + builders + metaprogramming AJUG_SEP2009 - 14
    • Groovy Goodies Overview • Fully object oriented • Closures: reusable and assignable pieces of code • Operators can be • GPath: efficient overloaded © ASERT 2006-2009 object navigation • Multimethods • GroovyBeans • Literal declaration for • grep and switch lists (arrays), maps, ranges and regular • Templates, builder, expressions swing, Ant, markup, XML, SQL, XML-RPC, Scriptom, Grails, tests, Mocks AJUG_SEP2009 - 15
    • Growing Acceptance … A slow and steady start but now gaining in momentum, maturity and mindshare Making Java Groovy (soon) Now free
    • … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 17
    • … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 Groovy and Grails downloads: 70-90K per month and growing AJUG_SEP2009 - 18
    • … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://www.micropoll.com/akira/mpresult/501697-116746 Source: http://www.grailspodcast.com/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 19
    • … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 http://www.jroller.com/scolebourne/entry/devoxx_2008_whiteboard_votes http://www.java.net AJUG_SEP2009 - 20
    • … Growing Acceptance … What alternative JVM language are you using or intending to use © ASERT 2006-2009 http://www.leonardoborges.com/writings AJUG_SEP2009 - 21
    • … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 http://it-republik.de/jaxenter/quickvote/results/1/poll/44 (translated using http://babelfish.yahoo.com) AJUG_SEP2009 - 22
    • … Growing Acceptance © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 23
    • The Landscape of JVM Languages optional static types © ASERT 2006-2009 Dynamic features call for dynamic types Java bytecode calls for static types The terms “Java Virtual Machine” and “JVM” mean a Virtual Machine for the Java™ platform. AJUG_SEP2009 - 24
    • Groovy Starter System.out.println("Hello, World!"); // optional semicolon, println 'Hello, World!' // System.out, brackets, // main() method, class defn def name = 'Guillaume' // dynamic typing println "$name, I'll get the car." // GString String longer = """${name}, the car is in the next row.""" // multi-line string © ASERT 2006-2009 // with static typing assert 0.5 == 1/2 // BigDecimal equals() def printSize(obj) { // optional duck typing print obj?.size() // safe dereferencing } def pets = ['ant', 'bee', 'cat'] // native list syntax pets.each { pet -> // closure support assert pet < 'dog' // overloading '<' on String } // or: for (pet in pets)... AJUG_SEP2009 - 25
    • A Better Java... import java.util.List; import java.util.ArrayList; class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { This code List result = new ArrayList(); for (int i = 0; i < strings.size(); i++) { is valid String s = (String) strings.get(i); Java and if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s); valid Groovy } } © ASERT 2006-2009 return result; } public static void main(String[] args) { List names = new ArrayList(); names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred"); names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned"); System.out.println(names); Based on an Erase e = new Erase(); example by List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3); Jim Weirich System.out.println(shortNames.size()); for (int i = 0; i < shortNames.size(); i++) { & Ted Leung String s = (String) shortNames.get(i); System.out.println(s); } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 26
    • ...A Better Java... import java.util.List; import java.util.ArrayList; class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { Do the List result = new ArrayList(); for (int i = 0; i < strings.size(); i++) { semicolons String s = (String) strings.get(i); add anything? if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s); And shouldn‟t } } we us more © ASERT 2006-2009 } return result; modern list public static void main(String[] args) { notation? List names = new ArrayList(); names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred"); Why not names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned"); System.out.println(names); import common Erase e = new Erase(); libraries? List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3); System.out.println(shortNames.size()); for (int i = 0; i < shortNames.size(); i++) { String s = (String) shortNames.get(i); System.out.println(s); } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 27
    • ...A Better Java... class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { List result = new ArrayList() for (String s in strings) { if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s) } } return result } public static void main(String[] args) { © ASERT 2006-2009 List names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred") names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) Erase e = new Erase() List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (String s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 28
    • ...A Better Java... class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { List result = new ArrayList() for (String s in strings) { if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s) Do we need } the static types? } return result Must we always } have a main public static void main(String[] args) { method and © ASERT 2006-2009 List names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred") class definition? names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) How about Erase e = new Erase() List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3) improved System.out.println(shortNames.size()) consistency? for (String s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 29
    • ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { def result = new ArrayList() for (s in strings) { if (s.size() <= length) { result.add(s) } } return result } © ASERT 2006-2009 names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted") names.add("Fred") names.add("Jed") names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 30
    • ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { def result = new ArrayList() for (s in strings) { if (s.size() <= length) { result.add(s) Shouldn‟t we } } have special return result notation for lists? } And special © ASERT 2006-2009 names = new ArrayList() facilities for names.add("Ted") names.add("Fred") list processing? names.add("Jed") Is „return‟ names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) needed at end? shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 31
    • ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { strings.findAll{ it.size() <= length } } names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) shortNames.each{ System.out.println(s) } © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 32
    • ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { strings.findAll{ it.size() <= length } } Is the method names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] now needed? System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) Easier ways to System.out.println(shortNames.size()) use common shortNames.each{ System.out.println(s) } methods? © ASERT 2006-2009 Are brackets required here? AJUG_SEP2009 - 33
    • ...A Better Java... names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] println names shortNames = names.findAll{ it.size() <= 3 } println shortNames.size() shortNames.each{ println it } © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 34
    • ...A Better Java names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] println names shortNames = names.findAll{ it.size() <= 3 } println shortNames.size() shortNames.each{ println it } © ASERT 2006-2009 ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] 3 Ted Jed Ned AJUG_SEP2009 - 35
    • Better Lists, Maps, Ranges • Lists – Special syntax for list literals – Additional common methods (operator overloading) def list = [3, new Date(), 'Jan'] assert list + list == list * 2 • Maps © ASERT 2006-2009 – Special syntax for map literals – Additional common methods def map = [a: 1, b: 2] assert map['a'] == 1 && map.b == 2 • Ranges – Special syntax for various kinds of ranges def letters = 'a'..'z' def numbers = 0..<10 AJUG_SEP2009 - 36
    • Closures • Traditional mainstream languages – Data can be stored in variables, passed around, combined in structured ways to form more complex data; code stays put where it is defined • Languages supporting closures – Data and code can be stored in variables, passed © ASERT 2006-2009 around, combined in structured ways to form more complex algorithms and data doubleNum = { num -> num * 2 } println doubleNum(3) // => 6 processThenPrint = { num, closure -> num = closure(num); println "num is $num" } processThenPrint(3, doubleNum) // => num is 6 processThenPrint(10) { it / 2 } // => num is 5 AJUG_SEP2009 - 37
    • SwingXBuilder import groovy.swing.SwingXBuilder © ASERT 2006-2009 import static java.awt.Color.* import static java.lang.Math.* def swing = new SwingXBuilder() def frame = swing.frame(size: [300, 300]) { graph(plots: [ [GREEN, {value -> sin(value)}], [BLUE, {value -> cos(value)}], [RED, {value -> tan(value)}] ]) }.show() AJUG_SEP2009 - 38
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro  Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver Tellurium, JWebUnit © ASERT 2006-2009 • Test Runners – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 39
    • Concept Manual HTTP Request / Response Web Server © ASERT 2006-2009 Automated Driver Runner <webtest name="myTest"> <steps> <invoke description="get Login Page" url="login" /> <verifyTitle description="we should see the login title" text="Login Page" /> Read </steps> HTTP Request / Response </webtest> Script AJUG_SEP2009 - 40
    • Driver Category • Real browser invoker • Browser Emulators – Runs on platform – Can simulate multiple supported by real browsers browser – Less platform – May need multiple restrictions platforms, e.g. IE6/IE7 – Good for CI © ASERT 2006-2009 – Uses actual JavaScript – Easier to not download engine images, resources – Can be easier to use – Ability to optimise with test recorders JavaScript interactions – Automation – More extensible capabilities differ – Ability to disable across browsers JavaScript – Can typically get to all – Scope for parallelism aspects of browser AJUG_SEP2009 - 41
    • Application under Test… © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 42
    • …Application under Test... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 43
    • …Application under Test © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 44
    • Native Groovy... • Access URLs • Built-in XML parsing • Built-in friendly regular expression syntax • Even for advanced cases, there is friendly access to low-level things: © ASERT 2006-2009 – Sockets, Processes – Databases and other things – Files • Huge range of Java libraries – PDF – Reading, writing Excel AJUG_SEP2009 - 45
    • ...Native Groovy... • Useful URL methods def html = new URL('http://localhost:8080').text assert html.contains('<title>Welcome to SimpBlog</title>') © ASERT 2006-2009 html.find(~'<title>(.*)</title>') { all, title -> assert title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' } • Simple enough for GAE – For public sites – Can share test scripts easily – No setup required AJUG_SEP2009 - 46
    • ...Native Groovy... • Built-in XML Parsing def page = new XmlSlurper().parse('http://localhost:8080/viewPost?id=1') assert page.body.h1.text().contains('Tis the season') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert page.body.h3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert page.body.h3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert page.body.table.tr.td.p.text() == "Aren't we forgeting the true meaning of Christmas? You know, the birth of Santa." AJUG_SEP2009 - 47
