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World war i upload

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    World war i upload World war i upload Presentation Transcript

    • World War I
    • Deep attachments to one’s
      own nation helped unify the
      people and helped create
      competition
      Nationalism
    • Nations seeking economic growth and expansion
      Establish and expand global empires
      Imperialism
    • Strong competition for control
      of area
      Austria-Hungary annexed
      Bosnia-Herzegovinia
      Balkan Wars
    • Build-up of military forces
      among nations
      Strong military competition
      Militarism
    • Hardening of alliance systems
      Triple Alliance—
      Triple Entente—
      Russia was traditionally
      Serbia’s protector
      Alliances
    • Triple Alliance
      Germany
      Italy
      Austria-Hungary
    • Triple Entente
      Great Britain
      Russia
      France
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
      Austro-Hungarian throne, and wife,
      Killed June 28, 1914 in
      Sarajevo by Serbian Black Hand member, Gavrilo Princip
      Assassination
    • Summer of 1914
      Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 28
      Austria issued ultimatum to Serbia;
      Serbia partially agreed July 25
      Austria declared war on Serbia July 28
    • Germany pledged to support Austria
      Russia mobilized to help Serbia July 30
      Germany declared war on Russia Aug 1
      France allied with Russia
    • Germany declared war on France Aug 3
      Germany invaded Belgium Aug 3
      Britain declared war on Germany Aug 4
      World War I Begins………..
    • Central Powers
      Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
    • Allied Powers
      Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium,
      US, Japan, Montenegro, Italy
    • The Battles Begin
      Schlieffen Plan—Germany’s war plan
      drawn up in 1905
      called for invasion of neutral Belgium
      assumed slow Russian mobilization
      allow for quick defeat of French
    • Problems with Schlieffen Plan
      Invaded heavily fortified area of Belgium
      Great Britain involved after invasion
      Encountered strong resistance
      Russian army mobilized quickly
      Split Germany forces in East
    • Downfall of Schlieffen Plan
      France attacked Germans in Alsace-Lorraine
      Caused delay in German advance
      Battle of Marne caused German retreat
      Signaled abandonment of Schlieffen Plan
      Realized war would not end quickly
    • Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare
      Zimmerman Telegram
      Sinking of 4 US merchant ships
      US declares war on Germany
      April 6, 1917
      US entry into World War I
    • Modern War
      Submarine warfare
      Use to get around blockades and attack enemy shipping
      Rapid fire machine guns
      Led to trench warfare
      Trench warfare
      Thousands of miles of ditches for protection
      Tanks
      Designed to break through barbed wire
      Airplanes
      Primary function—to observe enemy activities
      Poison gas
      Introduced by Germans to help break stalemates
    • The Home Front
      Selective Service – 2.8 million drafted
      War Industries Board – coordinate production of war materials
      Daylight savings time
      Bonds – Liberty and Victory
    • Women’s Roles
      Women
      Fill jobs in factories
      Military service
      Allowed to enlist in Navy
      Fill temporary jobs in Army
      Army nurses were only military women allowed to go overseas
    • African Americans
      Served in segregated units in military
      “Great Migration”
      Movement from South to North to fill factory jobs
    • Web of War
      Austria-Hungary
      Declared war on
      Serbia
      Treaty
      Treaty
      Declared war on
      Russia
      Germany
      Treaty
      Declared war on
      France
    • Declared war on
      France
      Germany
      invades
      Declared war on
      Treaty
      Colonial
      Territories
      Belgium
      Declared war on
      Treaty
      Great Britain
      Declared war on
      Australia
      Canada
      India
      New Zealand
      Union of S.Africa
      Military agreement
      Japan
      Allied after start of war
      United States
      Italy
    • 1917 Russia pulls out
      Closing Eastern front
      American troops arrive
      1918
      Allies launch Meuse-Argonne Offensive
      Final assault
      Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
      Germany surrenders
      War ends 11th Hour of 11th Day of 11th Month 1918
    • Treaty of Versailles
      “Big Four” : United States, Great Britain, France, Italy
      Wilson’s Fourteen Points
      Plan for peace after war
      League of Nations
      General association of nations
      Help preserve peace
      Help prevent future wars
    • Treaty of Versailles….cont’d
      Congress never signed Treaty of Versailles
      US never member of League of Nations
      Germany’s punishment
      Accept blame for causing war
      Reduce military
      Pay war reparations
    • Effects of WWI on US
      Developments in War
      War-torn economies of Europe
      Russian Revolution
      Industrial demand of wartime
      Sacrifices of wartime; disappointment with Versailles Peace Treaty
      Effects on US
      Boom in US economy; emergence of US as world industrial leader
      “Red Scare” in postwar US; suspicion of immigrants
      Internal migration in US, especially African Americans to Northern cities
      Failure to join League of Nations
    • The End