How to make your Testing
© ASERT 2006-2009




                          more Groovy
                      Dr Paul King   ...
Topics
                    •   Why Groovy for Testing?
                    •   Groovy Intro
                    •   Web Dr...
Topics not covered in detail
                    • Coverage
                      – But coverage options available

      ...
Topics
                     Why Groovy for Testing?
                    • Groovy Intro
                    • Web Drivers
...
Why Test With Groovy?




                           ?
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                            A...
Why Test With Groovy?
                    • Wrong first question!
                    • Perfect second question? 




   ...
“People Fit” / “Organization Fit”
                    • People
                      –   Developers (familiarity with lang...
Why Test With Groovy?
                    • Advantages
                      – Easy to learn
                      – Parti...
Scripting/Dynamic Languages
                    • Advantages
                      –   Lend themselves to succinct code/DS...
Test Characteristics
                    • Coverage/Traceability
                       – Requirement coverage/traceabilit...
Key Testing Practices
                    • Use testing DSL’s
                    • Look to move up the testing stack
    ...
Groovy and Testing Tool Spectrum*
                                 Utilities                                              ...
Topics
                    • Why Groovy for Testing?
                     Groovy Intro
                    • Web Drivers
...
What is Groovy?
                    • “Groovy is like a super version
                      of Java. It can leverage Java'...
Groovy Goodies Overview
                    • Fully object oriented
                    • Closures: reusable
             ...
Growing Acceptance …
  A slow and steady start but now gaining in
  momentum, maturity and mindshare
                     ...
… Growing Acceptance …
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                             AJUG_SEP2009 - 17
… Growing Acceptance …
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                      Groovy and
                            ...
… Growing Acceptance …
© ASERT 2006-2009




                             Source: http://www.micropoll.com/akira/mpresult/...
… Growing Acceptance …
© ASERT 2006-2009




                          http://www.jroller.com/scolebourne/entry/devoxx_200...
… Growing Acceptance …
                What alternative JVM language are you using or intending to use
© ASERT 2006-2009

...
… Growing Acceptance …
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    http://it-republik.de/jaxenter/quickvote/results/1/poll/4...
… Growing Acceptance
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                           AJUG_SEP2009 - 23
The Landscape of JVM Languages

                                                                                          ...
Groovy Starter
                    System.out.println("Hello, World!");   // optional semicolon,
                    print...
A Better Java...
                    import java.util.List;
                    import java.util.ArrayList;

             ...
...A Better Java...
                    import java.util.List;
                    import java.util.ArrayList;

          ...
...A Better Java...
                    class Erase {
                        private List removeLongerThan(List strings, ...
...A Better Java...
                    class Erase {
                        private List removeLongerThan(List strings, ...
...A Better Java...
                    def removeLongerThan(strings, length) {
                        def result = new A...
...A Better Java...
                    def removeLongerThan(strings, length) {
                        def result = new A...
...A Better Java...
                    def removeLongerThan(strings, length) {
                        strings.findAll{ i...
...A Better Java...
                    def removeLongerThan(strings, length) {
                        strings.findAll{ i...
...A Better Java...
                    names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"]
                    println names
          ...
...A Better Java
                    names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"]
                    println names
             ...
Better Lists, Maps, Ranges
                    • Lists
                      – Special syntax for list literals
          ...
Closures
                    • Traditional mainstream languages
                      – Data can be stored in variables, p...
SwingXBuilder




                    import groovy.swing.SwingXBuilder
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    import s...
Topics
                    • Why Groovy for Testing?
                    • Groovy Intro
                     Web Drivers
...
Concept
                    Manual

                                                                                      ...
Driver Category
                    • Real browser invoker         • Browser Emulators
                      – Runs on pla...
Application under Test…
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                              AJUG_SEP2009 - 42
…Application under Test...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                 AJUG_SEP2009 - 43
…Application under Test
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                              AJUG_SEP2009 - 44
Native Groovy...
                    •   Access URLs
                    •   Built-in XML parsing
                    •   ...
...Native Groovy...
                    • Useful URL methods

                    def html = new URL('http://localhost:808...
...Native Groovy...
                    • Built-in XML Parsing

                    def page = new
                    Xml...
...Native Groovy
                    • Easy access to Java libraries

                    @Grab('nekohtml:nekohtml:1.9.6.2...
HttpBuilder
                    • Builder for Http interactions
                      – Flexible: bogus posts, response co...
HtmlUnit
                    • 100% Java-based headless browser emulator
                      – Can test any Web site: Ja...
HtmlUnit Features...
                    • Support for the HTTP and HTTPS protocols
                    • Support for cook...
...HtmlUnit Features
                    • Proxy server support
                    • Support for basic and NTLM authentic...
HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post...
                    @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.6')
                    ...
...HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post

                    ...

                    // check blog post details
              ...
Canoo WebTest
                    • Description
                    –    Open source tool for automated testing of web app...
Canoo WebTest Features
                    • Strongly encourages declarative testing
                      – Supports test...
Canoo WebTest Steps...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                             AJUG_SEP2009 - 57
...Canoo WebTest Steps...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                AJUG_SEP2009 - 58
...Canoo WebTest Steps...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                AJUG_SEP2009 - 59
...Canoo WebTest Steps
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                             AJUG_SEP2009 - 60
WebTest: Testing New Blog Post...

                          <webtest name="Testing Posting a new Blog Entry">
           ...
...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post...

                    ...
                            <group description="Check Blog P...
...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post...
                    ant.webtest(name: 'Test SimpBlog') {
                      invoke...
...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                     AJUG_SEP20...
...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                   AJUG_SEP2009 - ...
Firefox Recorder
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                       AJUG_SEP2009 - 66
Watij
                    • Description
                      – Java API that provides control and automation of
         ...
Watij Features
                    • Finders
                      –   tag(String tagName)
                      –   attri...
Watij: Testing New Blog Post...
                    import watij.runtime.ie.IE
                    import static watij.fin...
...Watij: Testing New Blog Post...

                    ...

                    // check entered post is being displayed
...
...Watij: Testing New Blog Post
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                      AJUG_SEP2009 -...
Selenium...
                    • Description
                      – Tools to help
                        automate testi...
...Selenium
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    Source: http://seleniumhq.org/docs/01_introducing_selenium.html   AJ...
Selenium: Testing New Blog Post...
                    import com.thoughtworks.selenium.DefaultSelenium
                  ...
...Selenium: Testing New Blog Post
                    ...

                    // post blog
                    selenium....
Selenium IDE...