    • ...Native Groovy • Easy access to Java libraries @Grab('nekohtml:nekohtml:1.9.6.2') import org.cyberneko.html.parsers.SAXParser def parser = new XmlSlurper(new SAXParser()) def page = parser.parse('http://localhost:8080/viewPost?id=1') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert page.BODY.H1.text().contains('Tis the season') assert page.BODY.H3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert page.BODY.H3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert page.BODY.TABLE.TR.TD.P.text() == "Aren't we forgeting the true meaning of Christmas? You know, the birth of Santa." AJUG_SEP2009 - 48
    • HttpBuilder • Builder for Http interactions – Flexible: bogus posts, response codes, JSON, non- HTML @Grab(group='org.codehaus.groovy.modules.http-builder', module='http-builder', version='0.5.0-RC1') import groovyx.net.http.* import static groovyx.net.http.ContentType.URLENC © ASERT 2006-2009 def http = new HTTPBuilder('http://localhost:8080') def postBody = [title:'Bart was here (and so was HttpBuilder)', content:'Cowabunga Dude!', author:'1', category:'3'] http.post(path:'/addPost', body: postBody, requestContentType: URLENC) { resp, html -> assert resp.contentType == 'text/html' assert resp.status == 200 assert html.BODY.H1.text().matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') assert html.BODY.H3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert html.BODY.H3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert html.BODY.TABLE.TR.TD.P.text() == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } AJUG_SEP2009 - 49
    • HtmlUnit • 100% Java-based headless browser emulator – Can test any Web site: Java, .Net, PHP, Rails, ... • Open Source – Apache 2 license – Hosted at SourceForge – 7 committers (3 very active) – © ASERT 2006-2009 Very mature • Useful for: – Integration and acceptance testing – Screen scraping, deployment automation, ... • Used by other drivers: – Canoo WebTest , JWebUnit , WebDriver , JSFUnit , Celerity • Special features: – Easy ajax mode, emulation of multiple browsers AJUG_SEP2009 - 50
    • HtmlUnit Features... • Support for the HTTP and HTTPS protocols • Support for cookies • Ability to specify whether failing responses from the server should throw exceptions or should be returned as "error" pages • Support for submit methods POST and GET © ASERT 2006-2009 – As well as HEAD, DELETE, ... • Ability to customize the request headers being sent to the server • Support for HTML responses – Wrapper for HTML pages that provides easy access to all information contained inside them – Support for submitting forms and clicking links – Support for walking the DOM model of HTML documents AJUG_SEP2009 - 51
    • ...HtmlUnit Features • Proxy server support • Support for basic and NTLM authentication • Excellent JavaScript support – jQuery 1.2.6: Full support – MochiKit 1.4.1: Full support – GWT 1.6.4: Full support © ASERT 2006-2009 – Sarissa 0.9.9.3: Full support – MooTools 1.2.1: Full support – Prototype 1.6.0: Very good support – Ext JS 2.2: Very good support – Dojo 1.0.2: Good support – YUI 2.3.0: Good support AJUG_SEP2009 - 52
    • HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post... @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.6') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def client = new WebClient() def page = client.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') // check page title assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText © ASERT 2006-2009 // fill in blog entry and post it def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title'). setValueAttribute('Bart was here (and so was HtmlUnit)') form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find{ it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 53
    • ...HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post ... // check blog post details assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' assert h3headings.item(2).textContent == 'Author: Bart' // expecting: // <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></table> def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.getFirstChild() assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' AJUG_SEP2009 - 54
    • Canoo WebTest • Description – Open source tool for automated testing of web applications – Declarative approach in XML or testing DSL in Groovy – Has Test Recorder – Excellent reporting options – Ant-based under the covers <target name="login" > <testSpec name="normal" > © ASERT 2006-2009 &config; <steps> <invoke stepid="get Login Page" url="login.jsp" /> <verifytitle stepid="we should see the login title" text="Login Page" /> <setinputfield stepid="set user name" name="username" value="scott" /> <setinputfield stepid="set password" name="password" value="tiger" /> <clickbutton stepid="Click the submit button" label="let me in" /> <verifytitle stepid="Home Page follows if login ok" text="Home Page" /> </steps> </testSpec> </target> AJUG_SEP2009 - 55
    • Canoo WebTest Features • Strongly encourages declarative testing – Supports testing DSLs, test structuring and reuse through macrodefs and imports for XML flavor & methods and closures for Groovy flavor • Extensive support for HTML pages – Including JavaScript • Also supports other MIME types © ASERT 2006-2009 – Generically as binary streams – Special support for PDF, Excel, Emails • Ant heritage provides easy IDE/CI hooks • Excellent Documentation • Excellent Community • Eats own dog food – high quality codebase AJUG_SEP2009 - 56
    • Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 57
    • ...Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 58
    • ...Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 59
    • ...Canoo WebTest Steps © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 60
    • WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... <webtest name="Testing Posting a new Blog Entry"> <invoke url="http://localhost:8080/" description="Home Page"/> <verifyTitle text="Welcome to SimpBlog"/> <group description="Post New Blog Entry"> <clickLink label="New Blog Entry"/> © ASERT 2006-2009 <setInputField name="title" value="Bart was here (and so was WebTest)"/> <setSelectField name="category" text="School"/> <setInputField name="content" value="Cowabunga Dude!"/> <clickButton name="btnPost"/> </group> ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 61
    • ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... ... <group description="Check Blog Post"> <verifyElementText type="h1" regex="true" text="Post.*: Bart was here.*"/> <verifyXPath xpath="//h3[2]/text()" text="Category: School"/> © ASERT 2006-2009 <verifyXPath xpath="//h3[3]/text()" text="Author: Bart"/> <verifyElementText type="p" text="Cowabunga Dude!"/> </group> <groovy> println "Test run at: ${new Date()}" </groovy> </webtest> AJUG_SEP2009 - 62
    • ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... ant.webtest(name: 'Test SimpBlog') { invoke url: "http://localhost:8080/", description: "Home Page" verifyTitle text: "Welcome to SimpBlog" group description: "Post New Blog Entry", { clickLink label: "New Blog Entry" setInputField name: "title", value: "Bart was here (and so was WebTest with Groovy)" setSelectField name: "category", text: "School" © ASERT 2006-2009 setInputField name: "content", value: "Cowabunga Dude!" clickButton name: "btnPost" } group description: "Check Blog Post", { verifyElementText type: "h1", regex: "true", text: "Post.*: Bart was here.*" verifyXPath xpath: "//h3[2]/text()", text: "Category: School" verifyXPath xpath: "//h3[3]/text()", text: "Author: Bart" verifyElementText type: "p", text: "Cowabunga Dude!" } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 63
    • ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 64
    • ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 65
    • Firefox Recorder © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 66
    • Watij • Description – Java API that provides control and automation of Internet Explorer – Supports actions like navigating, clicking links, filling out forms, etc. – Also supports more complex actions like file © ASERT 2006-2009 downloading and uploading, popup windows and dialogs, and screen captures • Special Features – Ability to work with IE interactively – Can attach to an existing browser session – Special browser commands, e.g. ie.fullScreen(true) – Handles child browsers and popup dialogs AJUG_SEP2009 - 67
    • Watij Features • Finders – tag(String tagName) – attribute(String name, String value) – index(int index) – text(String text) – name(String value) – value(String value) © ASERT 2006-2009 – caption(String value) – id(String value) – title(String value) – alt(String value) – src(String value) – action(String value) – method(String value) – url(String value) – href(String value) – xpath(String expression) AJUG_SEP2009 - 68
    • Watij: Testing New Blog Post... import watij.runtime.ie.IE import static watij.finders.SymbolFactory.* import static watij.finders.FinderFactory.* def ie = new IE() ie.start('http://localhost:8080/postForm') // check page title © ASERT 2006-2009 assert ie.title() == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // fill in query form and submit it ie.textField(name, 'title'). set('Bart was here (and so was Watij)') ie.textField(name, 'content').set('Cowabunga dude!') ie.selectList(name, "category"). option(text, "Home").select() ie.button(name, 'btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 69
    • ...Watij: Testing New Blog Post... ... // check entered post is being displayed assert ie.htmlElement(tag, 'H1').text(). matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headers = ie.htmlElements(tag, 'H3') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headers.get(1).text() == 'Category: Home' assert h3headers.get(2).text() == 'Author: Bart' // try a more advanced finder // content is at: //TABLE/TBODY/TR/TD/P def row = ie.htmlElement(xpath('//TABLE/TBODY/TR')) assert row.cell(0).htmlElement(tag, 'P').text() == 'Cowabunga dude!' ie.close() AJUG_SEP2009 - 70
    • ...Watij: Testing New Blog Post © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 71
    • Selenium... • Description – Tools to help automate testing for web-based applications – Support for © ASERT 2006-2009 running tests on multiple browser platforms • Components – Selenium Core – Selenium IDE  Selenium RC Our focus – Selenium Grid Source: http://seleniumhq.org/projects/remote-control/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 72
    • ...Selenium © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://seleniumhq.org/docs/01_introducing_selenium.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 73
    • Selenium: Testing New Blog Post... import com.thoughtworks.selenium.DefaultSelenium import org.openqa.selenium.server.SeleniumServer // start auxiliary server def server = new SeleniumServer() server.start() // uncomment one of below //def browser = "*iexplore" © ASERT 2006-2009 //def browser = "*firefox3" // if Firefox already in your path //def browser = "*firefox3 C:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe" def browser = "*firefox3 C:/Program Files (x86)/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe" def selenium = new DefaultSelenium("localhost", 4444, browser, "http://localhost:8080") selenium.start() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 74
