Animal Behavior AP Chapter 51
Behavior can be studied in terms of   <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul>
What is behavior? <ul><li>An action performed by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a st...
What is the scientific study of behavior called? <ul><li>ETHOLOGY </li></ul>
What causes behavior? <ul><li>Proximate cause – immediate cause (typically environmental) in terms of a stimulus, mechanis...
Many animals breed in the spring or early summer… <ul><li>Probable cause – increase in day length </li></ul><ul><li>Ultima...
Fixed action pattern of behavior <ul><li>Highly stereotyped behavior, instinctive, carried to completion </li></ul><ul><li...
Ex - stickle back fish, male will try to attack another male if it comes into the environment; aggressive behavior
<ul><li>evolution: by chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs in nesting territory wil...
Kelp gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex.
Another FAP shared by some animals, including humans, is  yawning , which often triggers yawning in other individuals. Yaw...
Oriented movements <ul><li>Kinesis  – simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus,  random </li></...
Pill bugs… <ul><li>Negative phototaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesis for relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Though sow bug be...
Fig. 51-4 Dry open area Sow bug Moist site under leaf
Fig. 51-5 <ul><li>Animals can orient themselves using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of the sun and their circadian cl...
Behavioral Rhythms <ul><li>Follow a circadian rhythm mediated by a biological clock </li></ul><ul><li>Ex – fiddler crabs’ ...
Animal Signals in behavior <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical/tactile </li></ul><ul><li>...
Pheromones <ul><li>Many animals that communicate through odors emit chemical substances called  pheromones </li></ul><ul><...
Fig. 51-9 Minnows before alarm (a) Minnows after alarm (b)
Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior <ul><li>Innate  behavior is developmentally fixed and ...
Habituation <ul><li>Habituation  is a simple form of learning that involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey ...
Imprinting <ul><li>Imprinting  is a behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible </...
<ul><li>An example of imprinting is young geese following their mother </li></ul><ul><li>Konrad Lorenz showed that when ba...
Fig. 51-10b Another example of imprinting Young whooping cranes can imprint on humans in “crane suits” who then lead crane...
Spatial Learning <ul><li>Spatial learning  is a more complex modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial...
Fig. 51-11 Pinecone Nest EXPERIMENT RESULTS Nest No nest
Associative Learning <ul><li>In  associative learning , animals associate one feature of their environment with another </...
<ul><li>Classical conditioning  is a type of associative learning in which an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a rewa...
Cognition and Problem Solving <ul><li>Cognition  is a process of knowing that may include awareness, reasoning, recollecti...
<ul><li>Problem solving  is the process of devising a strategy to overcome an obstacle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, ...
Fig. 51-13
Nature vs nurture? <ul><li>Both genetic makeup and environment contribute to the development of behaviors </li></ul><ul><l...
Regulatory Genes and Behavior <ul><li>A master regulatory gene can control many behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For exampl...
<ul><li>When behavioral variation within a species corresponds to environmental variation, it may be evidence of past evol...
Fig. 51-15 Scratch marks EXPERIMENT RESULTS BRITAIN Young from SW Germany Adults from Britain and offspring of British adu...
Selection for   individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors <ul><li>Genetic components of beha...
Foraging Behavior <ul><li>Natural selection refines behaviors that enhance the efficiency of feeding </li></ul><ul><li>For...
Optimal Foraging Model <ul><li>Optimal foraging model  views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutriti...
Mating Behavior and Mate Choice <ul><li>Mating behavior includes seeking or attracting mates, choosing among potential mat...
Mating Systems and Parental Care <ul><li>The mating relationship between males and females varies greatly from species to ...
<ul><li>In  monogamous  relationships, one male mates with one female </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females with monogamous ...
<ul><li>In  polygamous relationships , an individual of one sex mates with several individuals of the other sex </li></ul>...
<ul><li>In  polygyny,   one male mates with many females </li></ul><ul><li>The males are usually more showy and larger tha...
<ul><li>In  polyandry , one female mates with many males </li></ul><ul><li>The females are often more showy than the males...
<ul><li>Needs of the young are an important factor constraining evolution of mating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Consider bir...
<ul><li>Consider bird species where chicks are soon able to feed and care for themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A male maxi...
<ul><li>Paternal certainty is relatively low in species with internal fertilization because mating and birth are separated...
Fig. 51-21 Eggs
Sexual Selection and Mate Choice <ul><li>In  intersexual selection , members of one sex choose mates on the basis of certa...