                                Features:
                                • Easy record and playback
©...
...Selenium IDE
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    more info: http://limcheekin.blogspot.com/2009/07/behavior-drive...
Selenium Other Tools...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                              AJUG_SEP2009 - 78
...Selenium Other Tools...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                 AJUG_SEP2009 - 79
...Selenium Other Tools
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    Source: http://selenium-grid.seleniumhq.org/how_it_works...
WebDriver
                    • Description
                      – Simple API to drive both real browsers
               ...
WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post...
                    import org.openqa.selenium.By
                    import org.openq...
...WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post

                    ...

                    assert driver.findElement(By.tagName("h1...
Tellurium
                    • Description
                      – built on top of Selenium but tries to solve several
  ...
Architecture
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    Source: http://code.google.com/p/aost/wiki/Introduction     AJUG_SE...
Tellurium Example
                    • Selenium:
                    selenium.type("//input[@title='Google Search']", inp...
Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post...
                    ui.UrlLink(uid: "create_new_post",
                            clo...
...Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post
                    openUrl "http://localhost:8080/"
                    click "create...
TrUMP IDE
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                AJUG_SEP2009 - 89
JWebUnit...
                    • Description
                      – Java-based testing framework for web applications
  ...
...JWebUnit
© ASERT 2006-2009




                    Source: http://jwebunit.sourceforge.net/             AJUG_SEP2009 - ...
JWebUnit: Testing New Blog Post
                    import net.sourceforge.jwebunit.junit.*

                    class Tes...
Topics
                    • Why Groovy for Testing?
                    • Groovy Intro
                    • Web Drivers
...
Native Groovy
                    • Groovy has a friendly ‘==‘
                    • Built-in assert
                    •...
Built-in JUnit 3...
                    • Groovy distributions up to 1.6.X include JUnit 3
                    • Automatic...
...Built-in JUnit 3...
                    ...
                            def form = page.getFormByName('post')
         ...
...Built-in JUnit 3
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                          AJUG_SEP2009 - 97
GroovyTestCase Tests
                    • Like JUnit but with some enhancements
                      – Additional assert...
JUnit 4.X
                    • Groovy distributions from 1.7 include JUnit 4
                    • Automatically invokes ...
JUnit 4.X Parameterized Tests
                    @RunWith(Parameterized)
                    class TestSimpBlogJUnit4DD {...
TestNG
                    • Groovy automatically invokes text runner if run
                      as a script
           ...
TestNG Data Driven
                    import org.testng.annotations.*

                    class TestSimpBlogTestNGDD {
 ...
Spock Testing Framework...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                                 AJUG_SEP2009 - 103
...Spock Testing Framework
                    • Testing framework for Java and Groovy
                    • Highly expres...
Spock Example...
                    import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient
                    import spock.lang....
...Spock Example
                    ...
                      then:
                        page.titleText == 'Welcome to...
EasyB
                    • Description: BDD, Rspec-like testing library
                    narrative 'segment flown', {
...
EasyB Example ...
                    • When run will be marked as pending
                      – perfect for ATDD

     ...
...EasyB Example...
                    description "Post Blog Entry Feature"

                    narrative "for feature"...
...EasyB Example...
                    ...
                      and "I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content",...
...EasyB Example...
© ASERT 2006-2009




                                          AJUG_SEP2009 - 111
...EasyB Example
                    2 scenarios (including 1 pending) executed successfully.

                     Story:...
Cucumber
                                            # language: en
                    • Description           Feature: A...
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
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How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
How To Make Your Testing More Groovy
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Transcript of "How To Make Your Testing More Groovy"