    • ...Selenium: Testing New Blog Post ... // post blog selenium.open "/postForm" selenium.type "title", "Bart was here (and so was Selenium)" selenium.select "category", "Home" selenium.type "content", "Cowabunga Dude!" selenium.click "btnPost" © ASERT 2006-2009 selenium.waitForPageToLoad "5000" // checks assert selenium.isTextPresent('regex:Post.*: Bart was here') assert selenium.isElementPresent('//h3[text()="Author: Bart"]') assert selenium.isElementPresent('//h3[text()="Category: Home"]') assert selenium.isElementPresent( '//table//tr/td/p[text()="Cowabunga Dude!"]') selenium.stop() server.stop() AJUG_SEP2009 - 75
    • Selenium IDE... Features: • Easy record and playback © ASERT 2006-2009 • Intelligent field selection will use IDs, names, or XPath as needed • Autocomplete for all common Selenium commands • Walk through tests • Debug and set breakpoints • Save tests as HTML, Ruby scripts, or any other format • Support for Selenium user- extensions.js file • Option to automatically assert the title of every page AJUG_SEP2009 - 76
    • ...Selenium IDE © ASERT 2006-2009 more info: http://limcheekin.blogspot.com/2009/07/behavior-driven-development-generating.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 77
    • Selenium Other Tools... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 78
    • ...Selenium Other Tools... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 79
    • ...Selenium Other Tools © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://selenium-grid.seleniumhq.org/how_it_works.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 80
    • WebDriver • Description – Simple API to drive both real browsers • for testing javascript heavy apps – and a pure 'in memory' emulator solution • for faster testing of simpler apps • uses HtmlUnit under the covers in emulator mode © ASERT 2006-2009 – Represents next generation of Selenium RC • though merging into Selenium may happen under the covers if you are a Selenium user – Roadmap has plans to leverage some advanced Selenium like features • RemoteWebDriver • FarmedWebDriver (think Selenium Grid) AJUG_SEP2009 - 81
    • WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post... import org.openqa.selenium.By import org.openqa.selenium.htmlunit.HtmlUnitDriver def driver = new HtmlUnitDriver() driver.get('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert driver.title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // fill in query form and submit it © ASERT 2006-2009 driver.findElement(By.name('title')). sendKeys('Bart was here (and so was WebDriver)') driver.findElement(By.name('content')). sendKeys('Cowabunga dude!') def select = driver.findElement(By.name('category')) select.findElements(By.tagName("option")).find{ it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected() driver.findElement(By.name('btnPost')).click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 82
    • ...WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post ... assert driver.findElement(By.tagName("h1")).text. matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headers = driver.findElements(By.tagName("h3")) assert h3headers[1].text == 'Category: Home' © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headers[2].text == 'Author: Bart' // try a more advanced finder // content is at: //TABLE/TBODY/TR/TD/P def row = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//table/tbody/tr")) def col = row.findElement(By.tagName("td")) def para = col.findElement(By.tagName("p")) assert para.text == 'Cowabunga dude!' AJUG_SEP2009 - 83
    • Tellurium • Description – built on top of Selenium but tries to solve several shortcomings – "record and reply" style, difficult to refactor and maintain, so instead define UI components declaratively then write tests in terms of UI © ASERT 2006-2009 – Provides many predefined UI objects for you to use directly, such as Button, CheckBox, InputBox, Selector, TextBox, and Table but also ability to write your own custom UI objects – Supports advanced locating mechanisms: composite locator, "group locating" – Supports testing DSL – Supports data-driven tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 84
    • Architecture © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://code.google.com/p/aost/wiki/Introduction AJUG_SEP2009 - 85
    • Tellurium Example • Selenium: selenium.type("//input[@title='Google Search']", input) selenium.click("//input[@name='btnG' and @type='submit']") • Tellurium UI: ui.Container(uid: "google_start_page", © ASERT 2006-2009 clocator: [tag: "td"], group: "true") { InputBox(uid: "searchbox", clocator: [title: "Google Search"]) SubmitButton(uid: "googlesearch", clocator: [name: "btnG", value: "Google Search"]) } • Tellurium DSL Test: type "google_start_page.searchbox", input click "google_start_page.googlesearch" AJUG_SEP2009 - 86
    • Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post... ui.UrlLink(uid: "create_new_post", clocator: [tag:'a', text: "New Blog Entry"]) ui.Form(uid: "blogform", clocator: [tag: 'form', name:'post'], group: "true") { InputBox(uid: "title", clocator: [name: "title"]) InputBox(uid: "content", clocator: [tag:'textarea', name: "content"]) Selector(uid: "category", clocator: [name: "category"]) Selector(uid: "author", clocator: [name: "author"]) © ASERT 2006-2009 SubmitButton(uid: "post_button", clocator: [name: 'btnPost', value: "Create Post"]) } ui.TextBox(uid: 'main_header', clocator: [tag: 'h1']) ui.TextBox(uid: 'category_header', clocator: [tag: 'h3', position: '2']) ui.TextBox(uid: 'author_header', clocator: [tag: 'h3', position: '3']) ui.Container(uid: 'table', clocator: [tag: 'table']) { ui.TextBox(uid: 'content_para', locator: '//tr/td/p') } AJUG_SEP2009 - 87
    • ...Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post openUrl "http://localhost:8080/" click "create_new_post" waitForPageToLoad 5000 assert title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // post blog type "blogform.title", "Bart was here (and so was Tellurium)" selectByLabel "blogform.category", "Home" © ASERT 2006-2009 selectByLabel "blogform.author", "Bart" type "blogform.content", "Cowabunga Dude!" click "blogform.post_button" waitForPageToLoad 5000 // check contents assert getText('main_header').matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') assert getText('category_header') == 'Category: Home' assert getText('author_header') == 'Author: Bart' assert getText('table.content_para') == 'Cowabunga Dude!' shutDown AJUG_SEP2009 - 88
    • TrUMP IDE © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 89
    • JWebUnit... • Description – Java-based testing framework for web applications – Intention is to provide a high-level "driver" Java API – Wraps existing testing frameworks such as HtmlUnit and Selenium with a unified, simple testing interface – Support includes navigation via links, form entry and © ASERT 2006-2009 submission, validation of table contents, and other verification steps – Includes some runner capabilities – Useful in that it allows you to switch between different lower level drivers without re-writing your tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 90
    • ...JWebUnit © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://jwebunit.sourceforge.net/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 91
    • JWebUnit: Testing New Blog Post import net.sourceforge.jwebunit.junit.* class TestSimpBlog extends WebTestCase { void setUp() { setBaseUrl("http://localhost:8080") } void testPostBlog() { beginAt "/postForm" assertTitleEquals "Welcome to SimpBlog" setTextField "title", "Bart was here (and so was JWebUnit)" © ASERT 2006-2009 setTextField "content", "Cowabunga Dude!" selectOption "category", "Home" clickButtonWithText "Create Post" assert getElementByXPath('//H1').textContent. matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = getElementsByXPath('//H3') assert h3headings[1].textContent == "Category: Home" assert h3headings[2].textContent == "Author: Bart" def cell = getElementByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD') assert cell.children[0].textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 92
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ...  Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, Cucumber, Robot Framework, FitNesse/Slim • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 93
    • Native Groovy • Groovy has a friendly ‘==‘ • Built-in assert • Scripts are low ceremony • By utilising @Grab are easy to share • Many in-built testing capabilities are © ASERT 2006-2009 accessible even from scripts • Easy to version control or treat like operating system scripts • Out of the box detection of JUnit and TestNG tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 94
    • Built-in JUnit 3... • Groovy distributions up to 1.6.X include JUnit 3 • Automatically invokes text runner • Example uses HtmlUnit driver class TestSimpBlogJUnit extends TestCase { def page void setUp() { © ASERT 2006-2009 page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText } void testBartWasHere() { // fill in blog entry and post it def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute('Bart was here (and form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'H form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 95
    • ...Built-in JUnit 3... ... def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute( 'Bart was here (and so was HtmlUnit)') form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() // check blog post details © ASERT 2006-2009 assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' assert h3headings.item(2).textContent == 'Author: Bart' // expecting: <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></tab def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.getFirstChild() assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 96
    • ...Built-in JUnit 3 © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 97
    • GroovyTestCase Tests • Like JUnit but with some enhancements – Additional assert methods – fewer imports – clean shouldFail syntax class TestSimpBlogGUnit extends GroovyTestCase { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page void setUp() { // ... } void testBartWasHere() { // ... ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 98
    • JUnit 4.X • Groovy distributions from 1.7 include JUnit 4 • Automatically invokes text runner if needed • Example uses HtmlUnit driver (not shown) import org.junit.* class TestSimpBlogJUnit4 { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page @Before void setUp() { // ... } @Test void bartWasHere() { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 99
    • JUnit 4.X Parameterized Tests @RunWith(Parameterized) class TestSimpBlogJUnit4DD { def page, author, title, category, content TestSimpBlogJUnit4DD(author, title, category, content) { this.author = author this.title = title © ASERT 2006-2009 this.category = category this.content = content } @Parameters static data() { return [ ['Bart', 'Title 1', 'Home', 'Content 1'], ['Homer', 'Title 2', 'Work', 'Content 2'], ['Marge', 'Title 3', 'Food', 'Content 3'] ].collect{ it as String[] } } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 100
    • TestNG • Groovy automatically invokes text runner if run as a script • Example shows grouping, driver not shown import org.testng.annotations.* class TestSimpBlogTestNG { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page @BeforeClass void setUp() { // ... } @Test(groups = [ "slow" ]) void bartWasHere() { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 101
    • TestNG Data Driven import org.testng.annotations.* class TestSimpBlogTestNGDD { // ... @DataProvider(name='SimpBlogDataProvider') Object[][] data() { © ASERT 2006-2009 return [ ['Bart', 'Title 1', 'Home', 'Content 1'], ['Homer', 'Title 2', 'Work', 'Content 2'], ['Marge', 'Title 3', 'Food', 'Content 3'] ].collect{ it as Object[] } as Object[] } @Test(dataProvider = "SimpBlogDataProvider") void bartWasHere(author, title, category, content) { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 102
