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Market incentivisation for ICT Development (National ICT policies and their impact)

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Many developing nations in Africa and Pacific are falling behind at formulating ICT policies. But there are nations who are reaping the benefits of early action, of adapting ICT policies. This …

Many developing nations in Africa and Pacific are falling behind at formulating ICT policies. But there are nations who are reaping the benefits of early action, of adapting ICT policies. This presentation explore the outcomes at Sri Lanka in depth.

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  • 1. eNovation4D Market incentivisation for ICT Development Harsha Liyanage, Phd, MBA Managing Director, (Sarvodaya-Fusion, Sri Lanka), Principal consultant, (eNovation4D, UK) www.fusion.lk email: harsha@enovation4d.co.uk Professional Certificate in ICT-Assisted Development ICPS London, UK 17 July 2013 (National ICT policies and their impact)
  • 2. eNovation4D Sustainability of eDevelopment • Sustainability is not the same as success (eg. project can sustain without delivering goals to most stakeholders) • But un-sustainability is a form of failure • Only sustainable projects can facilitate long-term socio-economic development • What makes eDevelopment project sustainable? – Capacity (money, skill, technology) – Utility (meeting the needs of stakeholders) – Embedding (institutionalise: rules, culture, value) Source: Heeks, R, 2005, Sustainability and the future of eDevelopment, eDevelopment Briefing No10. University of Manchester.
  • 3. eNovation4D Risk of failure • Most eGov projects fail: – Total failure 35% – Partial failure 50% – Success 15% (Source: Heeks, R. 2003. Most eGovernment –for-Development project fail: How can risks be reduced. IDPM. Univ of Manchester). • How can risk be reduced? (Source: Heeks, R. 2003. Most eGovernment –for-Development project fail: How can risks be reduced. IDPM. Univ of Manchester).
  • 4. eNovation4D Current reality Proposal Reality Design Gap (Source: Heeks, R. 2003. Most eGovernment –for-Development project fail: How can risks be reduced. IDPM. Univ of Manchester). Information Technology Processes Objectives and values Staffing and skills Management systems and structures Other resources Information Technology Processes Objectives and values Staffing and skills Management systems and structures Other resources
  • 5. eNovation4D Status of national ICT policies Country National ICT policy adopted Communication Market Adopted Evaluation (Review) Draft prepared Open Market Separate Regulator Cook Islands   Fiji    Kiribati   RMI  FSM  Nauru Niue Palau  PNG    Samoa    Solomon Is.   Timor Leste Tonga   Tuvalu Vanuatu   Total 6 1 3 7 6 (Source: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2013. State of ICT Development and linkages with Agriculture in ACP countries. CTA ICT Observatory, 2013. Netherlands).
  • 6. eNovation4D Country Sector Ministry Stakeholder Committee Other Remarks Cook Islands  National ICT Committee Fiji  IT Advisory Council Kiribati  Ministry of Communications, Transport and Tourism RMI  Ministry of Transportation and Communication FSM  Department of Transport, Communications and Information Nauru  Department of Transport and Telecommunications Niue  Niue Island Information, Technology & Communication and Development Council (NiDC) Palau  National ICT Policy Task Force PNG  Interagency ICT Taskforce Samoa  National ICT Steering Committee Solomon Is.  ICT Working group Timor Leste  ARCOM (Sector regulator) Tonga  Ministry of Information and Communications Tuvalu  Ministry of Communications Transport and Tourism Vanuatu  Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Utilities Total 7 7 1 Institutional arrangements for the development of national ICT policies in the PICs (Source: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2013. State of ICT Development and linkages with Agriculture in ACP countries. CTA ICT Observatory, 2013. Netherlands).
  • 7. eNovation4D Sectorial e-strategies & e-legislations - Africa √ Adopted » In progress Source: Chekol A. 2013 . UNECA. ICT Observatory Presentation, CTA, Netherlands Country Sector specific policies and strategies Legislations enacted Agriculture As one of the key pillars (priorities) in National ICT Policy e-government ICT for education policies e-agriculture e-commerce e-currency e-transaction, e-payment, e- contract Consumer protection and arbitration Digital signature Cyber-security laws Benin √ √ √ Burkina Faso √ √ √ √ √ Burundi √ Congo » Cote d’Ivoire √ » √ √ √ DRC √ √ √ Egypt √ √ √ √ Ethiopia √ » √ Gambia √ √ √ √ Ghana √ √ √ √ √ √ Guinea-Bissau √ √ √ Kenya √ √ Madagascar √ √ √ Mali √ √ √ √ √ Mozambique √ √ √ √ Niger √ √ √ √ √ √ Nigeria √ √ √ √ √ √ Senegal √ √ √ √ √ Sudan √ √ √ √ Togo √ √ √ Uganda √ √ Zambia √
  • 8. eNovation4D Rwanda ICT policy evolutions The identified priority sectors in the implementation of the NICI-2015 Governance sector Health sector Education sector Agriculture sector Finance sector (also to a large extent include tax, business, trade and tourism) (Source: Chekol A. 2013. State of ICT policy development and linkages with Agriculture in African countries. Presentation at CTA ICT Observatory, 2013. Netherlands).