<ul><li>Mate Choice by Females </li></ul><ul><li>Female choice is a type of intersexual competition </li></ul><ul><li>Fema...
Fig. 51-22 For example, female stalk-eyed flies choose males with relatively long eyestalks. Ornaments, such as long eyest...
<ul><li>Male Competition for Mates  </li></ul><ul><li>Male competition for mates is a source of intrasexual selection that...
Fig. 51-25
Inclusive fitness can account for the evolution of altruistic social behavior <ul><li>Natural selection favors behavior th...
Altruism <ul><li>On occasion, some animals behave in ways that  reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness o...
<ul><li>In naked mole rat populations, nonreproductive individuals may sacrifice their lives protecting their reproductive...
Inclusive Fitness <ul><li>Altruism can be explained by inclusive fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive fitness  is the total...
<ul><li>An example of kin selection and altruism is the warning behavior in Belding’s ground squirrels </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Fig. 51-29 Male Female Age (months) Mean distance (m) moved from birthplace 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 12 13 14 15 25 26
<ul><li>Reciprocal altruism is limited to species with  stable  social groups where individuals meet repeatedly, and  chea...
Social Learning <ul><li>Social learning  is learning through the observation of others and forms the roots of culture </li...
Fig. 51-31 Vervet monkeys produce distinct alarm calls for different predators
Evolution and Human Culture <ul><li>No other species comes close to matching the social learning and cultural transmission...
 
Fig. 51-32
Fig. 51-UN1 Imprinting Learning and problem solving Cognition Spatial learning Social learning Associative learning In sum...
 
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  • Figure 51.4 A kinesis
  • Figure 51.5 Migration
  • Figure 51.9 Minnows responding to the presence of an alarm substance
  • Figure 51.10 Imprinting
  • Figure 51.11 Does a digger wasp use landmarks to find her nest?
  • Figure 51.13 A young chimpanzee learning to crack oil palm nuts by observing an experienced elder
  • Figure 51.15 Are differences in migratory orientation within a species genetically determined?
  • Figure 51.21 Paternal care by a male jawfish
  • Figure 51.22 Male stalk-eyed flies
  • Figure 51.25 Agonistic interaction
  • Figure 51.29 Kin selection and altruism in Belding’s ground squirrels
  • Figure 51.31 Vervet monkeys learning correct use of alarm calls
  • Figure 51.32 Both genes and culture build human nature
  • Ap chap 51 animal behavior

    1. 1. Animal Behavior AP Chapter 51
    2. 2. Behavior can be studied in terms of <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is behavior? <ul><li>An action performed by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is the scientific study of behavior called? <ul><li>ETHOLOGY </li></ul>
    5. 5. What causes behavior? <ul><li>Proximate cause – immediate cause (typically environmental) in terms of a stimulus, mechanisms that produce it, or how experience modifies it </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate cause – benefit to survival and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral ecology – study of ecological and evolutionary basis of behavior </li></ul>
    6. 6. Many animals breed in the spring or early summer… <ul><li>Probable cause – increase in day length </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate cause – viable offspring more likely due to warmer temperatures and abundant food </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fixed action pattern of behavior <ul><li>Highly stereotyped behavior, instinctive, carried to completion </li></ul><ul><li>Triggered by a sign stimulus </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ex - stickle back fish, male will try to attack another male if it comes into the environment; aggressive behavior
    9. 9. <ul><li>evolution: by chasing away other male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chance that eggs in nesting territory will be fertilized by another male </li></ul><ul><li>stimulus red on underside of intruder (into nesting territory) triggers an attack </li></ul><ul><li>realistic model with no red...no attack </li></ul><ul><li>discovered when a red truck drove by tank </li></ul>
    10. 10. Kelp gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex.
    11. 11. Another FAP shared by some animals, including humans, is yawning , which often triggers yawning in other individuals. Yawns last around 6 seconds and are difficult to stop once initiated.