    • Spock Testing Framework... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 103
    • ...Spock Testing Framework • Testing framework for Java and Groovy • Highly expressive specification language – No assertion API – No record & replay @Speck mocking API @RunWith(Sputnik) – No class PublisherSubscriberSpeck { superfluous def "events are received by all subscribers"() { © ASERT 2006-2009 annotations def pub = new Publisher() – Meaningful def sub1 = Mock(Subscriber) assert error def sub2 = Mock(Subscriber) messages pub.subscribers << sub1 << sub2 when: pub.send("event") then: – Extensible 1 * sub1.receive("event") – Compatible 1 * sub2.receive("event") with JUnit } reportingwise } AJUG_SEP2009 - 104
    • Spock Example... import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient import spock.lang.* import org.junit.runner.RunWith @Speck () @RunWith (Sputnik) class TestSimpBlogSpock { def page, subheadings, para, form, result @Unroll("When #author posts a #category blog with content '#content' it shoul © ASERT 2006-2009 def "when creating a new blog entry"() { given: page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') form = page.getFormByName('post') when: form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute("$author was here (and so form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == category form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find { it.text == author }.se form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() subheadings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') para = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD/P')[0] ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 105
    • ...Spock Example ... then: page.titleText == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches("Post.*: $auth subheadings.item(1).textContent == "Category: $category" subheadings.item(2).textContent == "Author: $author" and: // Optional use of 'and:' para.textContent == content © ASERT 2006-2009 where: author << ['Bart', 'Homer', 'Lisa'] category << ['Home', 'Work', 'Food'] content << ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'] } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 106
    • EasyB • Description: BDD, Rspec-like testing library narrative 'segment flown', { as_a 'frequent flyer' i_want 'to accrue rewards points for every segment I fly' so_that 'I can receive free flights for my dedication to the airline' } scenario 'segment flown', { given 'a frequent flyer with a rewards balance of 1500 points' © ASERT 2006-2009 when 'that flyer completes a segment worth 500 points' then 'that flyer has a new rewards balance of 2000 points' } scenario 'segment flown', { given 'a frequent flyer with a rewards balance of 1500 points', { flyer = new FrequentFlyer(1500) } when 'that flyer completes a segment worth 500 points', { flyer.fly(new Segment(500)) } then 'that flyer has a new rewards balance of 2000 points', { flyer.pointsBalance.shouldBe 2000 } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 107
    • EasyB Example ... • When run will be marked as pending – perfect for ATDD scenario "Bart posts a new blog entry", { given "we are on the create blog entry page" when "I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title" and "I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content" and "I have selected 'Home' as the category" © ASERT 2006-2009 and "I have selected 'Bart' as the author" and "I click the 'Create Post' button" then "I expect the entry to be posted" } AJUG_SEP2009 - 108
    • ...EasyB Example... description "Post Blog Entry Feature" narrative "for feature", { as_a "Blogger" i_want "to be able to post a blog" so_that "I can keep others informed" } before "posting blog", { given "we are on the create blog entry page", { © ASERT 2006-2009 webClient = new com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient() page = webClient.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') } } scenario "Bart was here blog", { when "I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title", { form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute( 'Bart was here (and so was EasyB)') } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 109
    • ...EasyB Example... ... and "I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content", { form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') } and "I have selected 'Home' as the category", { form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected( } and "I click the 'Create Post' button", { result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() } © ASERT 2006-2009 then "I expect the entry to be posted", { // check blog post details assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart wa def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' // traditional style h3headings.item(2).textContent.shouldBe 'Author: Bart' // BDD style // expecting: <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></table> def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.firstChild assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' // para.shouldHave textContent: 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 110
    • ...EasyB Example... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 111
    • ...EasyB Example 2 scenarios (including 1 pending) executed successfully. Story: simp blog initial scenario Bart posts a new blog entry [PENDING] given we are on the create blog entry page when I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title when I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content [PENDING] when I have selected 'Home' as the category [PENDING] when I have selected 'Bart' as the author [PENDING] when I click the 'Create Post' button [PENDING] then I expect the entry to be posted [PENDING] Story: simp blog easyb is preparing to process 2 file(s) © ASERT 2006-2009 Post Blog Entry Feature Running simp blog initial story (SimpBlogInitialStory.groovy) for feature Scenarios run: 1, Failures: 0, Pending: 1, Time elapsed: 1.049 sec As a Blogger Running simp blog story (SimpBlogStory.groovy) I want to be able to post a blog Scenarios run: 1, Failures: 0, Pending: 0, Time elapsed: 1.356 sec So that I can keep others informed given we are on the create blog entry page 2 total behaviors ran (including 1 pending behavior) with no failures easyb execution passed scenario Bart was here blog when I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title when I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content when I have selected 'Home' as the category when I click the 'Create Post' button then I expect the entry to be posted AJUG_SEP2009 - 112
    • Cucumber # language: en • Description Feature: Addition In order to avoid silly mistakes – Loose coupling As a math idiot between text spec I want to be told the sum of two numbers and step defns Scenario Outline: Add two numbers Given I have entered <input_1> into the calculator And I have entered <input_2> into the calculator When I press <button> Then the stored result should be <output> Examples: © ASERT 2006-2009 | input_1 | input_2 | button | output | | 20 | 30 | add | 50 | | 2 | 5 | add | 7 | | 0 | 40 | add | 40 | # language: en Feature: Division In order to avoid silly mistakes Cashiers must be able to calculate a fraction Scenario: Regular numbers Given I have entered 3 into the calculator And I have entered 2 into the calculator When I press divide Then the stored result should be 1.5 AJUG_SEP2009 - 113
    • Cucumber Example... # language: en @newpost Feature: New Blog Post In order to create a new blog entry Bloggers should be able to select their name and category and enter text © ASERT 2006-2009 Scenario: New Posting Given we are on the create blog entry page When I have entered "Bart was here" as the title And I have entered "Cowabunga Dude!" as the content And I have selected "Home" from the "category" dropdown And I have selected "Bart" from the "author" dropdown And I click the 'Create Post' button Then I should see a heading message matching "Post.*: Bart was here.*" AJUG_SEP2009 - 114
    • ...Cucumber Example... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 115
    • ...Cucumber Example import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient this.metaClass.mixin(cuke4duke.GroovyDsl) Given ~/we are on the create blog entry page/, { -> page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') } When(~/I have entered "(.*)" as the title/) {String title -> form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute(title + ' (and so was Cucumber)') } When(~'I have entered "(.*)" as the content') {String content -> © ASERT 2006-2009 form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) } When(~'I have selected "(.*)" from the "(.*)" dropdown') {String option, String name -> form.getSelectByName(name).getOptions().find { it.text == option }.setSelected(true) } When(~"I click the 'Create Post' button") { -> result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() } Then(~'I should see a heading message matching "(.*)"') {String pattern -> // ensureThat result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches(pattern) assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches(pattern) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 116
    • Cucumber Data Driven Example... # language: en @newpost Feature: New Blog Post In order to create a new blog entry Bloggers should be able to select their name and category and enter text Scenario Outline: New Posting Given we are on the create blog entry page © ASERT 2006-2009 When I have entered "<title>" as the title And I have entered "<content>" as the content And I have selected "<category>" from the "category" dropdown And I have selected "<author>" from the "author" dropdown And I click the 'Create Post' button Then I should see a heading message matching "Post.*: <title>.*" Examples: | title | content | category | author | | Title 1 | Content 1 | Home | Bart | | Title 2 | Content 2 | Work | Homer | | Title 3 | Content 3 | Food | Marge | AJUG_SEP2009 - 117
    • ...Cucumber Data Driven Example © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 118
    • JBehave • Description – Behaviour-driven development in Java • Also works out of the box for Groovy – Behavior scenarios written in text • Use the words Given, When, Then and And. – Mapped using regular expressions and annotations © ASERT 2006-2009 to step methods – Web Runner available for non-technical users to easily run tests – Hooks to Selenium available in JBehave Web • Other Java libraries (e.g. HtmlUnit) easy to use too – Supports parameter converters • Getting 'String' parameters into appropriate Object values – Supports a 'StepDoc' function • For listing available scenario clauses AJUG_SEP2009 - 119
    • JBehave Example... Given we are on the create blog entry page When I have entered "Bart was here" as the title And I have entered "Cowabunga Dude!" as the content And I have selected "Home" from the "category" dropdown And I have selected "Bart" from the "author" dropdown And I click the 'Create Post' button Then I should see a heading message matching "Post.*: Bart was here.*" import org.jbehave.scenario.Scenario © ASERT 2006-2009 import org.jbehave.scenario.steps.Steps class NewPostScenario extends Scenario { NewPostScenario() { super([new CreateBlogSteps()] as Steps[]) } } Scenario: Given we are on the create blog entry page When I have entered "Bart was here" as the title And I have entered "Cowabunga Dude!" as the content And I have selected "Home" from the "category" dropdown And I have selected "Bart" from the "author" dropdown And I click the 'Create Post' button Then I should see a heading message matching "Post.*: Bart was here.*" AJUG_SEP2009 - 120