  1. 1. How to make your Testing © ASERT 2006-2009 more Groovy Dr Paul King Craig Smith paulk@asert.com.au craig.smith@suncorp.com.au @paulk_asert @smithcdau ASERT, Australia Suncorp, Australia
  2. 2. Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers • Test Runners • Non-web Drivers • Other Tools © ASERT 2006-2009 • Going beyond Focus is on using the Groovy dynamic language for primarily functional and acceptance testing with a forward looking perspective. Also considers polyglot options. The techniques and lessons learned can be applied to other kinds of testing and are also applicable to similar languages. AJUG_SEP2009 - 2
  3. 3. Topics not covered in detail • Coverage – But coverage options available • Mocking – But built-in support and many libraries available • CI Support © ASERT 2006-2009 – Support in Hudson, Team City, Anthill Pro to call Groovy • Code Metrics – CodeNarc and other tools available • Build Tools – Ant, Maven, GMaven, Gant, Gradle, ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 3
  4. 4. Topics  Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 4
  5. 5. Why Test With Groovy? ? © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 5
  6. 6. Why Test With Groovy? • Wrong first question! • Perfect second question?  X © ASERT 2006-2009 Consider first the task at hand and the organization and people fit! AJUG_SEP2009 - 6
  7. 7. “People Fit” / “Organization Fit” • People – Developers (familiarity with languages) – Testers (tools language familiarity) – Responsibility to create/run/maintain – BAs/SMEs (ability to read technical tests) – Consider both development and maintenance © ASERT 2006-2009 – Expected feedback from tests (JUnit/Reports) • Organization – Maturity level – Degree of automation – Tools in use – Need for adaptability AJUG_SEP2009 - 7
  8. 8. Why Test With Groovy? • Advantages – Easy to learn – Particularly good fit if the application you are testing is built for the JVM or your developers work with Java / JVM languages – Supports polyglot programming when needed © ASERT 2006-2009 – Easy to plug and play different testing tools – Good community & tools for professional agile • Disadvantages – Requires JVM – Less advantages if your developers using Python, .Net, PHP – Maybe your testers already know Ruby AJUG_SEP2009 - 8
  9. 9. Scripting/Dynamic Languages • Advantages – Lend themselves to succinct code/DSLs – Powerful – Increased Refactoring – Increased Reuse – Less prone to Brittleness © ASERT 2006-2009 – Flexibility for tool integration – Open APIs provide extensibility • Disadvantages – Can be too low level (but many options now) – Sometimes less tool support (but changing now) AJUG_SEP2009 - 9
  10. 10. Test Characteristics • Coverage/Traceability – Requirement coverage/traceability – Code coverage: line, branch, path, state – Transactional Tracing • Purpose – Unit, Integration, System, Customer • Manageability – Removing duplication © ASERT 2006-2009 – Managing lifecycle: shared setUp/tearDown (@Before @After) • Handling test data – Data-driven, databases, Spreadsheets, tables, keywords, random, model-driven • Large Test Volumes – Speed of feedback, performance testing • Tool evolution/longevity/cost/support/documentation – Open Source/Commercial, Critical mass/popularity • Combinability AJUG_SEP2009 - 10
  11. 11. Key Testing Practices • Use testing DSL’s • Look to move up the testing stack – It used to be all about the driver – Now the driver is hidden in the framework or tool stack • Apply good testing practices – Pareto analysis, bug clusters, mutation testing, test early © ASERT 2006-2009 – All pairs/equivalence partitions/orthogonal array testing – Risk-based test selection, coding for testability, use CI – Boundary value analysis, defensive programming • Plug and play testing tools – Run different drivers with different runners and different tools • Complement automated tests with exploration • Expand testing scope – Test environment readiness, test deployments AJUG_SEP2009 - 11
  12. 12. Groovy and Testing Tool Spectrum* Utilities Runners AllPairs, Combinations Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, Polyglot languages JBehave, Cucumber, Robot Framework Logic programming Threads, Parallel / Web Database SOAP / Other Concurrency libraries Drivers Drivers REST Drivers Data-driven libraries Drivers Networking libraries WebTest DbUnit FEST © ASERT 2006-2009 XML Processing GroovyWS WebDriver DataSets Email Read/write files / JWebUnit SqlUnit XML-RPC FTP Excel / Word / CSV Reporting, Logging Tellurium groovy.sql CXF AntUnit Selenium JPA Axis2 Telnet HtmlUnit JDO JAX-WS SSH Tools Watij BigTable JAX-RS Exec iTest2, SoapUI, Twist, HttpBuilder JDBC IDEs, JMeter, Text Cyberneko editors, Recorders, Build Tools, CI * Tools/libraries/frameworks don't always neatly fall into one category – still useful conceptually AJUG_SEP2009 - 12
  13. 13. Topics • Why Groovy for Testing?  Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ... • Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 13
  14. 14. What is Groovy? • “Groovy is like a super version of Java. It can leverage Java's enterprise capabilities but also has cool productivity features like closures, DSL support, builders and dynamic typing.” © ASERT 2006-2009 Groovy = Java – boiler plate code + optional dynamic typing + closures + domain specific languages + builders + metaprogramming AJUG_SEP2009 - 14
  15. 15. Groovy Goodies Overview • Fully object oriented • Closures: reusable and assignable pieces of code • Operators can be • GPath: efficient overloaded © ASERT 2006-2009 object navigation • Multimethods • GroovyBeans • Literal declaration for • grep and switch lists (arrays), maps, ranges and regular • Templates, builder, expressions swing, Ant, markup, XML, SQL, XML-RPC, Scriptom, Grails, tests, Mocks AJUG_SEP2009 - 15
  16. 16. Growing Acceptance … A slow and steady start but now gaining in momentum, maturity and mindshare Making Java Groovy (soon) Now free
  17. 17. … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 17
  18. 18. … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 Groovy and Grails downloads: 70-90K per month and growing AJUG_SEP2009 - 18
  19. 19. … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://www.micropoll.com/akira/mpresult/501697-116746 Source: http://www.grailspodcast.com/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 19
  20. 20. … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 http://www.jroller.com/scolebourne/entry/devoxx_2008_whiteboard_votes http://www.java.net AJUG_SEP2009 - 20
  21. 21. … Growing Acceptance … What alternative JVM language are you using or intending to use © ASERT 2006-2009 http://www.leonardoborges.com/writings AJUG_SEP2009 - 21
  22. 22. … Growing Acceptance … © ASERT 2006-2009 http://it-republik.de/jaxenter/quickvote/results/1/poll/44 (translated using http://babelfish.yahoo.com) AJUG_SEP2009 - 22
  23. 23. … Growing Acceptance © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 23
  24. 24. The Landscape of JVM Languages optional static types © ASERT 2006-2009 Dynamic features call for dynamic types Java bytecode calls for static types The terms “Java Virtual Machine” and “JVM” mean a Virtual Machine for the Java™ platform. AJUG_SEP2009 - 24
  25. 25. Groovy Starter System.out.println("Hello, World!"); // optional semicolon, println 'Hello, World!' // System.out, brackets, // main() method, class defn def name = 'Guillaume' // dynamic typing println "$name, I'll get the car." // GString String longer = """${name}, the car is in the next row.""" // multi-line string © ASERT 2006-2009 // with static typing assert 0.5 == 1/2 // BigDecimal equals() def printSize(obj) { // optional duck typing print obj?.size() // safe dereferencing } def pets = ['ant', 'bee', 'cat'] // native list syntax pets.each { pet -> // closure support assert pet < 'dog' // overloading '<' on String } // or: for (pet in pets)... AJUG_SEP2009 - 25