    12. 12. Oriented movements <ul><li>Kinesis – simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus, random </li></ul><ul><li>Taxis – oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Migration - regular, long-distance change </li></ul>Hint: taking a taxi to somewhere specific
    13. 13. Pill bugs… <ul><li>Negative phototaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesis for relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Though sow bug behavior varies with humidity, sow bugs do not move toward or away from specific moisture levels </li></ul>
    14. 14. Fig. 51-4 Dry open area Sow bug Moist site under leaf
    15. 15. Fig. 51-5 <ul><li>Animals can orient themselves using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of the sun and their circadian clock, an internal 24-hour clock that is an integral part of their nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The position of the North Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s magnetic field </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Behavioral Rhythms <ul><li>Follow a circadian rhythm mediated by a biological clock </li></ul><ul><li>Ex – fiddler crabs’ behavior in tune to the lunar cycle </li></ul>
    17. 17. Animal Signals in behavior <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical/tactile </li></ul><ul><li>pheromones </li></ul>
    18. 18. Pheromones <ul><li>Many animals that communicate through odors emit chemical substances called pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromones are effective at very low concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>When a minnow or catfish is injured, an alarm substance in the fish’s skin disperses in the water, inducing a fright response among fish in the area </li></ul>
    19. 19. Fig. 51-9 Minnows before alarm (a) Minnows after alarm (b)
    20. 20. Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior <ul><li>Innate behavior is developmentally fixed and under strong genetic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the modification of behavior based on specific experiences </li></ul>
    21. 21. Habituation <ul><li>Habituation is a simple form of learning that involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, birds will stop responding to alarm calls from their species if these are not followed by an actual attack </li></ul></ul>Tuning-out
    22. 22. Imprinting <ul><li>Imprinting is a behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>It is distinguished from other learning by a sensitive period </li></ul><ul><li>A sensitive period is a limited developmental phase that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>An example of imprinting is young geese following their mother </li></ul><ul><li>Konrad Lorenz showed that when baby geese spent the first few hours of their life with him, they imprinted on him as their parent </li></ul>
    24. 24. Fig. 51-10b Another example of imprinting Young whooping cranes can imprint on humans in “crane suits” who then lead crane migrations using ultralight aircraft
    25. 25. Spatial Learning <ul><li>Spatial learning is a more complex modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Niko Tinbergen showed how digger wasps use landmarks to find nest entrances </li></ul>
    26. 26. Fig. 51-11 Pinecone Nest EXPERIMENT RESULTS Nest No nest
    27. 27. Associative Learning <ul><li>In associative learning , animals associate one feature of their environment with another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a white-footed mouse will avoid eating caterpillars with specific colors after a bad experience with a distasteful monarch butterfly caterpillar </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Classical conditioning is a type of associative learning in which an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a dog that repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hears a bell before being fed will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>salivate in anticipation at the bell’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Cognition and Problem Solving <ul><li>Cognition is a process of knowing that may include awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, honeybees can distinguish “same” from “different” </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Problem solving is the process of devising a strategy to overcome an obstacle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, chimpanzees can stack boxes in order to reach suspended food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some animals learn to solve problems by observing other individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, young chimpanzees learn to crack palm nuts with stones by copying older chimpanzees </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Fig. 51-13
    32. 32. Nature vs nurture? <ul><li>Both genetic makeup and environment contribute to the development of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Animal behavior is governed by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, twin studies allow researchers to compare the relative influences of genetics and environment on behavior </li></ul>
    33. 33. Regulatory Genes and Behavior <ul><li>A master regulatory gene can control many behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a single gene controls many behaviors of the male fruit fly courtship ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple independent genes can contribute to a single behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, in green lacewings, the courtship song is unique to each species; multiple independent genes govern different components of the courtship song </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>When behavioral variation within a species corresponds to environmental variation, it may be evidence of past evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Most blackcaps (birds) that breed in Germany winter in Africa, but some winter in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>The two migratory populations are genetically distinct </li></ul>
    35. 35. Fig. 51-15 Scratch marks EXPERIMENT RESULTS BRITAIN Young from SW Germany Adults from Britain and offspring of British adults GERMANY N W E S N W E S
    36. 36. Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors <ul><li>Genetic components of behavior evolve through natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior can affect fitness by influencing foraging and mate choice </li></ul>
    37. 37. Foraging Behavior <ul><li>Natural selection refines behaviors that enhance the efficiency of feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging , or food-obtaining behavior, includes recognizing, searching for, capturing, and eating food items </li></ul>
    38. 38. Optimal Foraging Model <ul><li>Optimal foraging model views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutrition and costs of obtaining food </li></ul><ul><li>The costs of obtaining food include energy expenditure and the risk of being eaten while foraging </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection should favor foraging behavior that minimizes the costs and maximizes the benefits </li></ul>