    • ...JBehave Example... import org.jbehave.scenario.steps.Steps import org.jbehave.scenario.annotations.* import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient class CreateBlogSteps extends Steps { def page, form, result @Given("we are on the create blog entry page") void gotoEntryPage() { page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') } © ASERT 2006-2009 @When('I have entered "$title" as the title') void enterTitle(String title) { form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title'). setValueAttribute(title + ' (and so was JBehave)') } @When('I have entered "$content" as the content') void enterContent(String content) { form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) } ... Example uses HtmlUnit which must be added to CLASSPATH AJUG_SEP2009 - 121
    • ...JBehave Example ... @When('I have selected "$option" from the "$name" dropdown') void selectOption(String option, String name) { form.getSelectByName(name).getOptions().find { it.text == option }.setSelected(true) } @When("I click the 'Create Post' button") void clickPostButton() { result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() © ASERT 2006-2009 } @Then('I should see a heading message matching "$message"') void checkPost(String pattern) { assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches(pattern) } } Choose either traditional style or BDD style ... void checkPost(String pattern) { ensureThat result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches(pattern) } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 122
    • JBehave Web Runner... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 123
    • ...JBehave Web Runner © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 124
    • Hacked* "JBehave Aware" GroovyConsole © ASERT 2006-2009 * Not currently publically available AJUG_SEP2009 - 125
    • Robot Framework... • Description – Keyword-driven test automation framework for acceptance level testing and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD) – Easy to use tabular syntax for creating test – Easy to use test libraries implemented either with © ASERT 2006-2009 Python or Java – Open source, Apache License 2.0 – Supports creating data-driven test cases. – Provides tagging to categorize and select test cases to be executed – Provides easy-to-read reports and logs in HTML format – XML-RPC interface for remote testing AJUG_SEP2009 - 126
    • ...Robot Framework... • Tabular tests / Executable Specs – In HTML or Text © ASERT 2006-2009 ***Settings*** Library OperatingSystem ***Variables*** ${MESSAGE} Hello, world! ***Test Cases*** My Test [Documentation] Example test Log ${MESSAGE} My Keyword /tmp Another Test Should Be Equal ${MESSAGE} Hello, world! ***Keywords*** My Keyword [Arguments] ${path} Directory Should Exist ${path} AJUG_SEP2009 - 127
    • ...Robot Framework... • Reporting © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 128
    • ...Robot Framework... • Reporting © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 129
    • ...Robot Framework... • Tools © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 130
    • Robot Framework Example... ***Test Cases*** Submit post Given we are on the create blog entry page When I have entered "Bart was here" as the title And I have entered "Cowabunga Dude!" as the content And I have selected "Home" from the "category" dropdown And I have selected "Bart" from the "author" dropdown And I click the 'Create Post' button Then I should see a heading message matching "Post.*: Bart was here.*" © ASERT 2006-2009 ***Keywords*** Given we are on the create blog entry page Open Browser http://localhost:8080/postForm ${BROWSER} # Set Selenium Speed ${DELAY} Title Should Be Welcome to SimpBlog When I have entered "${text}" as the title Input Text title ${text} ... First look at the Python version using Selenium AJUG_SEP2009 - 131
    • ...Robot Framework Example ... And I have entered "${text}" as the content Input Text content ${text} And I have selected "${option}" from the "${list}" dropdown Select From List ${list} ${option} And I click the 'Create Post' button Click Button btnPost © ASERT 2006-2009 Then I should see a heading message matching "${expected}" ${text} = Get Text xpath=//h1 Should Match Regexp ${text} ${expected} ***Settings*** Library ${LIBRARY} Test Teardown Close Browser ***Variables*** ${BROWSER} *firefox3 C:/Program Files (x86)/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe ${DELAY} 0 ${LIBRARY} SeleniumLibrary AJUG_SEP2009 - 132
    • Robot Framework with Groovy... ***Settings*** Library Remote localhost:8270 WITH NAME Groovy ***Test Case*** Multiple Blog Posts Post Bart Home Title 1 Content 1 Post Homer Work Title 2 Content 2 Post Marge Food Title 3 Content 3 © ASERT 2006-2009 Pybot TestCase.txt Runner XML-RPC Groovy Groovy/Java XML RPC Driver Server AJUG_SEP2009 - 133
    • ...Robot Framework with Groovy... import groovy.net.xmlrpc.* import java.net.ServerSocket import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def server = new XMLRPCServer() server.get_keyword_names = { ["Post"] } server.get_keyword_documentation = { "" } server.get_keyword_arguments = { ["*args"] } server.run_keyword = { name, args -> assert name == 'Post' def (author, category, title, content) = args def client = new WebClient() def page = client.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText © ASERT 2006-2009 def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute("$title (entered with Robot Framework)") form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find{ it.text == author }.setSelected(true) form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find{ it.text == category }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches("Post.*: $title.*") def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == "Category: $category" assert h3headings.item(2).textContent == "Author: $author" def para = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD/P')[0] assert para.textContent == content return [status:'PASS', output:"$name $args", error:'bad arg'] } def serverSocket = new ServerSocket(8270) server.startServer(serverSocket) In the future, a generic version of this file may be possible AJUG_SEP2009 - 134
    • ...Robot Framework with Groovy... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 135
    • ...Robot Framework with Groovy © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 136
    • FitNesse/SLIM • Description – Tool for enhancing collaboration in software development – Allows customers, developers and testers to easily © ASERT 2006-2009 create and run tests to compare expected with actual results – Tests are captured in wiki format and mapped into code using fixtures Source: http://fitnesse.org/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 137
    • SLIM with Groovy... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 138
    • ...SLIM with Groovy package simpblog import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient class NewBlogPost { String author, title, content, category private result def execute() { def client = new WebClient() def page = client.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText def form = page.getFormByName('post') © ASERT 2006-2009 form.getInputByName('title'). setValueAttribute("$title (entered with Robot Framework)") form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find{ it.text == author }.setSelected(true) form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find{ it.text == category }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() } def mainHeading() { def m = result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent =~ /Post .*: (.*) ([^)]*)/ m[0][1] } } Example uses HtmlUnit to call SimpBlog web site but those details aren't important here AJUG_SEP2009 - 139
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ...  Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 140
    • Better SQL Manipulation... import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.DriverManager; import java.sql.Statement; // ... import java.sql.ResultSet; finally { import java.sql.SQLException; // release database resources close(rs); // close the ResultSet public class JdbcJava { close(stmt); // close the Statement public static Connection getConnection() throws Exception { close(conn); // close the Connection String driver = "org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver"; } String url = "jdbc:hsqldb:file:EMPDB"; } String username = "sa"; String password = ""; Class.forName(driver); private static void close(ResultSet rs) { return DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password); try { } if (rs != null) rs.close(); } catch (SQLException e) { © ASERT 2006-2009 public static void main(String[] args) { Connection conn = null; e.printStackTrace(); Statement stmt = null; } ResultSet rs = null; } try { conn = getConnection(); private static void close(Statement st) { stmt = conn.createStatement(); try { if (st != null) st.close(); String query = } catch (SQLException e) { "select id, lastname, firstname from Employees"; rs = stmt.executeQuery(query); e.printStackTrace(); } while (rs.next()) { System.out.println(rs.getString("id") + } ": " + rs.getString("firstname") + " " + rs.getString("lastname")); private static void close(Connection cn) { try { } if (cn != null) cn.close(); } catch (Exception e) { } catch (SQLException e) { // handle the exception e.printStackTrace(); e.printStackTrace(); } System.err.println(e.getMessage()); } } } // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 141
    • ...Better SQL Manipulation... import import java.sql.Connection; java.sql.DriverManager; boilerplate import java.sql.Statement; // ... import java.sql.ResultSet; finally { import java.sql.SQLException; // release database resources close(rs); // close the ResultSet public class JdbcJava { close(stmt); // close the Statement public static Connection getConnection() throws Exception { close(conn); // close the Connection String driver = "org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver"; } String url = "jdbc:hsqldb:file:EMPDB"; } String username = "sa"; String password = ""; Class.forName(driver); private static void close(ResultSet rs) { return DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password); try { } if (rs != null) rs.close(); } catch (SQLException e) { © ASERT 2006-2009 public static void main(String[] args) { Connection conn = null; e.printStackTrace(); Statement stmt = null; } ResultSet rs = null; } try { conn = getConnection(); private static void close(Statement st) { stmt = conn.createStatement(); try { if (st != null) st.close(); String query = } catch (SQLException e) { "select id, lastname, firstname from Employees"; rs = stmt.executeQuery(query); e.printStackTrace(); } while (rs.next()) { System.out.println(rs.getString("id") + } ": " + rs.getString("firstname") + " " + rs.getString("lastname")); private static void close(Connection cn) { try { } if (cn != null) cn.close(); } catch (Exception e) { } catch (SQLException e) { // handle the exception e.printStackTrace(); e.printStackTrace(); } System.err.println(e.getMessage()); } } } // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 142
    • ...Better SQL Manipulation import groovy.sql.Sql def url = 'jdbc:hsqldb:file:EMPDB' def username = 'sa' def password = '' © ASERT 2006-2009 def driver = 'org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver' def db = Sql.newInstance(url, username, password, driver) db.eachRow("SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM Employees") { println "$it.id: $it.firstname $it.lastname" } AJUG_SEP2009 - 143