  26. 26. A Better Java... import java.util.List; import java.util.ArrayList; class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { This code List result = new ArrayList(); for (int i = 0; i < strings.size(); i++) { is valid String s = (String) strings.get(i); Java and if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s); valid Groovy } } © ASERT 2006-2009 return result; } public static void main(String[] args) { List names = new ArrayList(); names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred"); names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned"); System.out.println(names); Based on an Erase e = new Erase(); example by List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3); Jim Weirich System.out.println(shortNames.size()); for (int i = 0; i < shortNames.size(); i++) { & Ted Leung String s = (String) shortNames.get(i); System.out.println(s); } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 26
  27. 27. ...A Better Java... import java.util.List; import java.util.ArrayList; class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { Do the List result = new ArrayList(); for (int i = 0; i < strings.size(); i++) { semicolons String s = (String) strings.get(i); add anything? if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s); And shouldn‟t } } we us more © ASERT 2006-2009 } return result; modern list public static void main(String[] args) { notation? List names = new ArrayList(); names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred"); Why not names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned"); System.out.println(names); import common Erase e = new Erase(); libraries? List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3); System.out.println(shortNames.size()); for (int i = 0; i < shortNames.size(); i++) { String s = (String) shortNames.get(i); System.out.println(s); } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 27
  28. 28. ...A Better Java... class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { List result = new ArrayList() for (String s in strings) { if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s) } } return result } public static void main(String[] args) { © ASERT 2006-2009 List names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred") names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) Erase e = new Erase() List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (String s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 28
  29. 29. ...A Better Java... class Erase { private List removeLongerThan(List strings, int length) { List result = new ArrayList() for (String s in strings) { if (s.length() <= length) { result.add(s) Do we need } the static types? } return result Must we always } have a main public static void main(String[] args) { method and © ASERT 2006-2009 List names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted"); names.add("Fred") class definition? names.add("Jed"); names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) How about Erase e = new Erase() List shortNames = e.removeLongerThan(names, 3) improved System.out.println(shortNames.size()) consistency? for (String s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 29
  30. 30. ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { def result = new ArrayList() for (s in strings) { if (s.size() <= length) { result.add(s) } } return result } © ASERT 2006-2009 names = new ArrayList() names.add("Ted") names.add("Fred") names.add("Jed") names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 30
  31. 31. ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { def result = new ArrayList() for (s in strings) { if (s.size() <= length) { result.add(s) Shouldn‟t we } } have special return result notation for lists? } And special © ASERT 2006-2009 names = new ArrayList() facilities for names.add("Ted") names.add("Fred") list processing? names.add("Jed") Is „return‟ names.add("Ned") System.out.println(names) needed at end? shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) for (s in shortNames) { System.out.println(s) } AJUG_SEP2009 - 31
  32. 32. ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { strings.findAll{ it.size() <= length } } names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) System.out.println(shortNames.size()) shortNames.each{ System.out.println(s) } © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 32
  33. 33. ...A Better Java... def removeLongerThan(strings, length) { strings.findAll{ it.size() <= length } } Is the method names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] now needed? System.out.println(names) shortNames = removeLongerThan(names, 3) Easier ways to System.out.println(shortNames.size()) use common shortNames.each{ System.out.println(s) } methods? © ASERT 2006-2009 Are brackets required here? AJUG_SEP2009 - 33
  34. 34. ...A Better Java... names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] println names shortNames = names.findAll{ it.size() <= 3 } println shortNames.size() shortNames.each{ println it } © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 34
  35. 35. ...A Better Java names = ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] println names shortNames = names.findAll{ it.size() <= 3 } println shortNames.size() shortNames.each{ println it } © ASERT 2006-2009 ["Ted", "Fred", "Jed", "Ned"] 3 Ted Jed Ned AJUG_SEP2009 - 35
  36. 36. Better Lists, Maps, Ranges • Lists – Special syntax for list literals – Additional common methods (operator overloading) def list = [3, new Date(), 'Jan'] assert list + list == list * 2 • Maps © ASERT 2006-2009 – Special syntax for map literals – Additional common methods def map = [a: 1, b: 2] assert map['a'] == 1 && map.b == 2 • Ranges – Special syntax for various kinds of ranges def letters = 'a'..'z' def numbers = 0..<10 AJUG_SEP2009 - 36
  37. 37. Closures • Traditional mainstream languages – Data can be stored in variables, passed around, combined in structured ways to form more complex data; code stays put where it is defined • Languages supporting closures – Data and code can be stored in variables, passed © ASERT 2006-2009 around, combined in structured ways to form more complex algorithms and data doubleNum = { num -> num * 2 } println doubleNum(3) // => 6 processThenPrint = { num, closure -> num = closure(num); println "num is $num" } processThenPrint(3, doubleNum) // => num is 6 processThenPrint(10) { it / 2 } // => num is 5 AJUG_SEP2009 - 37
  38. 38. SwingXBuilder import groovy.swing.SwingXBuilder © ASERT 2006-2009 import static java.awt.Color.* import static java.lang.Math.* def swing = new SwingXBuilder() def frame = swing.frame(size: [300, 300]) { graph(plots: [ [GREEN, {value -> sin(value)}], [BLUE, {value -> cos(value)}], [RED, {value -> tan(value)}] ]) }.show() AJUG_SEP2009 - 38
  39. 39. Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro  Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver Tellurium, JWebUnit © ASERT 2006-2009 • Test Runners – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, ... • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 39
  40. 40. Concept Manual HTTP Request / Response Web Server © ASERT 2006-2009 Automated Driver Runner <webtest name="myTest"> <steps> <invoke description="get Login Page" url="login" /> <verifyTitle description="we should see the login title" text="Login Page" /> Read </steps> HTTP Request / Response </webtest> Script AJUG_SEP2009 - 40
  41. 41. Driver Category • Real browser invoker • Browser Emulators – Runs on platform – Can simulate multiple supported by real browsers browser – Less platform – May need multiple restrictions platforms, e.g. IE6/IE7 – Good for CI © ASERT 2006-2009 – Uses actual JavaScript – Easier to not download engine images, resources – Can be easier to use – Ability to optimise with test recorders JavaScript interactions – Automation – More extensible capabilities differ – Ability to disable across browsers JavaScript – Can typically get to all – Scope for parallelism aspects of browser AJUG_SEP2009 - 41
  42. 42. Application under Test… © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 42
  43. 43. …Application under Test... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 43
  44. 44. …Application under Test © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 44
