Indicators of Academic and
SpEd 478/578: Educational Interventions: E/BD
MSUM Summer 2009
Individualized- should take into account students
strengths and weaknesses. Adjustments should be
made based on personal data results, needs, and
Comprehensive- should encompass all core subject
areas as well as the arts and transition/post-
secondary skills at a challenging, yet not frustrating
level of instruction. All students need to be included in
a balanced education with endless opportunities for
Applicable- should apply to both the present and the
future. Students should know expectations, goals and
A strategy is:
a: a careful plan or method
b: the art of devising or employing plans toward a
Synonyms: plan, method
-Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary
Strategies are most successful when they are
implemented in a system that encourages
collaboration among staff and students, and in which
each is a part of a well-planned whole system.
My Take on Strategies
I think strategies are wonderful because they…
may be applied to any learning situation
are typically easy to use
are continuously being created and updated
Strategies should be individualized, comprehensive, and
applicable. They can and should be used across all learning
Let it be said that there are hundreds of researched learning
strategies. The ones I mention are ones that I have used in the
past and continue to find success in. You must research to find
the ones that work best for the student involved.
My Favorite Resource for Teaching
One of my favorite resources and probably the best one I was ever introduced to is
Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension to Enhance Understanding by
Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis. (2000)
Research tells us that proficient readers make connections to prior knowledge
and the text, ask questions, visualize, draw inferences, determine important
details, synthesize information, and repair understanding.
This book is full of useful strategies that yielded great results. Even though the
strategies are introduced independently, they soon intertwine, becoming
dependent on one another to create the interactive process known as reading.
Each strategy utilizes a gradual release of responsibility to the student, who in
turn demonstrates effective strategy use through their writing and conversation.
The coolest thing about this book is that the strategies can be individualized and
used for any genre, at any grade level across all domains. This book is like a
learning bible to me. I wish I had a copy to give to all of you!
Other Strategies for Reading
Reading Comprehension Reading Fluency
SQ3R Paired Reading
Previewing the Chapter Repeated Reading
Reading Actively Listening, Reading and
Text to Me, Text to Text, Receiving Corrective
Text to World Connections Feedback
Movie in Your Mind Record and Playback
Share Time - Fascinating
Facts, Wonderful Words,
and Decoding Definitions
Other Helpful Reading Resource
The Savvy Teacher’s Guide: Reading
Interventions That Work by Jim Wright
Guiding Reading and Writers: Teaching
Comprehension, Genre and Content Literacy
by Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell
Strategies for Math Remediation
Math Fluency Math Wrap Around Instruction Plan is
Explicit Time Drill and all encompassing strategy using
Overlearning assessment, explicit instruction, process
monitoring, performance feedback, and
Practice review of mastered skills and concepts.
Math Comprehension Mnemonic devices are both common and
Solve and Check helpful (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt
Make it applicable and meaningful Sally) for order of operations, Family
Relate it to a Story (writing numbers, members for long division (Dad,mom,
sister, brother, rufus (the dog for
money sense) remainder)).
Preteach, Model, and Use Math Terms
4 Step Plan (Understand the Problem,
Make a Plan, Carry Out the Plan, Look
Draw a picture
Affective Education QPIs
Affective education is most productive when it
is individualized using personalized data,
integrated with academic instruction,
comprehensive, collaborative, previously
taught and addressed in context as situations
arise in the preferred setting.
Maag tells us it is best generalized and
maintained when replacement behavior
training also occurs.
The Importance of RBT
RBT should be taught along with SST for
maximum impact and desired generalization
May be more likely to result in generalization
and maintenance which results in improved
RBT should be implemented after the
conduction of an FBA and implemented
according to its results
Study skills and Organization
Notebook organization folder
Guideline sheets for assignment completion
Study buddy resources
Personalized office folder
Various test taking skills
Group Strategies from Re-ED
A major goal of Re-ED groups is to form healthy, positive, cohesive cultures that help troubled and
troubling youth change their behavior.
The 12 Re-ED Cohesion Building Strategies include:
Name the group
Refer to the group by name
Generate group traditions
Develop group rules and values
Set group goals
Establish group norms
Engage members in various group activities
Use group contingencies
Make group meetings part of the daily schedule
Model to facilitate cohesive interaction and participation
Reinforce cohesive behavior
Group meetings are the heart of this program and are considered the most powerful cohesion building
strategy. They are used to harness the power of the group for therapeutic and instructional puposes.