    39. 39. Mating Behavior and Mate Choice <ul><li>Mating behavior includes seeking or attracting mates, choosing among potential mates, and competing for mates </li></ul><ul><li>Mating behavior results from a type of natural selection called sexual selection </li></ul>
    40. 40. Mating Systems and Parental Care <ul><li>The mating relationship between males and females varies greatly from species to species </li></ul><ul><li>In many species, mating is promiscuous , with no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships </li></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>In monogamous relationships, one male mates with one female </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females with monogamous mating systems have similar external morphologies </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>In polygamous relationships , an individual of one sex mates with several individuals of the other sex </li></ul><ul><li>Species with polygamous mating systems are usually sexually dimorphic: males and females have different external morphologies </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamous relationships can be either polygynous or polyandrous </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>In polygyny, one male mates with many females </li></ul><ul><li>The males are usually more showy and larger than the females </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>In polyandry , one female mates with many males </li></ul><ul><li>The females are often more showy than the males </li></ul><ul><li>Polyandry is a rare mating system </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Needs of the young are an important factor constraining evolution of mating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Consider bird species where chicks need a continuous supply of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A male maximizes his reproductive success by staying with his mate, and caring for his chicks (monogamy) </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Consider bird species where chicks are soon able to feed and care for themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A male maximizes his reproductive success by seeking additional mates (polygyny) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females can be certain that eggs laid or young born contain her genes; however, paternal certainty depends on mating behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Certainty of paternity influences parental care and mating behavior </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Paternal certainty is relatively low in species with internal fertilization because mating and birth are separated over time </li></ul><ul><li>Certainty of paternity is much higher when egg laying and mating occur together, as in external fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>In species with external fertilization, parental care is at least as likely to be by males as by females </li></ul>
    48. 48. Fig. 51-21 Eggs
    49. 49. Sexual Selection and Mate Choice <ul><li>In intersexual selection , members of one sex choose mates on the basis of certain traits </li></ul><ul><li>Intrasexual selection involves competition between members of the same sex for mates </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Mate Choice by Females </li></ul><ul><li>Female choice is a type of intersexual competition </li></ul><ul><li>Females can drive sexual selection by choosing males with specific behaviors or features of anatomy </li></ul>
    51. 51. Fig. 51-22 For example, female stalk-eyed flies choose males with relatively long eyestalks. Ornaments, such as long eyestalks, often correlate with health and vitality
    52. 52. <ul><li>Male Competition for Mates </li></ul><ul><li>Male competition for mates is a source of intrasexual selection that can reduce variation among males </li></ul><ul><li>Such competition may involve agonistic behavior , an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource </li></ul>
    53. 53. Fig. 51-25
    54. 54. Inclusive fitness can account for the evolution of altruistic social behavior <ul><li>Natural selection favors behavior that maximizes an individual’s survival and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>These behaviors are often selfish </li></ul>
    55. 55. Altruism <ul><li>On occasion, some animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of others </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of behavior is called altruism, or selflessness </li></ul><ul><li>For example, under threat from a predator, an individual Belding’s ground squirrel will make an alarm call to warn others, even though calling increases the chances that the caller is killed </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>In naked mole rat populations, nonreproductive individuals may sacrifice their lives protecting their reproductive queen and kings from predators </li></ul>
    57. 57. Inclusive Fitness <ul><li>Altruism can be explained by inclusive fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive fitness is the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and helping close relatives produce offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Kin selection is the natural selection that favors this kind of altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>An example of kin selection and altruism is the warning behavior in Belding’s ground squirrels </li></ul><ul><li>In a group, most of the females are closely related to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Most alarm calls are given by females who are likely aiding close relatives </li></ul>
    59. 59. Fig. 51-29 Male Female Age (months) Mean distance (m) moved from birthplace 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 12 13 14 15 25 26
    60. 60. <ul><li>Reciprocal altruism is limited to species with stable social groups where individuals meet repeatedly, and cheaters (who don’t reciprocate) are punished </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal altruism has been used to explain altruism between unrelated individuals in humans </li></ul>
    61. 61. Social Learning <ul><li>Social learning is learning through the observation of others and forms the roots of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a system of information transfer through observation or teaching that influences behavior of individuals in a population </li></ul><ul><li>Culture can alter behavior and influence the fitness of individuals </li></ul>
    62. 62. Fig. 51-31 Vervet monkeys produce distinct alarm calls for different predators
    63. 63. Evolution and Human Culture <ul><li>No other species comes close to matching the social learning and cultural transmission that occurs among humans </li></ul><ul><li>Human culture is related to evolutionary theory in the distinct discipline of sociobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Human behavior, like that of other species, results from interactions between genes and environment </li></ul>
    64. 65. Fig. 51-32
    65. 66. Fig. 51-UN1 Imprinting Learning and problem solving Cognition Spatial learning Social learning Associative learning In summary…
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