  45. 45. Native Groovy... • Access URLs • Built-in XML parsing • Built-in friendly regular expression syntax • Even for advanced cases, there is friendly access to low-level things: © ASERT 2006-2009 – Sockets, Processes – Databases and other things – Files • Huge range of Java libraries – PDF – Reading, writing Excel AJUG_SEP2009 - 45
  46. 46. ...Native Groovy... • Useful URL methods def html = new URL('http://localhost:8080').text assert html.contains('<title>Welcome to SimpBlog</title>') © ASERT 2006-2009 html.find(~'<title>(.*)</title>') { all, title -> assert title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' } • Simple enough for GAE – For public sites – Can share test scripts easily – No setup required AJUG_SEP2009 - 46
  47. 47. ...Native Groovy... • Built-in XML Parsing def page = new XmlSlurper().parse('http://localhost:8080/viewPost?id=1') assert page.body.h1.text().contains('Tis the season') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert page.body.h3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert page.body.h3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert page.body.table.tr.td.p.text() == "Aren't we forgeting the true meaning of Christmas? You know, the birth of Santa." AJUG_SEP2009 - 47
  48. 48. ...Native Groovy • Easy access to Java libraries @Grab('nekohtml:nekohtml:1.9.6.2') import org.cyberneko.html.parsers.SAXParser def parser = new XmlSlurper(new SAXParser()) def page = parser.parse('http://localhost:8080/viewPost?id=1') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert page.BODY.H1.text().contains('Tis the season') assert page.BODY.H3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert page.BODY.H3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert page.BODY.TABLE.TR.TD.P.text() == "Aren't we forgeting the true meaning of Christmas? You know, the birth of Santa." AJUG_SEP2009 - 48
  49. 49. HttpBuilder • Builder for Http interactions – Flexible: bogus posts, response codes, JSON, non- HTML @Grab(group='org.codehaus.groovy.modules.http-builder', module='http-builder', version='0.5.0-RC1') import groovyx.net.http.* import static groovyx.net.http.ContentType.URLENC © ASERT 2006-2009 def http = new HTTPBuilder('http://localhost:8080') def postBody = [title:'Bart was here (and so was HttpBuilder)', content:'Cowabunga Dude!', author:'1', category:'3'] http.post(path:'/addPost', body: postBody, requestContentType: URLENC) { resp, html -> assert resp.contentType == 'text/html' assert resp.status == 200 assert html.BODY.H1.text().matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') assert html.BODY.H3[1].text() == 'Category: Home' assert html.BODY.H3[2].text() == 'Author: Bart' assert html.BODY.TABLE.TR.TD.P.text() == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } AJUG_SEP2009 - 49
  50. 50. HtmlUnit • 100% Java-based headless browser emulator – Can test any Web site: Java, .Net, PHP, Rails, ... • Open Source – Apache 2 license – Hosted at SourceForge – 7 committers (3 very active) – © ASERT 2006-2009 Very mature • Useful for: – Integration and acceptance testing – Screen scraping, deployment automation, ... • Used by other drivers: – Canoo WebTest , JWebUnit , WebDriver , JSFUnit , Celerity • Special features: – Easy ajax mode, emulation of multiple browsers AJUG_SEP2009 - 50
  51. 51. HtmlUnit Features... • Support for the HTTP and HTTPS protocols • Support for cookies • Ability to specify whether failing responses from the server should throw exceptions or should be returned as "error" pages • Support for submit methods POST and GET © ASERT 2006-2009 – As well as HEAD, DELETE, ... • Ability to customize the request headers being sent to the server • Support for HTML responses – Wrapper for HTML pages that provides easy access to all information contained inside them – Support for submitting forms and clicking links – Support for walking the DOM model of HTML documents AJUG_SEP2009 - 51
  52. 52. ...HtmlUnit Features • Proxy server support • Support for basic and NTLM authentication • Excellent JavaScript support – jQuery 1.2.6: Full support – MochiKit 1.4.1: Full support – GWT 1.6.4: Full support © ASERT 2006-2009 – Sarissa 0.9.9.3: Full support – MooTools 1.2.1: Full support – Prototype 1.6.0: Very good support – Ext JS 2.2: Very good support – Dojo 1.0.2: Good support – YUI 2.3.0: Good support AJUG_SEP2009 - 52
  53. 53. HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post... @Grab('net.sourceforge.htmlunit:htmlunit:2.6') import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient def client = new WebClient() def page = client.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') // check page title assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText © ASERT 2006-2009 // fill in blog entry and post it def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title'). setValueAttribute('Bart was here (and so was HtmlUnit)') form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find{ it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 53
  54. 54. ...HtmlUnit: Testing New Blog Post ... // check blog post details assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' assert h3headings.item(2).textContent == 'Author: Bart' // expecting: // <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></table> def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.getFirstChild() assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' AJUG_SEP2009 - 54
  55. 55. Canoo WebTest • Description – Open source tool for automated testing of web applications – Declarative approach in XML or testing DSL in Groovy – Has Test Recorder – Excellent reporting options – Ant-based under the covers <target name="login" > <testSpec name="normal" > © ASERT 2006-2009 &config; <steps> <invoke stepid="get Login Page" url="login.jsp" /> <verifytitle stepid="we should see the login title" text="Login Page" /> <setinputfield stepid="set user name" name="username" value="scott" /> <setinputfield stepid="set password" name="password" value="tiger" /> <clickbutton stepid="Click the submit button" label="let me in" /> <verifytitle stepid="Home Page follows if login ok" text="Home Page" /> </steps> </testSpec> </target> AJUG_SEP2009 - 55
  56. 56. Canoo WebTest Features • Strongly encourages declarative testing – Supports testing DSLs, test structuring and reuse through macrodefs and imports for XML flavor & methods and closures for Groovy flavor • Extensive support for HTML pages – Including JavaScript • Also supports other MIME types © ASERT 2006-2009 – Generically as binary streams – Special support for PDF, Excel, Emails • Ant heritage provides easy IDE/CI hooks • Excellent Documentation • Excellent Community • Eats own dog food – high quality codebase AJUG_SEP2009 - 56
  57. 57. Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 57
  58. 58. ...Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 58
  59. 59. ...Canoo WebTest Steps... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 59
  60. 60. ...Canoo WebTest Steps © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 60
  61. 61. WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... <webtest name="Testing Posting a new Blog Entry"> <invoke url="http://localhost:8080/" description="Home Page"/> <verifyTitle text="Welcome to SimpBlog"/> <group description="Post New Blog Entry"> <clickLink label="New Blog Entry"/> © ASERT 2006-2009 <setInputField name="title" value="Bart was here (and so was WebTest)"/> <setSelectField name="category" text="School"/> <setInputField name="content" value="Cowabunga Dude!"/> <clickButton name="btnPost"/> </group> ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 61
  62. 62. ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... ... <group description="Check Blog Post"> <verifyElementText type="h1" regex="true" text="Post.*: Bart was here.*"/> <verifyXPath xpath="//h3[2]/text()" text="Category: School"/> © ASERT 2006-2009 <verifyXPath xpath="//h3[3]/text()" text="Author: Bart"/> <verifyElementText type="p" text="Cowabunga Dude!"/> </group> <groovy> println "Test run at: ${new Date()}" </groovy> </webtest> AJUG_SEP2009 - 62