Other Compensatory Skill Strategies
for Successful Participation in Groups
Choral response Many of the cooperative
Response cards learning activities also
Thumbs up – Thumbs promote successful
group participation and
learning such as jigsaw,
panel discussions, pair
Whiteboard responding share, group quizzes,
analysis, and fish bowl
to name a few.
Wagner’s 7 Survival Skills
Tony Wagner’s research is important to us as educators because it shows the
skills our students are lacking and need to be taught to successfully survival and
compete in today’s “new” world of work. They are important to any educational
program and should be included as such.
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Collaboration and Leadership
Agility and Adaptability
Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
Effective Oral and Written Communication
Accessing and Analyzing Information
Curiosity and Imagination
“We need to use academic content to teach the seven survival skills every day,
at every grade level, and in every class.”
Points for Educators to Ponder from
To teach and test the skills that our students need, we must first
redefine excellent instruction.
It is working with colleagues to ensure that all students master the skills
they need to succeed as lifelong learners, workers, and citizens.
I have yet to talk to a recent graduate, college teacher, community
leader, or business leader who said that not knowing enough academic
content was a problem.
In my interviews, everyone stressed the importance of critical thinking,
communication skills, and collaboration.
Success requires teamwork.
What makes this an effective lesson—a lesson in which students are
learning a number of the seven survival skills while also mastering
Once in a great while, I observe a class in which a teacher is using
academic content to develop students' core competencies.
Tier Programs in Schools Today
Tier 1 is where most students are in the general education
programming with minimal accommodations and modifications.
Supplemental instructional programs and strategies come into play in
tier 2 and intensive remediation occurs in tier 3. The time frame a
student spends in a tier is dependent upon how a student performs.
The student can move from tier to tier.
Some commonly advertised tier programs are:
Accelerated Reader, Accelerated Math along with STAR Reading and
Math from Relearning
Navigator, Ramp-up, and Aviator from America’s Choice
Our high school does not necessarily have tier leveling in place
although I sense we are moving in that direction. I came here from
another state where we did practice guided reading and interventions at
the elementary level with strong data driven evidence, teacher training
and progress monitoring.
My Personal Views on Learning
Learning adheres best when it is meaningful,
interesting, interactive, relevant and on-going.
Find ways to make learning apply to the group of
students you are teaching, incorporating real-life
applications helps increase comprehension and
Connecting, interacting, and timely feedback are key
Strive to make learning continuous and cyclical;
encouraging students to recall, explore, practice
inquire, explain and add to what they already know;
expanding their existing knowledge base as they
continue to learn.
Strategy Choice Rationale
The rationale behind each strategy you chose
to use should be a sound one. Again, it
should be individualized, comprehensive, and
applicable to the student you chose to teach it
to. It’s purpose and desired outcome should
be clearly communicated to the student. The
strategy being taught needs to be uniquely
matched to the student’s need, skill, levels
most importantly, it should be data driven with
a monitored and measurable result.
Bechard, S., Borock, J., Cessna, K.K.,& Neel, R.S. (2003) Quality program
indicators for children with emotional and behavior disorders. Beyond
Harvey, S., Goudvis, A. (2000) Strategies that work: teaching comprehension to
enhance understanding. Markham, Ontario Stenhouse and Pembroke
Intervention Central. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
Teacher interventions to go series.
The Savvy Teacher’s Guide: Reading Interventions That Work.
Study Skills Package
Long, N.J., Morse, W.C., Frank, A.F., & Newman, R.G. (2007). Conflict in the
classroom: Positive staff support for troubled students (6th ed.). Austin, TX:
Maag, John W. (2005) Social skills training for youth with emotional
behavioral disorders and learning disabilities: problems, conclusions,
and suggestions. Exceptionality 13(3) 155-172.
Mooney, P., Pierce, C.D., & Ryan, J.B. (2008). Evidence-based
teaching strategies for students with EBD. Beyond Behavior, 22-29.
Wagner, T. (2008) Rigor redefined: even our “best” schools are failing
to prepare students for 21st-century careers and citizenship.
Educational Leadership, 20-24.
Valore, Thomas. Creating cohesive groups in re-ed settings: The
classroom meeting. Long, N.J., Morse, W.C., Frank, A.F., & Newman,
R.G. (2007). Conflict in the classroom: Positive staff support for
troubled students (6th ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.