    • More Details: Working with Databases • Using standard SQL statements import groovy.sql.Sql def foo = 'cheese' def db = Sql.newInstance("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydb", "user", "pswd", "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver") db.eachRow("select * from FOOD where type=${foo}") { println "Gromit likes ${it.name}" © ASERT 2006-2009 } • Using DataSets import groovy.sql.Sql def db = Sql.newInstance("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/mydb", "user", "pswd", "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver") def food = db.dataSet('FOOD') def cheese = food.findAll { it.type == 'cheese' } cheese.each { println "Gromit likes ${it.name}" } AJUG_SEP2009 - 144
    • WebTest testing Web Sites def ant = new AntBuilder() def webtest_home = System.properties.'webtest.home' ant.taskdef(resource:'webtest.taskdef') { classpath { pathelement(location:"$webtest_home/lib") fileset(dir:"$webtest_home/lib", includes:"**/*.jar") } } © ASERT 2006-2009 def config_map = [:] ['protocol','host','port','basepath','resultfile', 'resultpath', 'summary', 'saveresponse','defaultpropertytype'].each { config_map[it] = System.properties['webtest.'+it] } ant.testSpec(name:'groovy: Test Groovy Scripting at creation time') { config(config_map) steps { invoke(url:'linkpage.html') for (i in 1..10) { verifyText(description:"verify number ${i} is on pages", text:"${i}") } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 145
    • WebTest testing Emails def ant = new AntBuilder() def webtest_home = System.properties.'webtest.home' ant.taskdef(resource:'webtest.taskdef'){ classpath(){ pathelement(location:"$webtest_home/lib") fileset(dir:"$webtest_home/lib", includes:"**/*.jar") } } © ASERT 2006-2009 ant.testSpec(name:'Email Test'){ steps { emailSetConfig(server:'localhost', password:'password', username:'devteam@mycompany.org', type:'pop3') emailStoreMessageId(subject:'/Build notification/', property:'msg') emailStoreHeader(property:'subject', messageId:'#{msg}', headerName:'Subject') groovy('''def subject = step.webtestProperties.subject assert subject.startsWith('Build notification')''') emailMessageContentFilter(messageId:'#{msg}') verifyText(text:'Failed build') } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 146
    • SOAP Client and Server class MathService { double add(double a, double b) { a + b } double square(double c) { c * c } } © ASERT 2006-2009 import groovy.net.soap.SoapServer def server = new SoapServer('localhost', 6789) server.setNode('MathService') server.start() import groovy.net.soap.SoapClient def math = new SoapClient('http://localhost:6789/MathServiceInterface?wsdl') assert math.add(1.0, 2.0) == 3.0 assert math.square(3.0) == 9.0 AJUG_SEP2009 - 147
    • FEST • Description – Framework for testing Swing GUIs (among other things) – Simulation of user interaction with a GUI (e.g. mouse / keyboard input) – Reliable GUI component lookup • by type, by name or custom search criteria – Support for all Swing components included in the JDK – Compact and powerful API for creation and maintenance of functional GUI tests © ASERT 2006-2009 – Regular expression matching – Supports Applet testing – Ability to embed screenshots of failed GUI tests in HTML test reports – Can be used with either TestNG or JUnit – Supports testing violations of Swing's threading rules – Experimental Groovy Builder support (coming soon!) dialog.comboBox("domain").select("Users") dialog.textBox("username").enterText("leia.organa") dialog.button("login").click() dialog.optionPane().requireErrorMessage() .requireMessage("Please enter your .*") AJUG_SEP2009 - 148
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ...  Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 149
    • SoapUI... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 150
    • ...SoapUI • Tool for testing Web Services has a built- in Groovy editor for custom steps © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 151
    • iTest2 • Tool for recording, refactoring and running watir style tests © ASERT 2006-2009 We have had success cutting and pasting recorded test steps – using metaprogramming to map to Groovy testing DSL AJUG_SEP2009 - 152
    • Sahi... • Description – Tool for recording and running web tests • Features – Supports in-browser controls (cross-platform/browser) – Ability to add assertions (check points) for validation – Text based programmable scripts with ability to • parametrize variables © ASERT 2006-2009 • re-factor into functions • organize and include other scripts – Can run scripts in batch mode for automated testing – Command line and ant integration – Automatic html reporting with error logs – Easily extensible via simple javascript – Support for data-driven testing – Multi-threaded playback – HTTP, HTTPS and AJAX support AJUG_SEP2009 - 153
    • ...Sahi © ASERT 2006-2009 Further Info: http://sahi.co.in/w/ We have had success cutting and pasting recorded test steps – using metaprogramming to map to Groovy testing DSL AJUG_SEP2009 - 154
    • JMeter • What is Apache JMeter? Performance Testing – Java desktop application designed to load test functional behavior and measure performance – Originally designed for testing Web Applications but has since expanded to other test functions © ASERT 2006-2009 JMeter can call out to Groovy – reusing your functional tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 155
    • JMeter Case Study... Part 1: Native JMeter Tests * No JavaScript * No reuse of functional tests © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 156
    • ...JMeter Case Study... © ASERT 2006-2009 Further details about Statistical Aggregate plugin: http://rubenlaguna.com/wp/better-jmeter-graphs/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 157
    • ...JMeter Case Study... Part 2: JMeter Groovy JUnitTests * Reuse functional tests import junit.framework.TestCase class TestSimpBlogJUnit extends TestCase { static lisaPostAndCheck = null static bartPostAndCheck = null static String script = ''' @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.5') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') def form = page.getFormByName('post') © ASERT 2006-2009 form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute(title) form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == category }.setSelected(true) form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find { it.text == author }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() def titleResult = result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') def categoryResult = h3headings.item(1).textContent def authorResult = h3headings.item(2).textContent def para = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD/P')[0] def contentResult = para.textContent return new ResultHolder(titleResult, contentResult, authorResult, categoryResult) ''' void setUp() { lisaPostAndCheck = setUpBlogger(lisaPostAndCheck, 'Lisa', "I'm Hungry", "Food") bartPostAndCheck = setUpBlogger(bartPostAndCheck, 'Bart', "Don't have a cow dude", "Home") } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 158
    • ...JMeter Case Study... ... private setUpBlogger(orig, blogger, content, category) { if (orig) return orig def result = new GroovyShell().parse(script) def binding = new Binding() binding.setVariable('title', blogger + ' was here (and so was JMeter)') binding.setVariable('content', content) binding.setVariable('author', blogger) binding.setVariable('category', category) result.binding = binding result } void testBartWasHere() { © ASERT 2006-2009 def result = bartPostAndCheck.run() assert result.title.contains('Bart was here') } void testLisaWasHere() { def result = lisaPostAndCheck.run() assert result.title.contains('Lisa was here') } } class ResultHolder { String title, content, author, category ResultHolder(String title, String content, String author, String category) { this.title = title this.content = content this.author = author this.category = category } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 159
    • ...JMeter Case Study... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 160
    • ...JMeter Case Study © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 161
    • Twist © ASERT 2006-2009 Future version will support Groovy AJUG_SEP2009 - 162
    • Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ...  Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 163
    • All Combinations • Description test('MacOS', '4G', '250G') – Don't have a bunch test('Linux', '4G', '250G') of hard-coded, hard test('Vista', '4G', '250G') to maintain manual test('MacOS', '8G', '500G') test data or even test('Linux', '8G', '500G') manually generated test('Vista', '8G', '500G') // 30 more rows CSV file © ASERT 2006-2009 – Much better to generate test cases [ from succinct ['MacOS', 'Linux', 'Vista'], ['2G', '4G', '6G', '8G'], expressions of ['250G', '350G', '500G'] what you are trying ].combinations().each{ to achieve os, mem, disk -> test(os, mem, disk) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 164
    • All Combinations Case Study import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def combos = [["Bart", "Homer", "Marge", "Lisa", "Maggie"], ["Work", "School", "Home", "Travel", "Food"], ["foo", "bar", "baz"]].combinations() println "Found ${combos.size()} combos" combos.each { author, category, content -> postAndCheck category, author, content } © ASERT 2006-2009 def postAndCheck(String category, String author, String content) { // ... // details not shown (ran with HtmlUnit) // ... } Found 75 combos AJUG_SEP2009 - 165
    • All Pairs • Description – Sometimes called pairwise testing or orthogonal array testing © ASERT 2006-2009 – Technique to limit the explosion of test cases by identifying samples of important classes of test cases (equivalence classes) • providing maximum coverage with minimum testing – Instead of all combinations, systematically use pair- wise combinations of interactions between objects • as most faults result from adverse two-way interactions AJUG_SEP2009 - 166
    • All Pairs Case Study... class AllPairs { private initialResults, results, rest Details here not important: Given here for completeness as this private buildPairs(Map partialCombinations, inputsLeft) { library is not publically available yet def first = getFirstEntry(inputsLeft) def partialResults = [] first.value.each { def next = [(first.key): it] ... getFirstEntry(next) private getFirstEntry(Map map) { next.putAll(partialCombinations) return map.entrySet().toList().get(0) partialResults << next } } if (inputsLeft.size() == 1) { private getAllPairsFromMap(map) { initialResults.addAll(partialResults) if (!map || map.size() <= 1) return null © ASERT 2006-2009 } else { def allPairs = new HashSet() partialResults.each { def first = getFirstEntry(map) def rest = inputsLeft.clone() def restMap = map.clone() rest.remove(first.key) restMap.remove(first.key) buildPairs(it, rest) restMap.each { } def nextPair = new HashSet() } nextPair << first } nextPair << it allPairs << nextPair private adjustPairs() { } results = initialResults.clone() def restPairs = getAllPairsFromMap(rest) initialResults.each { if (restPairs != null) { def restResults = results.clone() allPairs.addAll(restPairs) restResults.remove(it) } if (allPairsCovered(it, restResults)) { return allPairs results.remove(it) } } ... } } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 167