  63. 63. ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... ant.webtest(name: 'Test SimpBlog') { invoke url: "http://localhost:8080/", description: "Home Page" verifyTitle text: "Welcome to SimpBlog" group description: "Post New Blog Entry", { clickLink label: "New Blog Entry" setInputField name: "title", value: "Bart was here (and so was WebTest with Groovy)" setSelectField name: "category", text: "School" © ASERT 2006-2009 setInputField name: "content", value: "Cowabunga Dude!" clickButton name: "btnPost" } group description: "Check Blog Post", { verifyElementText type: "h1", regex: "true", text: "Post.*: Bart was here.*" verifyXPath xpath: "//h3[2]/text()", text: "Category: School" verifyXPath xpath: "//h3[3]/text()", text: "Author: Bart" verifyElementText type: "p", text: "Cowabunga Dude!" } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 63
  64. 64. ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 64
  65. 65. ...WebTest: Testing New Blog Post © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 65
  66. 66. Firefox Recorder © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 66
  67. 67. Watij • Description – Java API that provides control and automation of Internet Explorer – Supports actions like navigating, clicking links, filling out forms, etc. – Also supports more complex actions like file © ASERT 2006-2009 downloading and uploading, popup windows and dialogs, and screen captures • Special Features – Ability to work with IE interactively – Can attach to an existing browser session – Special browser commands, e.g. ie.fullScreen(true) – Handles child browsers and popup dialogs AJUG_SEP2009 - 67
  68. 68. Watij Features • Finders – tag(String tagName) – attribute(String name, String value) – index(int index) – text(String text) – name(String value) – value(String value) © ASERT 2006-2009 – caption(String value) – id(String value) – title(String value) – alt(String value) – src(String value) – action(String value) – method(String value) – url(String value) – href(String value) – xpath(String expression) AJUG_SEP2009 - 68
  69. 69. Watij: Testing New Blog Post... import watij.runtime.ie.IE import static watij.finders.SymbolFactory.* import static watij.finders.FinderFactory.* def ie = new IE() ie.start('http://localhost:8080/postForm') // check page title © ASERT 2006-2009 assert ie.title() == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // fill in query form and submit it ie.textField(name, 'title'). set('Bart was here (and so was Watij)') ie.textField(name, 'content').set('Cowabunga dude!') ie.selectList(name, "category"). option(text, "Home").select() ie.button(name, 'btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 69
  70. 70. ...Watij: Testing New Blog Post... ... // check entered post is being displayed assert ie.htmlElement(tag, 'H1').text(). matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headers = ie.htmlElements(tag, 'H3') © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headers.get(1).text() == 'Category: Home' assert h3headers.get(2).text() == 'Author: Bart' // try a more advanced finder // content is at: //TABLE/TBODY/TR/TD/P def row = ie.htmlElement(xpath('//TABLE/TBODY/TR')) assert row.cell(0).htmlElement(tag, 'P').text() == 'Cowabunga dude!' ie.close() AJUG_SEP2009 - 70
  71. 71. ...Watij: Testing New Blog Post © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 71
  72. 72. Selenium... • Description – Tools to help automate testing for web-based applications – Support for © ASERT 2006-2009 running tests on multiple browser platforms • Components – Selenium Core – Selenium IDE  Selenium RC Our focus – Selenium Grid Source: http://seleniumhq.org/projects/remote-control/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 72
  73. 73. ...Selenium © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://seleniumhq.org/docs/01_introducing_selenium.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 73
  74. 74. Selenium: Testing New Blog Post... import com.thoughtworks.selenium.DefaultSelenium import org.openqa.selenium.server.SeleniumServer // start auxiliary server def server = new SeleniumServer() server.start() // uncomment one of below //def browser = "*iexplore" © ASERT 2006-2009 //def browser = "*firefox3" // if Firefox already in your path //def browser = "*firefox3 C:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe" def browser = "*firefox3 C:/Program Files (x86)/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe" def selenium = new DefaultSelenium("localhost", 4444, browser, "http://localhost:8080") selenium.start() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 74
  75. 75. ...Selenium: Testing New Blog Post ... // post blog selenium.open "/postForm" selenium.type "title", "Bart was here (and so was Selenium)" selenium.select "category", "Home" selenium.type "content", "Cowabunga Dude!" selenium.click "btnPost" © ASERT 2006-2009 selenium.waitForPageToLoad "5000" // checks assert selenium.isTextPresent('regex:Post.*: Bart was here') assert selenium.isElementPresent('//h3[text()="Author: Bart"]') assert selenium.isElementPresent('//h3[text()="Category: Home"]') assert selenium.isElementPresent( '//table//tr/td/p[text()="Cowabunga Dude!"]') selenium.stop() server.stop() AJUG_SEP2009 - 75
  76. 76. Selenium IDE... Features: • Easy record and playback © ASERT 2006-2009 • Intelligent field selection will use IDs, names, or XPath as needed • Autocomplete for all common Selenium commands • Walk through tests • Debug and set breakpoints • Save tests as HTML, Ruby scripts, or any other format • Support for Selenium user- extensions.js file • Option to automatically assert the title of every page AJUG_SEP2009 - 76
  77. 77. ...Selenium IDE © ASERT 2006-2009 more info: http://limcheekin.blogspot.com/2009/07/behavior-driven-development-generating.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 77
  78. 78. Selenium Other Tools... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 78
  79. 79. ...Selenium Other Tools... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 79
  80. 80. ...Selenium Other Tools © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://selenium-grid.seleniumhq.org/how_it_works.html AJUG_SEP2009 - 80
  81. 81. WebDriver • Description – Simple API to drive both real browsers • for testing javascript heavy apps – and a pure 'in memory' emulator solution • for faster testing of simpler apps • uses HtmlUnit under the covers in emulator mode © ASERT 2006-2009 – Represents next generation of Selenium RC • though merging into Selenium may happen under the covers if you are a Selenium user – Roadmap has plans to leverage some advanced Selenium like features • RemoteWebDriver • FarmedWebDriver (think Selenium Grid) AJUG_SEP2009 - 81
  82. 82. WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post... import org.openqa.selenium.By import org.openqa.selenium.htmlunit.HtmlUnitDriver def driver = new HtmlUnitDriver() driver.get('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert driver.title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // fill in query form and submit it © ASERT 2006-2009 driver.findElement(By.name('title')). sendKeys('Bart was here (and so was WebDriver)') driver.findElement(By.name('content')). sendKeys('Cowabunga dude!') def select = driver.findElement(By.name('category')) select.findElements(By.tagName("option")).find{ it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected() driver.findElement(By.name('btnPost')).click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 82
  83. 83. ...WebDriver: Testing New Blog Post ... assert driver.findElement(By.tagName("h1")).text. matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headers = driver.findElements(By.tagName("h3")) assert h3headers[1].text == 'Category: Home' © ASERT 2006-2009 assert h3headers[2].text == 'Author: Bart' // try a more advanced finder // content is at: //TABLE/TBODY/TR/TD/P def row = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//table/tbody/tr")) def col = row.findElement(By.tagName("td")) def para = col.findElement(By.tagName("p")) assert para.text == 'Cowabunga dude!' AJUG_SEP2009 - 83