  • 9. eNovation4D Sri Lanka (a case study) Population – 20mn GDP – US$59mn GDP Growth – 7.13% GDP per capita - $2923 Life expectancy – 74yrs Literacy – 92% ICT) Policy formulation – 2001 eSriLanka - 2003
  • 10. eNovation4D Case of eSriLanka ICT policy, leadership and institutional development Human resource development & industry promotion Regional telecommunications network development Telecentre development Reengineering government e-Society Key components of eSriLanka program (Source: Hanna N. K, 2008. Transforming government and empowering communities. The Sri Lankan experience with e- Development. The World Bank. Washington D.C.).
  • 11. eNovation4D NanaSala : Rural Knowledge Center “The Sustainable Tele-center” Data & Voice Connectivity guaranteed by RTN operator Selections based on competitive criteria Locations: population, secondary schools, electricity, market access. Owners: rural entrepreneur, community backing, good facility (building). Technical, Managerial, Logistical support from Support Institutions - pre selected by ICTA on competitive criteria: Organisational Capability, Financial Capacity, Resources & Regional reach ICT Equipment Subsidy from ICTA (PCs, printers, phones, fax, copier / scanner, software). Other Equipment from Owner (building, furniture, air conditioning, etc). Operational costs borne by owner (rent, utilities, staff wages). Connectivity paid for by ICTA on a declining subsidy. Year 1&2: 100% , Year 3: 66.6%, Year 4: 33.3%, Year 5: 0 ICTA led capacity building program: initial & ongoing training For Owners & Village Champions Content : Local and Localized, Relevant to rural communities, available in Local Languages Demand side assistance through a well designed Voucher Program Targeted catalytic groups. Agent for Voucher Admin.
  • 12. eNovation4D  Sri Lanka ICT profile 2012 Source: ITU, 2012 % Using the Internet in 2012 18.29 A PC at Home 12.3 Internet access at Home 5.9 0 5 10 15 20 Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Sri Lanka Philippines Indonesia 2010 data 2010 data 2011 data A PC at home Internet access at home
  • 13. eNovation4D  Sri Lanka ICT profile Source: ITU, 2012 Mobile Phone Subscriptions in 2012 20,324,070 Mobile Phone Subscriptions per 100 Inhabitants in 2012 95.76 0 20 40 60 80 100 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 0 5 10 15 20 25 Millions Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions
  • 14. eNovation4D Software industry growth 121 154 162 250 51 57 49 61 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2006 2007 2009 2010 BPO Revenue US$mn Export revenues from IT and IT-BPO industry from 2006 - 2010
  • 15. eNovation4D 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 IT workforce Overall growth trend of the IT workforce from 2003 to 2010 Source: National ICT workforce survey, ICTA & MG Consultants, 2010. IT Workforce
  • 16. eNovation4D Computer literacy Distribution of computer literacy of population (aged 5-69) by provinces (2007 & 2009) Source: Computer literacy survey. Department of census and statistics, Sri Lanka (2009)
  • 17. eNovation4D 0 5 10 15 20 25 2004 2006/07 2009 Overall country Urban sector Rural sector Computer ownership (percentage) by households is increasing over the years (2004 – 2009) Computer literacy survey. Department of census and statistics, Sri Lanka (2009) Computer ownership Urban vs Rural
  • 18. eNovation4D Leveraging corporate – NGO eco-system Smartphone eco-system research study[1] by eNovation4D & Sarvodaya-Fusion
  • 19. eNovation4D 2005 GDP / Capital - $1203 2012 GDP per Capita - $2923 2003, eSriLanka inception GDP / Capita – $800 Network readiness index – 69th (2013) From 72nd in 2012
  • 20. eNovation4D Who we are!
  • 21. eNovation4D Mission : e-Empowerment of communities Capacity building>> ICT education and skills Accessibility >> Telecentres, mobile, Smart -Phones Applications>> Fusion Education, FarmerNet Economic sustenance of Community + partners + Fusion Social bottom line Economic bottom line Sarvodaya 15,000 communities 50 year old national NGO SEEDS 3000 village micro-enterprises US$31mn operation ICTA (Gvt) 620 telecentres Corporates & Donors Building partnerships to leverage impact
  • 22. eNovation4D eNovation4D eNovation4D Ltd. Registered company in England & Wales UK. Company registration no: 07600230 Serving Europe, Africa & Asia Clients: • CTA • UNCTAD • CABI • Tech4trade • IDRC • USAID Consultant s for ICT4D & Mobile for Development Social Innovation Social Impact Sustainability Expert Knowledge Countries we work: • UK • Netherlands • (Geneva) Switzerland • Rwanda • Ghana • Bangladesh • Sri Lanka • 20 Consultants •University of London (ICT4D Collective) • University of Manchester • BIID, Bangladesh Network of experts & institutions
  • 23. eNovation4D Sharing knowledge between Global South & West
  • 24. eNovation4D eNovation4D ICT4D & M4D consultants, UK Contact: harsha@enovation4d.co.uk www.enovation4d.co.uk