    • ...All Pairs Case Study... ... private boolean allPairsCovered(candidate, remaining) { def totalCount = 0 def pairCombos = getAllPairsFromMap(candidate) pairCombos.each {candidatePair -> def pairFound = false def pairs = candidatePair.toList() for (it in remaining) { def entries = it.entrySet() if (!pairFound && entries.contains(pairs[0]) && entries.contains(pairs[1])) { pairFound = true totalCount++ } © ASERT 2006-2009 } } return (totalCount == pairCombos.size()) } private updateUsedPairs(map) { getAllPairsFromMap(map).each { usedPairs << it } } def generate(configurations) { initialResults = new HashSet() results = new HashSet() buildPairs([:], configurations) adjustPairs() results Details here not important: } Given here for completeness as this } library is not publically available yet AJUG_SEP2009 - 168
    • ...All Pairs Case Study... import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def pairs = new AllPairs().generate( author: ["Bart", "Homer", "Marge", "Lisa", "Maggie"], category: ["Work", "School", "Home", "Travel", "Food"], content: ["foo", "bar", "baz"]) println "Found ${pairs.size()} pairs" pairs.each { println it // just for debugging purposes © ASERT 2006-2009 postAndCheck it.category, it.author, it.content } def postAndCheck(String category, String author, String content) { // ... // details not shown (ran with HtmlUnit) // ... } AJUG_SEP2009 - 169
    • ...All Pairs Case Study Found 18 pairs [content:bar, category:Food, author:Bart] [content:bar, category:School, author:Homer] [content:foo, category:Work, author:Bart] [content:baz, category:School, author:Homer] [content:bar, category:Home, author:Maggie] [content:foo, category:School, author:Marge] [content:bar, category:Work, author:Bart] © ASERT 2006-2009 [content:baz, category:Travel, author:Bart] [content:foo, category:Home, author:Homer] [content:bar, category:Travel, author:Marge] [content:baz, category:Work, author:Homer] [content:bar, category:Travel, author:Lisa] [content:baz, category:Travel, author:Maggie] [content:baz, category:Home, author:Marge] [content:baz, category:Food, author:Homer] [content:baz, category:Travel, author:Lisa] [content:foo, category:Food, author:Maggie] [content:foo, category:Travel, author:Lisa] AJUG_SEP2009 - 170
    • gpars/GParallelizer... • Description – Library classes and DSL sugar providing intuitive ways for Groovy developers to handle tasks concurrently. Four logical parts: • Actors provide a Groovy implementation of Scala-like actors, both thread-bound actors and thread pool- © ASERT 2006-2009 bound (event-driven) ones • Dataflow Concurrency allows for very natural shared- memory concurrency model, based on single- assignment variables • Asynchronizer extends the Java 1.5 built-in support for executor services to enable multi-threaded collection and closure processing • Parallelizer uses JSR-166y Parallel Arrays to enable multi-threaded collection processing AJUG_SEP2009 - 171
    • ...gpars/GParallelizer... // run multiple closures in parallel Asynchronizer.withAsynchronizer { assert [10, 20] == AsyncInvokerUtil.doInParallel( {calculateA()}, {calculateB()} ) © ASERT 2006-2009 } // multiply numbers asynchronously Parallelizer.withParallelizer(5) { final List result = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].collectAsync {it * 2} assert ([2, 4, 6, 8, 10].equals(result)) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 172
    • ...gpars/GParallelizer... // support for dataflow to avoid doing synchronisation import static org.gparallelizer.dataflow.DataFlow.thread final def x = new DataFlowVariable() final def y = new DataFlowVariable() final def z = new DataFlowVariable() © ASERT 2006-2009 thread { z << x.val + y.val println "Result: ${z.val}" } thread { x << 10 } thread { y << 5 } AJUG_SEP2009 - 173
    • ...gpars/GParallelizer // actor support import static org.gparallelizer.actors.pooledActors.PooledActors.* def me = actor { friend.send('Hi') react(10.seconds) { © ASERT 2006-2009 // continue conversation } } me.metaClass.onTimeout = {-> friend.send('I see, busy as usual. Never mind.')} me.start() AJUG_SEP2009 - 174
    • gpars and SimpBlog @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.6') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient @Grab('org.gparallelizer:GParallelizer:0.8.3') import static org.gparallelizer.Parallelizer.* def testCases = [ ['Home', 'Bart', 'Content 1'], ['Work', 'Homer', 'Content 2'], ['Travel', 'Marge', 'Content 3'], © ASERT 2006-2009 ['Food', 'Lisa', 'Content 4'] ] withParallelizer(3) { Note: Testing testCases.eachAsync{ category, author, content -> DSL makes postAndCheck category, author, content tests more readable } } private postAndCheck(category, author, content) { ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 175
    • Native Groovy Versions also possible @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.6') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient Thread.start { postAndCheck 'Home', 'Bart', 'Content 1' Or use: } ant.parallel { Thread.start { //... postAndCheck 'Work', 'Homer', 'Content 2' } © ASERT 2006-2009 } Thread.start { postAndCheck 'Travel', 'Marge', 'Content 3' } Thread.start { postAndCheck 'Food', 'Lisa', 'Content 4' } Or use: "command".execute() private postAndCheck(category, author, content) { ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 176
    • Constraint/Logic Programming... • Description – Style of programming where relations between variables are stated in the form of constraints – First made popular by logic programming languages such as Prolog but the style is now also used outside logic programming specific languages © ASERT 2006-2009 – Constraints differ from the common primitives of other programming languages in that they do not specify one or more steps to execute but rather the properties of a solution to be found – Popular libraries used with Groovy supporting constraint programming include Gecode/J, Choco and tuProlog – We'll look at Choco as an example AJUG_SEP2009 - 177
    • ...Constraint/Logic Programming... © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://xkcd.com/287/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 178
    • ...Constraint/Logic Programming... // requires choco 2.1.0-basic.jar from http://choco.emn.fr/ import static choco.Choco.* import choco.kernel.model.variables.integer.IntegerVariable def m = new choco.cp.model.CPModel() def s = new choco.cp.solver.CPSolver() def menu = [ Found a solution: © ASERT 2006-2009 'Mixed fruit' : 215, 7 * Mixed fruit 'French fries' : 275, Found a solution: 'Side salad' : 335, 1 * Mixed fruit 'Hot wings' : 355, 2 * Hot wings 'Mozzarella sticks' : 420, 1 * Sampler plate 'Sampler plate' : 580 ] def numOrdered = new IntegerVariable[menu.size()] def priceEach = new int[menu.size()] def sum = 1505 ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 179
    • ...Constraint/Logic Programming ... menu.eachWithIndex { name, price, i -> // number ordered >= 0 // number ordered * price <= sum numOrdered[i] = makeIntVar(name, 0, sum.intdiv(price)) priceEach[i] = price } m.addConstraint(eq(scalar(numOrdered, priceEach), sum)) © ASERT 2006-2009 s.read(m) def more = s.solve() while (more) { println "Found a solution:" numOrdered.each { def v = s.getVar(it) if (v.val) println " $v.val * $v.name" } more = s.nextSolution() } AJUG_SEP2009 - 180
    • SimpBlog Case Study... • You have been asked to set up some test cases representing the Simpsons weekly blogging habits • After some careful study you observe the following strange behavior © ASERT 2006-2009 – They never blog on the same day – Marge blogs only on a Saturday or Sunday – Maggie blogs only on a Tuesday or Thursday – Lisa blogs only on a Monday, Wednesday or Friday – Bart blogs only on the day after Lisa – Homer only blogs if noone else blogged the previous day and doesn't allow anyone to blog the next day AJUG_SEP2009 - 181
    • ...SimpBlog Case Study... // requires choco 2.1.0-basic.jar from http://choco.emn.fr/ import static choco.Choco.* def m = new choco.cp.model.CPModel() def s = new choco.cp.solver.CPSolver() daysOfWeek = ["Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", © ASERT 2006-2009 "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"] def bart = makeIntVar('Bart', 0, 6) def homer = makeIntVar('Homer', 0, 6) def marge = makeIntVar('Marge', 0, 6) def lisa = makeIntVar('Lisa', 0, 6) def maggie = makeIntVar('Maggie', 0, 6) def simpsons = [bart, homer, marge, lisa, maggie] ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 182
    • ...SimpBlog Case Study... ... // They never blog on the same day for (i in 0..<simpsons.size()) for (j in 0..<i) m.addConstraint(neq(simpsons[i], simpsons[j])) // Marge blogs only on a Saturday or Sunday m.addConstraint(or(eq(marge, 0), eq(marge, 6))) // Maggie blogs only on a Tuesday or Thursday m.addConstraint(or(eq(maggie, 2), eq(maggie, 4))) © ASERT 2006-2009 // Lisa blogs only on a Monday, Wednesday or Friday m.addConstraint(or(eq(lisa, 1), eq(lisa, 3), eq(lisa, 5))) // Bart blogs only on the day after Lisa m.addConstraint(eq(plus(lisa, 1), bart)) // Homer only blogs if noone else blogged the previous // day and doesn't allow anyone to blog the next day m.addConstraint(and(distanceNEQ(homer, marge, 1), distanceNEQ(homer, bart, 1), distanceNEQ(homer, maggie, 1), distanceNEQ(homer, lisa, 1))) ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 183
    • ...SimpBlog Case Study ... s.read(m) def more = s.solve() if (!more) println "No Solutions Found" else println pad("Solutions:") + simpsons.collect{ pad(it.name) }.join() while (more) { print pad("") println simpsons.collect { © ASERT 2006-2009 def v = s.getVar(it) pad(daysOfWeek[v.val]) }.join() more = s.nextSolution() } def pad(s) { s.padRight(12) } Solutions: Bart Homer Marge Lisa Maggie Thursday Saturday Sunday Wednesday Tuesday Tuesday Saturday Sunday Monday Thursday Saturday Tuesday Sunday Friday Thursday Thursday Sunday Saturday Wednesday Tuesday AJUG_SEP2009 - 184
    • Polyglot Programming... @Grab('org.clojure:clojure:1.0.0') import clojure.lang.Compiler import clojure.lang.RT ... def jy = getEngine("jython") def src = new File('temp.clj') jy?.eval(''' src.text = ''' def factorial(n): (ns groovy) i=fact=1 © ASERT 2006-2009 (defn factorial [n] while i <= n: (if (< n 2) fact=fact*i 1 i=i+1 (* n (factorial (- n 1)))) return fact ''' result = factorial(4) src.withReader { reader -> ''') Compiler.load reader println jy?.result } def fac = RT.var('groovy', 'factorial') println fac.invoke(4) AJUG_SEP2009 - 185
    • ...Polyglot Programming • But so what? – I can use Groovy for Scripting my environment and or leveraging its runners and other testing capabilities – I can call out to other languages when needed © ASERT 2006-2009 • Cucumber via JRuby for more native control • Watir instead of Watij • ScalaCheck for test data generation • Jython for Robot Framework for more native control • Rhino for JavaScript testing • Rules engine integration AJUG_SEP2009 - 186
    • ModelJUnit... • Description – Supports model-based testing – Allows you to write simple finite state machine (FSM) models or extended finite state machine (EFSM) models in Java or Groovy © ASERT 2006-2009 – You can then generate tests from those models and measure various model coverage metrics AJUG_SEP2009 - 187
    • ...ModelJUnit... // require modeljunit.jar import nz.ac.waikato.modeljunit.coverage.* import nz.ac.waikato.modeljunit.* class VendingMachineModel implements FsmModel { def state = 0 // 0,25,50,75,100 void reset(boolean testing) {state = 0} boolean vendGuard() {state == 100} @Action void vend() {state = 0} boolean coin25Guard() {state <= 75} © ASERT 2006-2009 @Action void coin25() {state += 25} boolean coin50Guard() {state <= 50} @Action void coin50() {state += 50} } def tester = new RandomTester(new VendingMachineModel()) tester.buildGraph() def metrics = [new ActionCoverage(), new StateCoverage(), new TransitionCoverage(), new TransitionPairCoverage()] metrics.each { tester.addCoverageMetric it } tester.addListener "verbose" tester.generate 20 println 'nMetrics Summary:' tester.printCoverage() AJUG_SEP2009 - 188