  84. 84. Tellurium • Description – built on top of Selenium but tries to solve several shortcomings – "record and reply" style, difficult to refactor and maintain, so instead define UI components declaratively then write tests in terms of UI © ASERT 2006-2009 – Provides many predefined UI objects for you to use directly, such as Button, CheckBox, InputBox, Selector, TextBox, and Table but also ability to write your own custom UI objects – Supports advanced locating mechanisms: composite locator, "group locating" – Supports testing DSL – Supports data-driven tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 84
  85. 85. Architecture © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://code.google.com/p/aost/wiki/Introduction AJUG_SEP2009 - 85
  86. 86. Tellurium Example • Selenium: selenium.type("//input[@title='Google Search']", input) selenium.click("//input[@name='btnG' and @type='submit']") • Tellurium UI: ui.Container(uid: "google_start_page", © ASERT 2006-2009 clocator: [tag: "td"], group: "true") { InputBox(uid: "searchbox", clocator: [title: "Google Search"]) SubmitButton(uid: "googlesearch", clocator: [name: "btnG", value: "Google Search"]) } • Tellurium DSL Test: type "google_start_page.searchbox", input click "google_start_page.googlesearch" AJUG_SEP2009 - 86
  87. 87. Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post... ui.UrlLink(uid: "create_new_post", clocator: [tag:'a', text: "New Blog Entry"]) ui.Form(uid: "blogform", clocator: [tag: 'form', name:'post'], group: "true") { InputBox(uid: "title", clocator: [name: "title"]) InputBox(uid: "content", clocator: [tag:'textarea', name: "content"]) Selector(uid: "category", clocator: [name: "category"]) Selector(uid: "author", clocator: [name: "author"]) © ASERT 2006-2009 SubmitButton(uid: "post_button", clocator: [name: 'btnPost', value: "Create Post"]) } ui.TextBox(uid: 'main_header', clocator: [tag: 'h1']) ui.TextBox(uid: 'category_header', clocator: [tag: 'h3', position: '2']) ui.TextBox(uid: 'author_header', clocator: [tag: 'h3', position: '3']) ui.Container(uid: 'table', clocator: [tag: 'table']) { ui.TextBox(uid: 'content_para', locator: '//tr/td/p') } AJUG_SEP2009 - 87
  88. 88. ...Tellurium: Testing New Blog Post openUrl "http://localhost:8080/" click "create_new_post" waitForPageToLoad 5000 assert title == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' // post blog type "blogform.title", "Bart was here (and so was Tellurium)" selectByLabel "blogform.category", "Home" © ASERT 2006-2009 selectByLabel "blogform.author", "Bart" type "blogform.content", "Cowabunga Dude!" click "blogform.post_button" waitForPageToLoad 5000 // check contents assert getText('main_header').matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') assert getText('category_header') == 'Category: Home' assert getText('author_header') == 'Author: Bart' assert getText('table.content_para') == 'Cowabunga Dude!' shutDown AJUG_SEP2009 - 88
  89. 89. TrUMP IDE © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 89
  90. 90. JWebUnit... • Description – Java-based testing framework for web applications – Intention is to provide a high-level "driver" Java API – Wraps existing testing frameworks such as HtmlUnit and Selenium with a unified, simple testing interface – Support includes navigation via links, form entry and © ASERT 2006-2009 submission, validation of table contents, and other verification steps – Includes some runner capabilities – Useful in that it allows you to switch between different lower level drivers without re-writing your tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 90
  91. 91. ...JWebUnit © ASERT 2006-2009 Source: http://jwebunit.sourceforge.net/ AJUG_SEP2009 - 91
  92. 92. JWebUnit: Testing New Blog Post import net.sourceforge.jwebunit.junit.* class TestSimpBlog extends WebTestCase { void setUp() { setBaseUrl("http://localhost:8080") } void testPostBlog() { beginAt "/postForm" assertTitleEquals "Welcome to SimpBlog" setTextField "title", "Bart was here (and so was JWebUnit)" © ASERT 2006-2009 setTextField "content", "Cowabunga Dude!" selectOption "category", "Home" clickButtonWithText "Create Post" assert getElementByXPath('//H1').textContent. matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = getElementsByXPath('//H3') assert h3headings[1].textContent == "Category: Home" assert h3headings[2].textContent == "Author: Bart" def cell = getElementByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD') assert cell.children[0].textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 92
  93. 93. Topics • Why Groovy for Testing? • Groovy Intro • Web Drivers – Native Groovy, HttpBuilder, HtmlUnit WebTest, Watij, Selenium, WebDriver, ...  Test Runners © ASERT 2006-2009 – Native Groovy, JUnit, TestNG, Spock, EasyB, JBehave, Cucumber, Robot Framework, FitNesse/Slim • Non-web Drivers – SOAP/REST, Database, FEST, ... • Other Tools – SoapUI, ITest2, Sahi, JMeter, Twist, ... • Going beyond – Polyglot, Model-driven, Constraint/logic languages, Concurrency AJUG_SEP2009 - 93
  94. 94. Native Groovy • Groovy has a friendly ‘==‘ • Built-in assert • Scripts are low ceremony • By utilising @Grab are easy to share • Many in-built testing capabilities are © ASERT 2006-2009 accessible even from scripts • Easy to version control or treat like operating system scripts • Out of the box detection of JUnit and TestNG tests AJUG_SEP2009 - 94
  95. 95. Built-in JUnit 3... • Groovy distributions up to 1.6.X include JUnit 3 • Automatically invokes text runner • Example uses HtmlUnit driver class TestSimpBlogJUnit extends TestCase { def page void setUp() { © ASERT 2006-2009 page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') assert 'Welcome to SimpBlog' == page.titleText } void testBartWasHere() { // fill in blog entry and post it def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute('Bart was here (and form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'H form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 95
  96. 96. ...Built-in JUnit 3... ... def form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute( 'Bart was here (and so was HtmlUnit)') form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected(true) form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') def result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() // check blog post details © ASERT 2006-2009 assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0). textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart was here.*') def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' assert h3headings.item(2).textContent == 'Author: Bart' // expecting: <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></tab def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.getFirstChild() assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 96
  97. 97. ...Built-in JUnit 3 © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 97
  98. 98. GroovyTestCase Tests • Like JUnit but with some enhancements – Additional assert methods – fewer imports – clean shouldFail syntax class TestSimpBlogGUnit extends GroovyTestCase { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page void setUp() { // ... } void testBartWasHere() { // ... ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 98
  99. 99. JUnit 4.X • Groovy distributions from 1.7 include JUnit 4 • Automatically invokes text runner if needed • Example uses HtmlUnit driver (not shown) import org.junit.* class TestSimpBlogJUnit4 { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page @Before void setUp() { // ... } @Test void bartWasHere() { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 99
  100. 100. JUnit 4.X Parameterized Tests @RunWith(Parameterized) class TestSimpBlogJUnit4DD { def page, author, title, category, content TestSimpBlogJUnit4DD(author, title, category, content) { this.author = author this.title = title © ASERT 2006-2009 this.category = category this.content = content } @Parameters static data() { return [ ['Bart', 'Title 1', 'Home', 'Content 1'], ['Homer', 'Title 2', 'Work', 'Content 2'], ['Marge', 'Title 3', 'Food', 'Content 3'] ].collect{ it as String[] } } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 100
  101. 101. TestNG • Groovy automatically invokes text runner if run as a script • Example shows grouping, driver not shown import org.testng.annotations.* class TestSimpBlogTestNG { © ASERT 2006-2009 def page @BeforeClass void setUp() { // ... } @Test(groups = [ "slow" ]) void bartWasHere() { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 101
