Ms. Hoye US History Regular and AP Pre-Colombian Era and Colonization
Inhabitants crossed over by way of the Bering Land Bridge (Where Palin saw Russia from her front Porch ) The Ice Melted… human beings started to pass over the land bridge. They took their time! The travelers averaged about 1 mile of migration EVERY 2 YEARS!!! Did you know that before Columbus “discovered” the New World that 100 MILLION natives actually lived there??? Also, when Columbus landed… the Aztec Capital was larger than ANY European city?? WOW! 35,000 years before he sailed the Ocean Blue…. Who is ________?
2,000 languages were spoke in the New World Agriculture was the reason these different civilizations could survive. Unlike the dirty European cities of that time… most of the large cities in the New World (Mesoamerica in particular) had Running water, clean streets and even botanical gardens Explorers dominated native inhabitants due to WEAPONS +DISEASES +USE of Tribe RIVALRIES 2,000 Cultures and counting…
***CHILL OUT*** this just means MIDDLE of the New World… The reason this section of the New World is commonly referred to is because they were much more advanced than the simple Hunting/Gathering societies in Northern America Mesoamerica????
Want of WEALTH… Tales of GOLD! Renaissance ideals (humanism/optimism)… “We can do ANYTHING” Trades Routes -looking for a waterway to Asia They had the ability… SHIPS and ACCESS! Mariner’s Compass was developed… exploration was POSSIBLE! REASONS for Exploration….
Europe was introduced to…. Corn Tobacco Tomatoes Avocado Rice Indigo (later) DISEASE… Explorers were basically Biological WEAPONS! Horses Cattle EXCHANGE OF GOODS between Europe and New World“Colombian Exchange” Americas were introduced to… IN REALITY….. The American Indians were on the loosing end of a “White Elephant Gift Exchange” The OLD WORLD (Europe) brought death and domination to the Natives. And… the NEW WORLD (Americas) gave Europe a new life.
The FRENCH built a fur-trading post in Quebec, Canada (1608) The SPANISH built a mission in Santa Fe, New Mexico (1610) The English established their first permanent colony at….. JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA …. 1607 John Smith and Pocahontas…. Europeans “settling” in…
FYI….. In actuality…. Roanoke Island was founded in 1585… yes before Jamestown in 1607 Is now referred to as the THE LOST COLONY
Mercantilism was the economic philosophy of Great Britain when establishing the Colonies GB sought to increase its wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold/silver GB was also looking to establish a favorable balance of trade with its Colonies **Mercantilism**
After the first couple of years… when people actually started living and not dying… more British started to arrive in the AMERICAN COLONIES When they arrived they had to choose… South North or Middle ???
Smokin’ Virginia- Jamestown- settled by Virginia Co. “He who shall not work shall not eat”- John Smith Pocahontas Tobacco!!! (John Rolfe) Merry Maryland- CATHOLIC HAVEN! Started the trend of indentured servants Individualistic Carolinas- more relaxed… some outcasts Get Em’ Georgia- New Start for Criminals Southern Colonies…Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas and Georgia ****Rivers, Plantations, seasons suitable for farming
Northern Colonies…Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire***Protestants, Shipping, fishing, small farms, harsh winters and harbors Just North of Virginia… Mayflower landed Mayflower Compact “Government by Majority” Puritans Massachusetts Bay Colony The Mayflower---- Plymouth Theocracy … Church and State connected Anne Hutchinson Best known for her struggle with Massachusetts over religious doctrine and gender roles Hutchinson was banished to Rhode Island “Freethinking” Rhode Island- Roger Williams Paid Indians for land Separated Church and State (very controversial at this time) Connecticut comes to Order- Thomas Hooker Drafted “Fundamental Orders”… the beginning of a Constitution Women’s Rights New Hampshire Fishing
Middle Colonies…New York, Delaware and Pennsylvania***fertile soil, industry, shipbuilding, plantations/small farms New York (Old Netherlands) Dutch Company Aristocratic Dutch Explorer Henry Hudson… Hudson river and Bay??? Delaware New Sweden Pacifist Pennsylvania- William Penn Quaker Colony Pacifists… also paid Indians for land
Indians Vs. Colonists NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERATION -1643The Puritan Colonies united to stand against Indians. The New England Confederation was highly successful in terms of bonding the colonies together, and provided a basis for the further collaboration of Colonies The Iroquois Confederacy
Unification of many several different tribes in response to the threat posed by the European Colonists.
