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Basic introduction to research methods

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Basic introduction to research methods

Basic introduction to research methods

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  • The scientific method is necessary for any scientific research.
  • Give real definition of theory Set of logically related……that attempt to describe, explain and predict a phenomena
    Theory of Reasoned action
    Social learning theory
    Attachment theory
    .
  • Question….. I wonder if you were to stop brushing your teeth if they would go away?
    HYP: People who brush their teeth with Colgate will have significantly less teeth after 10 years than people who use XYZ toothpaste.
    Test HYP: Some people brush teeth with Colgate each day for 10 years / others use XYZ everyday for 10 years
    Draw conclusions based on the data you gather
    Construct theory about Colgate
    Take them through the steps….
  • Conclusion: Those who use Colgate HAVE significantly more tooth loss….
  • In the experimental method, the researcher alters the level of the independent variable and observes its effects on the dependent variable.
    The independent variable is the experimental variable that the researcher manipulates to see what effect it has on the DV
    The dependent variable is measured because it is believed to depend on the manipulated changes in the independent variable.
  • A placebo is a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine.
    A placebo effect occurs when subjects who have not received the independent variable have results similar to subjects who do.
    Medical study's placebo effect of drugs…
  • Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of the treatment and are called single blind studies.
  • Studies in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of who has obtained the treatment are called double-blind studies.
    Most medical drug trials are like this
  • Explain ethics involved in research both with human and nonhuman subjects. Click on individual link to go to slide with explanation of concept. Click back arrow to return to this slide.
  • PAGE48-49.
  • Do you know why researches use little monkey's instead of full grown bull apes?
    Because they can…..

Transcript

  • 1. Psychology's Scientific Method
  • 2. Objectives     5 Basic steps in the scientific research Types of research & research settings Analyze & interpreting data Conducting and evaluating research-ethics in research
  • 3. Psychology’s Scientific Method Scientific Approach an organized way of using experience and testing ideas to increase knowledge: 1.Curious 2.Skeptical 3.Objective 4.Think critically Begins with theory…
  • 4. Research settings & types of research A theory is a broad idea or set of closely related facts that attempts to explain and predict something. Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 5. Psychology’s Scientific Method 5 steps of scientific method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Observe phenomena Formulate question, hypothesis, & prediction Test prediction with research Draw conclusions Evaluate & collaborate
  • 6. Research settings & types of research  Types of research:     Descriptive Correlational Experimental Research settings   Laboratory Natural observation
  • 7. Research settings & types of research  Descriptive research:     Observation Surveys & Interviews Standardized tests Case studies
  • 8. Research settings & types of research  Correlational research: correlation formula    Systematic observation of variables within a sample of people Concerned with how variable change together Correlation coefficient   Positive (r=.68) Negative (r=-.77)
  • 9. Research settings & types of research  Experimental Research:  IV & DV independent variable (the possible cause) dependent variable (the outcome measured)
  • 10. Research settings & types of research  Caution about experimental research     Validity Experimenter bias Participant bias Placebo effect
  • 11. Validity  The extent to which an experiment is measuring what you intend to measure.    Depression & anxiety Aggression & Fear The soundness of the conclusions
  • 12. Experimenter Bias  The influence of the experimenters own expectations on the outcome of the research.
  • 13. Participant Bias  The influence of the participant’s expectations on their behavior in the experiment.
  • 14. Placebo Effect A placebo is a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine. A placebo effect occurs when subjects who have not received the independent variable have results similar to subjects who do.
  • 15. Single Blind Study Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of the treatment and are called single blind studies.
  • 16. Double Blind Study Studies in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of who has obtained the treatment are called double-blind studies.
  • 17. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Descriptive statistics – describe and summarize data for large groups of participants  Mean: average  Median: midpoint in rank-ordered data  Mode: score appearing most often
  • 18. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Measure of dispersion:  Range  Normal distribution: bell-shaped curve  Standard deviation: degree to which scores in ordered distribution are spread out
  • 19. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Inferential statistics: methods used to indicate whether or not data sufficiently support hypothesis.   Statistical significance .05, .01, .001
  • 20. Mode 9 Mean & Median % Giving birth for 1st time 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 13 16 19 22 25 28 Mother’s Age 31 34 37 40
  • 21. Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Reaching conclusions from data  Statistical significance    Size of correlation Difference of means are greater than chance Two issues for significance   Larger sample size is better Statistical difference does not equal practical significance
  • 22. Challenges of Conducting Ethical Research Ethics of Research with Human Participants Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals
  • 23. Ethics of Research with Human Participants 1. Freedom from Coercion 2. Informed consent 3. Limited deception 4. Adequate debriefing 5. Confidentiality
  • 24. Ethics of Research with Nonhuman Animals 1. Necessity 2. Health 3. Humane treatment
  • 25. Becoming a consumer of Psychological Research      Distinguish between group results and Individual needs Avoid overgeneralization Look beyond a single study Avoid making causal attributions Consider the source of information