    • ...ModelJUnit... ... done (0, coin50, 50) done (50, coin25, 75) done (75, coin25, 100) done Random reset(true) done (0, coin50, 50) done (50, coin25, 75) done (75, coin25, 100) done (100, vend, 0) ... © ASERT 2006-2009 done (0, coin50, 50) done (50, coin50, 100) Metrics Summary: done (100, vend, 0) action coverage: 3/3 done (0, coin25, 25) state coverage: 5/5 done (25, coin25, 50) transition coverage: 7/8 done Random reset(true) transition-pair coverage: 8/12 ... done (0, coin50, 50) done (50, coin25, 75) done (75, coin25, 100) done (100, vend, 0) done (0, coin50, 50) done (50, coin25, 75) ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 189
    • ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study... • Does the order in which form information is entered affect the application? – Could AJAX effects be causing unexpected results? ... void reset(boolean testing) { authorSelected = false // require modeljunit.jar, htmlunit.jar categorySelected = false © ASERT 2006-2009 import nz.ac.waikato.modeljunit.coverage.* titleEntered = false import nz.ac.waikato.modeljunit.* contentEntered = false import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient client = new WebClient() page = client.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') class SimpBlogModel implements FsmModel { assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText boolean authorSelected = false form = page.getFormByName('post') boolean categorySelected = false } ... boolean titleEntered = false boolean contentEntered = false int count = 0 def client, page, form // Special known method, allows equivalence class definition // example states: __ __ __ __, AU __ __ __, AU CA TI CO def getState() { "${authorSelected ? ' AU ' : ' __ '}${categorySelected ? ' CA ' : ' __ '}" + "${titleEntered ? ' TI ' : ' __ '}${contentEntered ? ' CO ' : ' __ '}" } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 190
    • ...ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study... ... boolean "enter title Guard"() { !titleEntered } @Action void "enter title "() { titleEntered = true form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute("Title ${count++}") } boolean enterContentGuard() { !contentEntered } @Action void enterContent() { contentEntered = true form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText("Content ${count++}") } boolean chooseAuthorGuard() { !authorSelected } @Action void chooseAuthor() { authorSelected = true // simple version just Lisa © ASERT 2006-2009 form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find{ it.text == 'Lisa' }.setSelected(true) } boolean pickCategoryGuard() { !categorySelected } @Action void pickCategory() { categorySelected = true // simple version just Home form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find{ it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected(true) } boolean "submit post Guard"() { categorySelected && authorSelected && titleEntered && contentEntered } @Action void "submit post "() { def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches('Post.*: Title .*') // could do more asserts here reset(true) } } // end of SimpBlogModel class definition ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 191
    • ...ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study... def tester = new RandomTester(new SimpBlogModel()) tester.buildGraph() def metrics = [ new ActionCoverage(), new StateCoverage(), new TransitionCoverage(), new TransitionPairCoverage() ] metrics.each { © ASERT 2006-2009 tester.addCoverageMetric it } tester.addListener "verbose" tester.generate 50 println 'nMetrics Summary:' tester.printCoverage() def graphListener = tester.model.getListener("graph") graphListener.printGraphDot "simpblog.dot" println "nGraph contains " + graphListener.graph.numVertices() + " states and " + graphListener.graph.numEdges() + " transitions." AJUG_SEP2009 - 192
    • ...ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study... done ( __ __ __ __ , pickCategory, __ CA __ __ ) ... done ( __ CA __ __ , enterContent, __ CA __ CO ) done ( __ __ __ __ , pickCategory, __ CA __ __ ) done ( __ CA __ CO , enter title , __ CA TI CO ) done ( __ CA __ __ , enterContent, __ CA __ CO ) done ( __ CA TI CO , chooseAuthor, AU CA TI CO ) done ( __ CA __ CO , chooseAuthor, AU CA __ CO ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA __ CO , enter title , AU CA TI CO ) done ( __ __ __ __ , pickCategory, __ CA __ __ ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( __ CA __ __ , chooseAuthor, AU CA __ __ ) done ( __ __ __ __ , chooseAuthor, AU __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA __ __ , enter title , AU CA TI __ ) done ( AU __ __ __ , pickCategory, AU CA __ __ ) done ( AU CA TI __ , enterContent, AU CA TI CO ) done ( AU CA __ __ , enterContent, AU CA __ CO ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA __ CO , enter title , AU CA TI CO ) done ( __ __ __ __ , chooseAuthor, AU __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( AU __ __ __ , pickCategory, AU CA __ __ ) done ( __ __ __ __ , chooseAuthor, AU __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA __ __ , enter title , AU CA TI __ ) done ( AU __ __ __ , enter title , AU __ TI __ ) done ( AU CA TI __ , enterContent, AU CA TI CO ) done ( AU __ TI __ , pickCategory, AU CA TI __ ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( AU CA TI __ , enterContent, AU CA TI CO ) © ASERT 2006-2009 done ( __ __ __ __ , enterContent, __ __ __ CO ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( __ __ __ CO , pickCategory, __ CA __ CO ) done Random reset(true) done ( __ CA __ CO , chooseAuthor, AU CA __ CO ) done ( __ __ __ __ , pickCategory, __ CA __ __ ) done ( AU CA __ CO , enter title , AU CA TI CO ) done ( __ CA __ __ , enterContent, __ CA __ CO ) done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) done ( __ CA __ CO , enter title , __ CA TI CO ) done ( __ __ __ __ , pickCategory, __ CA __ __ ) done ( __ CA TI CO , chooseAuthor, AU CA TI CO ) done ( __ CA __ __ , enter title , __ CA TI __ ) done ( __ CA TI __ , chooseAuthor, AU CA TI __ ) Metrics Summary: done ( AU CA TI __ , enterContent, AU CA TI CO ) action coverage: 5/5 done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) state coverage: 12/16 done ( __ __ __ __ , chooseAuthor, AU __ __ __ ) transition coverage: 19/33 done ( AU __ __ __ , pickCategory, AU CA __ __ ) transition-pair coverage: 26/56 done ( AU CA __ __ , enter title , AU CA TI __ ) done ( AU CA TI __ , enterContent, AU CA TI CO ) Graph contains 16 states and 33 transitions. done ( AU CA TI CO , submit post , __ __ __ __ ) ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 193
    • ...ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study... © ASERT 2006-2009 Advanced Simplified version version (just Lisa) AJUG_SEP2009 - 194
    • ...ModelJUnit: SimpBlog Case Study © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 195
    • ScalaCheck • Description – Tool for testing Scala, Java and Groovy programs – Based on property specifications and automatic random test data generation > scala -classpath ScalaCheck-1.5.jar Welcome to Scala version 2.7.6.final © ASERT 2006-2009 scala> import org.scalacheck.Prop.forAll scala> val propConcatLists = forAll { (l1: List[Int], l2: List[Int]) => | l1.size + l2.size == (l1 ::: l2).size } propConcatLists: org.scalacheck.Prop = Prop scala> propConcatLists.check + OK, passed 100 tests. scala> val propSqrt = forAll { (n: Int) => scala.Math.sqrt(n*n) == n } propSqrt: org.scalacheck.Prop = Prop scala> propSqrt.check ! Falsified after 2 passed tests. > ARG_0: "-1" (1 shrinks, original arg: "-2") AJUG_SEP2009 - 196
    • ScalaCheck: SimpBlog Case Study... class SimpBlogChecker { static postAndCheck = null static clean(s) { s.replace('', '').replace('n', 'n') } static ResultHolder postAndReturn(String title, String content, String author, String category) { if (!postAndCheck) postAndCheck = new GroovyShell().parse(''' @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.5') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute(title) © ASERT 2006-2009 form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == category }.setSelected(true) form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find { it.text == author }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() def titleResult = result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') def categoryResult = h3headings.item(1).textContent def authorResult = h3headings.item(2).textContent def para = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD/P')[0] def contentResult = para.textContent return new ResultHolder(titleResult, contentResult, authorResult, categoryResult) ''') ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 197
    • ...ScalaCheck: SimpBlog Case Study... ... def binding = new Binding() binding.setVariable('title', title) binding.setVariable('content', clean(content)) binding.setVariable('author', author) binding.setVariable('category', category) postAndCheck.binding = binding postAndCheck.run() } } © ASERT 2006-2009 class ResultHolder { String title, content, author, category ResultHolder(String title, String content, String author, String category) { this.title = title this.content = content this.author = author this.category = category } } > groovyc SimpBlogChecker.groovy AJUG_SEP2009 - 198
    • ...ScalaCheck: SimpBlog Case Study... //CheckSimpBlog.scala import org.scalacheck.Prop._ import org.scalacheck.ConsoleReporter.testStatsEx import org.scalacheck.Test.check import org.scalacheck.Arbitrary._ import org.scalacheck.Gen._ object CheckSimpBlog { © ASERT 2006-2009 val fieldsGen = for { title <- elements("Title 1", "Title 2") content <- arbitrary[String] author <- elements("Bart", "Homer", "Lisa", "Marge", "Maggie") category <- elements("Home", "Work", "Food", "Travel") } yield (title, content, author, category) ... > scalac -classpath .;../lib/ScalaCheck-1.5.jar; ../../groovy-1.7-beta-2-SNAPSHOT/embeddable/groovy-all- 1.7-beta-2-SNAPSHOT.jar CheckSimpBlog.scala AJUG_SEP2009 - 199
    • ...ScalaCheck: SimpBlog Case Study... ... val enterFieldsAcceptedAndEchoedProperty = forAll(fieldsGen)( fields => { val (title, content, author, category) = fields val result = SimpBlogChecker.postAndReturn(title, content, author, category) result.getTitle contains title result.getContent contains content result.getAuthor contains author result.getCategory contains category } ) © ASERT 2006-2009 val tests = scala.List( ("enterFieldsAcceptedAndEchoedProperty", enterFieldsAcceptedAndEchoedProperty) ) def main(args: scala.Array[String]) = tests foreach { case (name, p) => testStatsEx(name, check(p)) } } > scala -classpath .;../lib/ScalaCheck-1.5.jar;../../groovy-1.7-beta -2-SNAPSHOT/embeddable/groovy-all-1.7-beta-2-SNAPSHOT.jar;../../ groovy-1.7-beta-2-SNAPSHOT/lib/ivy-2.1.0-rc2.jar CheckSimpBlog + OK, passed 100 tests. AJUG_SEP2009 - 200
    • ...ScalaCheck: SimpBlog Case Study © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 201
    • More Information about Groovy • Web sites – http://groovy.codehaus.org – http://grails.codehaus.org – http://pleac.sourceforge.net/pleac_groovy (many examples) – http://www.asert.com.au/training/java/GV110.htm (workshop) • Mailing list for users – user@groovy.codehaus.org © ASERT 2006-2009 • Information portals – http://www.aboutgroovy.org – http://www.groovyblogs.org • Documentation (1000+ pages) – Getting Started Guide, User Guide, Developer Guide, Testing Guide, Cookbook Examples, Advanced Usage Guide • Books – Several to choose from ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 202
    • More Information: Groovy in Action © ASERT 2006-2009 Second edition of GinA, ‘ReGinA’ now under development AJUG_SEP2009 - 203