Author: Shawna Miller Chapter Ten: The Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System Provides ova(female reproductive cell) Provides location for fertilization/growth of baby Secretes female sex hormones Nourishes the newborns with milk produced by the breasts
Internal Genitalia Ovaries(one on each side of the uterus) that produce the ova Estrogen and progesterone are also produced by the ovaries(primary female sex hormones) Fallopian tubes(uterine tubes or oviducts) 5 and ½ inches long Finger-like projections at the ends called fimbriae that direct the ovum into the fallopian tube Conception takes place here Uterus: lies in the center of the pelvic cavity Three sections: fundus(upper), corpus(central), cervix(lower) Vagina: lined with mucous membrane Passage of menstral flow here, receives the male penis, is the birth canal
External Genitalia Vulva: group of structures Labia majora and labia minora: folds of skin that protect the vaginal orifice and the urinary meatus. Clitoris: erectile tissue aroused during sexual stimulation Perineum: area between the vaginal orifice and the anus.
The Breast Mammary glands Produce milk(lactation) for the newborns Lactiferous glands(what milk produced by) Nipple: where milk is carried Areola: pigmented area around the nipple
Pregnancy Gestation: length of time a baby grows and develops in the uterus(40 weeks). Embryo: implantation til 8 weeks. Fetus: 9 weeks until birth. Placenta:where baby gets nourishment from Spongy, blood filled organ formed in the uterus. Also called afterbirth. Fetus attaches to placenta by umbilical cord. Amnion and chorion sacs: Amnion(inner) floats the fetus Chorion(outer) protective part that forms part of placenta.
Labor and Delivery Labor: actual process of expelling the fetus from the uterus through the vagina. Three stages Dilation: uterine contractions dilate cervix Expulsion: birth of baby Placental: delivery of placenta
Male Reproductive System Responsible for producing sperm(male reproductive cell) Secreting the male sex hormones Delivering sperm to the female reproductive tract Organs include: Bulbourethral glands Epididymis Penis Prostate gland Seminal vesicles Testes Vas deferens
External organs Testes: responsible for producing sperm. Seminiferous tubules: where spermatogenesis (sperm production)takes place. Scrotum: a sac outside the body that holds the testes. Epididymis:location for sperm maturation and storage. Penis: male sex organ Glans penis- soft tip Prepuce- foreskin Ejaculation- ejection of semen Sphincter- closes to keep urine from escaping.
Internal Organs Vas deferans: carry sperm from epididymis into pelvic cavity (2). Seminal vesicles: secrete fluid that nourishes the sperm (2). Prostate gland: important for reproduction because it secretes alkaline fluid that causes neutralizing of the pH of the urethra and vagina. Bulbourethralglands:also called Cowper’s glands, produce a mucuslike lubricating fluid that blends with semen and becomes part of ejaculate.
Some Common Terms Cervical: pertaining to the cervix Hysterectomy: surgical removal of the uterus Mastectomy: removal of the breast Neonate: newborn Testicular: pertaining to the testes Aspermia: condition of no sperm Erectile dysfunction: inability to engage in sexual intercourse due to inability to maintain an erection (impotence) Chancroid: highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer Castration: removal of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female
Pathology Fibrocystic breast disease: benign cysts in the breast Stillbirth: birth in which a viable-aged fetus dies shortly before or at the time of delivery Preeclampsia: metabolic disease of pregnancy Fibroid tumor: benign tumor or growth that contains fiber- like tissue Hydrocele: accumulation of fluid around the testes or along the spermatic cord. Testicular torsion: a twisting of the spermatic cord Cryptorchidism: failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth
Tests and Procedures Digital rectal exam: manual examination for an enlarged prostate by palpating the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum Prostate-specific antigen(PSA): a blood test to screen for prostate cancer Cervical biopsy: taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells. Mammography: using x-ray to diagnose breast disease, especially breast cancer Colposcopy: examination of vagina using an instrument called a colposcope Pap smear: test for the early detection of cancer of the cervix
Medications Abortifacient: medication that terminates a pregnancy Oral contraceptive pills: birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation Oxytocin: a natural hormone that begins or improves uterine contractions during labor and delivery Spermatocide: medication that destroys sperm Erectile dysfunction agents: medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction Androgen therapy; replacement of male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally
An indepth over view by Shawna Miller Chapter Ten: Reproductive System