The Iroquois Confederacy was the MOST IMPORATANT and powerful Native American political alliance in history. It successfully ended generations of tribal warfare.
Life in the Colonies
SOUTH WIDE GAP between rich and poor hierarchy of wealth and status 1. Planter aristocracy w/ slaves mimicking feudalism of Europe 2. However, these planters were hardworking, involved in day-to-day affairs 3. Few cities – poor transportation 4. Women more powerful – men die leaving property to widows b. Divorce rare – courts could order you to reunite Was a gap between Rich/Poor… but not as wide as South Because of harsh weather… industrialization begins Growing Population– fertile people/not soil 1. Early marriage = high birth rates, women would often die during childbirth a. Obedient family ties, strong links to grandparents b. Women’s role not as powerful – no property rights Social Structure and Family Life NORTH
Religion leads Northern lifestyle Towns in New England unite Geography & Fear of Indians force close relations Religion makes unity important 50+ families in town requires a school Puritans ran churches DEMOCRATICALLY…… led to democratic government Farm and Town Life…
Germans– left because of war, religion and a bad economy settled in Pennsylvania Scotts-Irish– Scottish kicked out of Ireland because not Catholic – settled in mountains Lawless, individualistic – lived in Appalachian hills – whiskey making fools! Not wanted by Germans or New Englanders – forced to hills Other groups were embraced by Colonial Settlers French, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss Largest immigrant group ----SLAVES Melting Pot from the start…Immigration
Economy:Triangular Trade Natural Resources to England Sugar to Americas Slaves to Indies and Southern Colonies Weapons and Textiles to Africa
A wave of religious revivals that spread across the American Colonies during 1730s and 1740s After the Colonial Regions started to become settled… along came….The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening 1730-1740 gave colonists a shared national religious experience
Reasons for The Great Awakening People felt that OLD religion was dry, dull and distant Half-Way Covenant- The Puritans established to ease requirements for Church Membership (allowed the baptism of children of baptized but unconverted Puritans Preachers felt that people needed to be concerned with inner emotions as opposed to outward religious behavior People in New England can read and interrupt the Bible on their own
George Whitefield Puritan Minster who used raw emotional sermons to reach all classes of colonists Preached that “good works” and “godly lives” would bring you salvation Called on the Puritans to build a model society… which he referred to as “ a city upon a hill’
Jonathan Edwards a Puritan Minster terrified listeners with his sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
Outcomes of the Great Awakening Birth of deep religious convictions in the colonies New churches built to accommodate new members Colleges founded found to train new ministers
Outcomes of the Great Awakening Encouraged ideas of equality and right to challenge authority---- How would this become important in the American culture? Birth of charity and charitable organizations The Great Awakening Enlightenment The American Revolution
The Great Awakening leads to….the Enlightenment Great surge of literacy in the colonies Newspapers and book publications increase Schools are synonymous with new towns and villages Deism
Deism: the belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the LAWS OF NATURE A way of believing in a religious being but still believing in a Supreme Law of Nature ***Many of the Founding Fathers were Deists*** Jefferson and Ben Franklin believed that Natural Laws could be discovered by use of Human Reason What is Deism you ask???
Settling of the Colonies+Unification through Fear of Indians and Religion (The Great Awakening)+Economy of the TRIANGULAR TRADE+Enlightenment Ideals=A growing Independence in the Colonieswhich leads to…….