Treaty of Versailles Germany blamed for WWI German war reparations
The Versailles Treaty Germany •Blamed for war •Lost colonies •New countries formed out theirs •Paid (war debts) reparations (~33 Billion$)
The Great Depression World-wide economic devastation
Problems in Europe After Great Depression WWI•Economic = people were jobless•Political = weak governments couldnot solve problems in theircountries………..Fear of Jews andCommunists•Social = times of unrest people lookfor a leader.
Rise of Foreign Dictatorships social desperation and unrest promise of dictators to change problems
•Power of government rests in one man. •TOTAL POWER •No freedoms in this society…..•Usually racist and discriminatory towards certain groups…… •Often have large militaries and mustexpand and conquer to gain approval from their people.
Totalitarian Adolph Hitler dictators came to Benito Mussolini power during the 1920s and 1930s in Joseph Stalin Europe.Totalitarian dictators have total power….There are no freedoms in this type of society…..Usually racist and discriminatory towards certaingroups……Often have large militaries and must expand and conquer to gain approval from their people. COMMUNISM, FASCISM AND NAZISM ARE TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIPS!
• Communist gov’t established• Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R) • gov’t control of all territories• Josef Stalin, dictator • massive effort to industrialize • no opposition tolerated
•Joseph Stalin •1921/Soviet Union Communism Spread Communism throughout the world•Stalin maneuvered himself into becoming the leader of the Soviet Union. •The Russian Revolution was led by the people tooverthrow a monarch but when the new ruling class took over, there were no protections of people’s rights…… ―NO BILL OF RIGHTS‖ •Communism and fascism are similar in their ideologies
• Benito Mussolini created Fascist Party • condemned Democracy, Socialism, & Communism • defended capitalism regulated by gov’t • slow economic recovery • blamed world economic conditions
Benito Mussolini 1922/Italy---Facism Believe, Obey and Fight Revive the Roman EmpireFACISM: BASED ON A SYMBOL OF AUTHORITY IN THE OLD ROMAN EMPIRE…………‖a philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises adictatorship, state control of industry, racial superiority, supremacy of the leader, limits civil rights, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism, militarism and expansion…..‖
• wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) while in prison • book detailing political ideas for Germany• rebuilt Nazi Party• took control of Germany • established Fascist state
The Rise of Adolph Hiler Born in AustriaFought in WWI and was bittertowards the Treaty of Versailles
The Rise of Adolph Hiler After the war his job in the army was to keep tabs on different political parties. Hitler already shows anti-Semitic views.Discovers a small political party known as TheNational Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI)Begins to work himself into the leadership positionsof the Nazi partyNovember 1923- The "Beer Hall Putsch“, Hitler and theNazis try to overthrow the local government ofMunich, Germany.
The Rise of Adolph Hitler It fails and Hitler is arrested.He is convicted 1924 and serves 9 months out of a 5- year sentence.Hitler writes his book Mein Kampf or “My Struggle”After his release from prison he continued to work with the Nazi party to take over Germany.
ANTI-SEMITISM•ANTI-JEWISH….THE HATRED OF JEWS, THEIR CULTURE AND RELIGION.•IT IS THE PRACTICE OF RACISM THAT LEADS TO ALL FORMS OFHOSTILITY DIRECTED TOWARDS THE JEWS.
• removed German Jews from jobs• Nuremberg Laws • deprived German Jews of German citizenship • banned marriages between Jews and non-Jews• Kristallnacht – “night of broken glass” • massive destruction of Jewish property
A Common Enemy• Hitler blames Jews and Communists for problems of Germany • Loss of WWI • German Economic Depression• Jews identified as a ―race‖ –not a religion • Anti-Semitism • A New Education Begins• Save purity of German race. • Aryan Virtues----Nuremberg Laws nuremberg
Two Phases of Hatred• Phase 1 1933-1939 – A Common Enemy : Re-Education – Citizenship Rights? – German Jews face deportation – Violence Escalates----Kristalnacht• Phase 2 (1939-1945) – World War II begins vs. France/England – Holocaust Begins--- The Final Solution – Ghettos and Forced Labor Camps – mass executions of Jews and Eastern Europeans. – Gas Chamber
• Hitler blamed Jews for Germany losing WWI• Believed Germans superior race• “Final Solution” – plan to rid world of all Jewsand undesirables • round up Jews and place in concentrations camps •Healthy ones work as slave labor • elderly, sick, & young children exterminated
• economy hurt by Depression • loss of world markets• military leaders rose to power • built up military • invaded Manchuria in northeastern China for resources • formed military agreement with Germany & Italy
Took the form of a god Japan’s Manifest Destiny was to expand into China and the rest of Asia. Empire of the SunEmperor Horhito
1931/Japan, expan sionist and military leader •Would threaten our island possessions and U.S. trade policy into China, Open Door Policy.Hideki Tojo
• Neutrality Act of 1935 • illegal for Americans to sell arms to any nation at war• Neutrality Act of 1937 • cont’d ban on arms sale to nations at war • warring nations only buy nonmilitary supplies on cash & carry basis
• Japan, Germany & Italy formed the Axis Powers• Feb. 1938 Hitler announced Anschluss – unification of Austria & Germany, first area unified
GERMANEXPANSION •1935 to1939, unopposed by the League of Nations. •Rhineland 1936 •Austria 1938
Sudetenland•Part of Germany before WWI. •Treaty ofVersailles created Czechoslovakia•7,450,000 Czechs •3,200,000 Germans •2,300,000 Slovaks•720,000 Magyars•560,000 Ruthenes •100,000 Poles
•Leaders met in Munich to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia..•Hitler believed Sudetenland should be part of Germany. •Adolf Hitler--Germany Neville Chamberlain—England Premier Edouard Deladier---France Benito Mussolini--Italy •Hitler promised the world if hereceived the Sudetenland, there would be no war.
•German demands for the Sudetenland are met = “All I want, is a Germany for Germans” •All Chamberlain wanted was peace at any cost.•Chamberlain believed that by sacrificing Czechoslovakia he had satisfied Hitler and he would stop being aggressive; he promised “a peace with honor… peace in our time.” •Chamberlain gave into Hitler (appeasement) •Hitler got the Sudetenland.
•FDR sent a letter to Hitlerasking him to honor the Munich Conference •Later in 1939, Hitler would invade and take the rest of Czechoslovakia……. •The United States learned from the Munich Conferencethat you cannot trust the words of a dictator………
•What is the cartoonist trying to say here? •What is meant by, “we might as well try to appease him”? •How does the cartoonist justify his decision to appease Hitler? •Notice the American countries……. What is this symbolic of?Umbrella Road
• Hitler demanded Sudetenland• Hitler then demanded return of Danzig• He also wanted right to build highway and railroad across Polish corridor• With these demands for territory in Poland, GB & France realize appeasement had failed• Sept 1, 1939, with Soviet support, Germany invades Poland• Sept 3, 1939 GB & France declare war on Germany – WORLD WAR II BEGINS