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Orbitals electron-configuration

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Orbitals electron-configuration

1. 1. Orbitals and Electron configurations
2. 2. Pauli Exclusion Principle <ul><li>Reference: pg. 203 </li></ul><ul><li>The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that each electron (waveform) has a unique set of quantum numbers </li></ul><ul><li>No two electrons can have the same values for all quantum numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Kinda like how each apartment in a building has only one address </li></ul><ul><li>Q: How many electrons will fit in shell 5 (i.e. what is the max. shell pop-ulation for n=5)? </li></ul>
3. 3. Electrons in n = 5 shell <ul><li>Q - what is the maximum shell population of n = 5 </li></ul>n = 5 l = 0(s) l = 1(p) l = 2(d) l = 3(f) A - 50 (2+6+10+14+18) l = 4 has 9 orbitals: it has 18 electrons or 2(5) 2 = 50 l = 4(g) m l = 0 m l = 1 m l = 0 m l = -1 m s = 1/2 m s = -1/2 m s = 1/2 m s = -1/2 m s = 1/2 m s = -1/2 m s = 1/2 m s = -1/2
4. 4. Filling orbitals with electrons: film <ul><li>Movie (10 minutes) (at t=20) </li></ul><ul><li>0 - 3: review </li></ul><ul><li>Bohr explained some observations. However, he failed in other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Later we will look at probability distributions (Heisenburg’s uncertainty principle and orbital shapes). For now we will examine how electrons fill orbitals. </li></ul><ul><li>3 - 6: filling orbitals with electrons </li></ul><ul><li>We will see that electrons are placed in the lowest energy level possible. </li></ul>
5. 5. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Electrons are placed in the lowest energy levels that are possible while still following the Pauli exclusion principle </li></ul><ul><li>Hund’s rule states that the electrons should be spread within a subshell as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>To know which subshells are lowest in energy refer to fig. 6.20 (arrows going up to left) or fig. 6.19 … </li></ul>
6. 6. Electron Configurations <ul><li>Electrons fill the lowest energy levels first (calcium shown) </li></ul><ul><li>Read section 6.7 (pg. 204 - 206). Do PE 5,6 </li></ul>5s 4s 3s 2s 1s 2p 3p 4p 3d 4d E N E R G Y
7. 7. Shorthand electron configurations <ul><li>Recall that we can indicate position of electrons via orbital diagrams or electron configurations. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitting 100 or more electrons into this pattern becomes cumbersome. </li></ul><ul><li>We can write shorthand electron configurations… </li></ul><ul><li>Read remainder of 6.7 (pg. 206 - 207). PE 7. </li></ul>
8. 8. Shorthand electron configurations <ul><li>Because electrons fill orbitals in a regular pattern, we can shorten the work of writing electron configurations by using the preceding noble gas as a template </li></ul><ul><li>We write the highest shell last to indicate the “valence electrons” - i.e. those furthest out (involved in bonding and chemical reactions) </li></ul><ul><li>We can represent shorthand electron configurations of the noble gasses 2 ways: E.g. Ar = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 = [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 = [Ar] </li></ul><ul><li>Use [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 for this course </li></ul>For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com