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Impact of Technology at Bottom of the Pyramid

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Presentation done at Wireless World Research Forum, London, Nov 17th, 2010.

Presentation done at Wireless World Research Forum, London, Nov 17th, 2010.

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  • 1. The Impact of Technology and behaviour patterns at BOP
    Dr. HarshaLiyanage
    ICT4D Activist (Sri Lanka),
    Consultant (UK)
    www.fusion.lk
    email: enovation4d@gmail.com
    WWRF, 25th meeting,16-18 November 2010 London, UK
    organised by Kingston University
    eNovation
  • 2. Reaching out to the next billion customers
    Global population (mil)
    Purchasing power (US$)
    75 - 100
    > $20,000
    The Next billion includes;
    Bottom of the Pyramid
    communities
    1,500 – 1,750
    $ 1,500 – $ 20,000
    }
    $ 1,500
    4,000
    < $ 1,500
    eNovation
  • 3. Why is it a challenge?
    Complex eco-system (culture, taboos, poverty)
    Thin / limited resources
    Latent (ill-defined) needs
    Poor education
    Politics and peer pressure
    Understanding BOP – the challenge is establishing the customer profile
    Who they are?
    What their needs are?
    What their behaviour is?
    What their buying power is?
    Who and how they take decisions?
    Who pays and how much?
    eNovation
  • 4. In the context of targeting BOP: is there a need to improve Innovation?
    ?
    Partial understanding of
    BOP context would handicap each stage of the product / service innovation process.
    eNovation
  • 5. Can Technology come with a human face? What about Social Responsibility!
    • gender neutrality - do they meet both men & women?
    • 6. income generation potential – would it enable local people to generate income for themselves and families?
    • 7. affordability - are they affordable to the poor?
    • 8. manageability and control – can it be designed, improved, managed & controlled by local people?
    • 9. application of local skills – would it use local skills & materials?
    • 10. environmental impact – what impact does it have on the local environment?
    eNovation
    Source: E.F. Schumacher, 1973, Practical Action, 2010
  • 11. Lessons can be learned from international development projects
  • 12. An example: Sarvodaya-Fusion - Sri lanka
    A Social Enterprise (started in 2007, as a specialist program of Sarvodaya, 50 year old national NGO of Sri Lanka)
    ‘Fusion-Education’ - a product offered(ICT Education package, books & national examination)
    End user – Rural student (mostly poor)
    Business model – Dealership based, direct customer purchase, donor support
    eNovation
  • 13. Product delivery model
    In the context of BOP:
    • low or no infrastructure
    • 14. thin / limited resources
    • 15. poor decision making capacity
    • 16. culture & peer pressure
    eNovation
  • 17. The Challenge for Sarvodaya-Fusion was to satisfy the donor (customer) and end user
    Strategic approach:
    Define both the customer and end-user
    Develop appropriate models, to measure the impact while illustrate the complexity and diversity of the end-user environment
    Pilot test and prove theoretical and technical rigour
    eNovation
  • 18. Strategic tools developed and pilot tested
    Map the value chain – ‘theory of change’
    Develop a methodology for measuring indicators
    Quantify the progress over time
    eNovation
  • 19. A,B
    eEmpowerment of Rural Children/ Youth
    Students have developed their marketable ICT skills
    Students will have correct attitude and self-discipline to continue DICA programme
    Increased access to appropriate information
    D,E
    C
    Students sit and pass DICA exam
    Accessibility of ICT facilities available with minimum restrictions
    Students engaged in self learning
    Skilled facilitators would provide training
    F
    6
    5
    4
    7
    Children & youth attend the classes regular basis
    ICT training and exam facilities available at local Telecentres
    G
    Children received Scholarships
    Children are interested about programme
    Children received parental support and encouragement
    2
    3
    Children and parents hear/learn about programme
    1
    Fusion- Education service
    Complex value chain
    eNovation
  • 20. A,B
    eEmpowerment of Rural Children/ Youth
    Students have developed their marketable ICT skills
    Students will have correct attitude and self-discipline to continue programme
    Increased access to appropriate information
    D,E
    C
    Students sit and pass DICA exam
    Accessibility of ICT facilities available with minimum restrictions
    Students engaged in self learning
    Skilled facilitators would provide training
    F
    6
    5
    4
    7
    Children & youth attend the classes regular basis
    ICT training and exam facilities available at local Telecentres
    G
    Children received Scholarships
    Children are interested about programme
    Children received parental support and encouragement
    2
    3
    Children and parents hear/learn about programme
    1
    Impact mapping to understand the complex chain
  • 21. Exposure
    Indicators to measure the impact
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
    eNovation
  • 22. Exposure
    First time exposure to computers, and familiarization with ICTs (seeing & touching)
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 23. Generate interest to learn, interact, use or develop application skills
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 24. Develop application skills with the assistance of trained staff
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 25. Further self learning (added skills) without assistance (or limited assistance)
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 26. Exploring beyond basic computer skills to internet, email, web development, database development, social net working, teaching to others, etc.
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 27. Systematic application of computers/ internet for self or others benefits (teaching, database development etc.)
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 28. Acquiring qualifications
    Exposure
    Motivation
    Skill development
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Application
    Qualification
  • 29. Pilot test is being carried out in two regions: post war communities (North) and semi-urban communities (south)
    eNovation
  • 30. End user in post war communities demonstrated the least exposure & motivation (Base line)
    motivation
    Qualification
    Skill
    development
    Application
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Time 0
    *Student name: SujamilaSriskantharasa, Age,18, Female
  • 31. Progress after three months (end user in post war communities)
    motivation
    Qualification
    Skill
    development
    Application
    Self learning
    Exploration
    Time 0
    3 months
    *Student name: SujamilaSriskantharasa, Age,18, Female
  • 32. Patterns of end users exposure and motivation to ict education in post war communities (Base line)
    Time 0
    *StudentAge,16 - 18, Jaffna district
  • 33. Individual users at semi-urban communities (south) (base line)
    Time 0
    *StudentAge,16 - 18, Moratuwa
  • 34. Comparison of average exposure & motivation between two communities
    Semi urban community
    Time 0
    Average of 15 students
  • 35. Progress observed after 3 months: both communities present nearly identical progress
    Post war community
    Semi-urban community
    Time 0
    3 months
    Average of 15 students
  • 36. Key lessons
    Mapping exercise, Indicators and Star charts, collectively provide a set of tools that enables reasonable understandingabout the complex and diverse outcomes at the end-user.
    eNovation
  • 37. Where could this be applied?
    To understand the customer profile & value chain in complex BOP environments
    Support the product / service innovation process targeting BOP
    Improve the social responsibility at innovation targeted at BOP customers and clients
    eNovation
  • 38. Thank You!
    Dr. HarshaLiyanage
    www.fusion.lk
    email: enovation4d@gmail.com
    eNovation