  102. 102. TestNG Data Driven import org.testng.annotations.* class TestSimpBlogTestNGDD { // ... @DataProvider(name='SimpBlogDataProvider') Object[][] data() { © ASERT 2006-2009 return [ ['Bart', 'Title 1', 'Home', 'Content 1'], ['Homer', 'Title 2', 'Work', 'Content 2'], ['Marge', 'Title 3', 'Food', 'Content 3'] ].collect{ it as Object[] } as Object[] } @Test(dataProvider = "SimpBlogDataProvider") void bartWasHere(author, title, category, content) { // ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 102
  103. 103. Spock Testing Framework... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 103
  104. 104. ...Spock Testing Framework • Testing framework for Java and Groovy • Highly expressive specification language – No assertion API – No record & replay @Speck mocking API @RunWith(Sputnik) – No class PublisherSubscriberSpeck { superfluous def "events are received by all subscribers"() { © ASERT 2006-2009 annotations def pub = new Publisher() – Meaningful def sub1 = Mock(Subscriber) assert error def sub2 = Mock(Subscriber) messages pub.subscribers << sub1 << sub2 when: pub.send("event") then: – Extensible 1 * sub1.receive("event") – Compatible 1 * sub2.receive("event") with JUnit } reportingwise } AJUG_SEP2009 - 104
  105. 105. Spock Example... import com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient import spock.lang.* import org.junit.runner.RunWith @Speck () @RunWith (Sputnik) class TestSimpBlogSpock { def page, subheadings, para, form, result @Unroll("When #author posts a #category blog with content '#content' it shoul © ASERT 2006-2009 def "when creating a new blog entry"() { given: page = new WebClient().getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') form = page.getFormByName('post') when: form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute("$author was here (and so form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == category form.getSelectByName('author').getOptions().find { it.text == author }.se form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText(content) result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() subheadings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') para = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD/P')[0] ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 105
  106. 106. ...Spock Example ... then: page.titleText == 'Welcome to SimpBlog' result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches("Post.*: $auth subheadings.item(1).textContent == "Category: $category" subheadings.item(2).textContent == "Author: $author" and: // Optional use of 'and:' para.textContent == content © ASERT 2006-2009 where: author << ['Bart', 'Homer', 'Lisa'] category << ['Home', 'Work', 'Food'] content << ['foo', 'bar', 'baz'] } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 106
  107. 107. EasyB • Description: BDD, Rspec-like testing library narrative 'segment flown', { as_a 'frequent flyer' i_want 'to accrue rewards points for every segment I fly' so_that 'I can receive free flights for my dedication to the airline' } scenario 'segment flown', { given 'a frequent flyer with a rewards balance of 1500 points' © ASERT 2006-2009 when 'that flyer completes a segment worth 500 points' then 'that flyer has a new rewards balance of 2000 points' } scenario 'segment flown', { given 'a frequent flyer with a rewards balance of 1500 points', { flyer = new FrequentFlyer(1500) } when 'that flyer completes a segment worth 500 points', { flyer.fly(new Segment(500)) } then 'that flyer has a new rewards balance of 2000 points', { flyer.pointsBalance.shouldBe 2000 } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 107
  108. 108. EasyB Example ... • When run will be marked as pending – perfect for ATDD scenario "Bart posts a new blog entry", { given "we are on the create blog entry page" when "I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title" and "I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content" and "I have selected 'Home' as the category" © ASERT 2006-2009 and "I have selected 'Bart' as the author" and "I click the 'Create Post' button" then "I expect the entry to be posted" } AJUG_SEP2009 - 108
  109. 109. ...EasyB Example... description "Post Blog Entry Feature" narrative "for feature", { as_a "Blogger" i_want "to be able to post a blog" so_that "I can keep others informed" } before "posting blog", { given "we are on the create blog entry page", { © ASERT 2006-2009 webClient = new com.gargoylesoftware.htmlunit.WebClient() page = webClient.getPage('http://localhost:8080/postForm') } } scenario "Bart was here blog", { when "I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title", { form = page.getFormByName('post') form.getInputByName('title').setValueAttribute( 'Bart was here (and so was EasyB)') } ... AJUG_SEP2009 - 109
  110. 110. ...EasyB Example... ... and "I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content", { form.getTextAreaByName('content').setText('Cowabunga Dude!') } and "I have selected 'Home' as the category", { form.getSelectByName('category').getOptions().find { it.text == 'Home' }.setSelected( } and "I click the 'Create Post' button", { result = form.getInputByName('btnPost').click() } © ASERT 2006-2009 then "I expect the entry to be posted", { // check blog post details assert result.getElementsByTagName('h1').item(0).textContent.matches('Post.*: Bart wa def h3headings = result.getElementsByTagName('h3') assert h3headings.item(1).textContent == 'Category: Home' // traditional style h3headings.item(2).textContent.shouldBe 'Author: Bart' // BDD style // expecting: <table><tr><td><p>Cowabunga Dude!</p></td></tr></table> def cell = result.getByXPath('//TABLE//TR/TD')[0] def para = cell.firstChild assert para.textContent == 'Cowabunga Dude!' // para.shouldHave textContent: 'Cowabunga Dude!' } } AJUG_SEP2009 - 110
  111. 111. ...EasyB Example... © ASERT 2006-2009 AJUG_SEP2009 - 111
  112. 112. ...EasyB Example 2 scenarios (including 1 pending) executed successfully. Story: simp blog initial scenario Bart posts a new blog entry [PENDING] given we are on the create blog entry page when I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title when I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content [PENDING] when I have selected 'Home' as the category [PENDING] when I have selected 'Bart' as the author [PENDING] when I click the 'Create Post' button [PENDING] then I expect the entry to be posted [PENDING] Story: simp blog easyb is preparing to process 2 file(s) © ASERT 2006-2009 Post Blog Entry Feature Running simp blog initial story (SimpBlogInitialStory.groovy) for feature Scenarios run: 1, Failures: 0, Pending: 1, Time elapsed: 1.049 sec As a Blogger Running simp blog story (SimpBlogStory.groovy) I want to be able to post a blog Scenarios run: 1, Failures: 0, Pending: 0, Time elapsed: 1.356 sec So that I can keep others informed given we are on the create blog entry page 2 total behaviors ran (including 1 pending behavior) with no failures easyb execution passed scenario Bart was here blog when I have entered 'Bart was here' as the title when I have entered 'Cowabunga Dude!' into the content when I have selected 'Home' as the category when I click the 'Create Post' button then I expect the entry to be posted AJUG_SEP2009 - 112
  113. 113. Cucumber # language: en • Description Feature: Addition In order to avoid silly mistakes – Loose coupling As a math idiot between text spec I want to be told the sum of two numbers and step defns Scenario Outline: Add two numbers Given I have entered <input_1> into the calculator And I have entered <input_2> into the calculator When I press <button> Then the stored result should be <output> Examples: © ASERT 2006-2009 | input_1 | input_2 | button | output | | 20 | 30 | add | 50 | | 2 | 5 | add | 7 | | 0 | 40 | add | 40 | # language: en Feature: Division In order to avoid silly mistakes Cashiers must be able to calculate a fraction Scenario: Regular numbers Given I have entered 3 into the calculator And I have entered 2 into the calculator When I press divide Then the stored result should be 1.5 AJUG_SEP2009 - 113
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