INTRO Adult stem cells can be found in many organs and tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis. Adult stem cells have been harvested since the 1960s to treat diseases like leukemia.
HOW DO WE IDENTIFY ASC’S? Scientists label the cells in a living tissue with molecular markers and then determine the specialized cell types they generate. Scientists remove the cells from a living animal, label them in cell culture, and transplant them back into another animal to determine whether the cells replace their tissue of origin.
HARVESTING Begins with a donor providing blood that is matched with a suitable patient with the same blood type. Before a peripheral stem cell transplant, the donor is given a drug such as Neupogen, which when taken days prior to the transplant, forces stem cells out of bone marrow and into the bloodstream.
APHERESIS A medical technology where the blood of a donor or patient is passed through a centrifuge that separates one particular constituent and returns the remainder into circulation.
STEM CELL TRANSPLANTS(CANCER) Autologous transplant: After bone marrow isdestroyed(chemo/radiation), the patient is givenback their own stem cells. Allogeneic transplant: The patient receives blood-forming stem cellsfrom a donor of the same blood type. Donor stemcells can be taken from multiple bone marrowsamples, but are mainly taken fromperipheral(circulating) blood by apheresis.-Mostly used on younger patients.
STEM CELL TRANSPLANTS Non-myeloablative transplant: -aka mini-transplant or reduced-intensity transplant -type of allogeneic transplant, uses less radiation -does not completely destroy cells in bone marrow -after chemo/radiation, the patient receives thedonor stem cells, the cells then establish a newimmune system -the new immune cells see leukemia cells asforeign and attack them, this is know as a graft-versus-leukemia effect