■Essential Question: –Why did the economic & foreign policies of Ford & Carter fail to meet the needs of America in the late 1970s?■Chapter 30 pg 1093-1112
■Essential Question: –Why did the economic & foreign policies of Ford & Carter fail to meet the needs of America in the late 1970s?
The 1970s: A Crisis in Confidence■The “overextended society” of the 1970s was defined by: –Low economic growth, high prices, & rising unemployment –Distrust of the government due to the Watergate scandal –“Passionless presidents” who failed to project clear leadership –An end of Nixon-era détente & resumption of Cold War rivalries
ToEnergy and the a when Egypt punish Israel’s to Economy The fuel shortage ledallies200% increase in theSyria attacked against heating & price of gas & home Israel■In the 1970s, 2 great oil shocks Led to worst recession since Depression hurt the U.S. economy: –In 1973, the Arab members of OPEC initiated a 5% cut on production & an embargo against the U.S. –The Iranian Revolution in 1979 cut off oil & led to another gas- shortage & soaring interest rates
The Oil Shocks:Price Increases of Crude Oil & Gasoline The OPEC oil embargo Iranian Revolution
The Search for an Energy Policy■These oil shocks forced the U.S. Mandated gas mileage requirements, speed to realize its dependency on other nations for oil & led to price controls limits, & action: on domestic oil Nuclear plants & the EPA to oversee –Nixon pipelineAlaskan oil formed industry’s environmental impact –The new Dept of Energy (1977) emphasized conservation & domestic energy production –Still…U.S. oil imports rose 50% from 1973 to 1979
A Troubledwages did notEconomy Workers’ American keep up with rising prices ■ The 1970s economy grew stagnant: –Unemployment grew to rose 200% Milk & hamburger prices 9%A stagnant STAGFLATION High –Heavy industry jobs fell inflation economy due toCar prices rose 72% Bread prices rose 400% outsourcing & foreign competition ■ 1970s experienced huge inflation: –Due to Vietnam deficit spending, global food shortage, oil shocks Neither Ford nor Carter could stop –Massive price increases led to a “stagflation;” Carter’s policies actually 5.5% decreaserates up to 20% drove interest in “real income” for average Americans
The “Lean Years”The Presidencies of Ford & Carter
The Ford Administration■Gerald Ford failed to restore public confidence after Watergate: –Ford pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed –He revealed a number of past CIA assassination attempts & appointed George Bush to reorganize the CIA –Vetoed 39 Great Society-style bills initiated by Congress
The 1976 Campaign■In 1976, dark-horse Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination & campaigned as an outsider, an honest man, with fresh leadership■Carter won a narrow victory due to social class & racial factors: –Affluent, well-educated, suburban voters chose Ford –Socially & economically disadvantaged voted for Carter
Ford’s foreign policy blunder during theTV debates in 1976: “There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe”
Disenchantment with Carter ■Carter entered office with no clear political philosophy or vision: In 1979, Carter gave the “national malaise” –Deregulated the airline industry speech in which he discussed the importance of conservinglowered prices to blame energy but seemed whichcreating a “crisis in confidence”Americans for –But…his attempts to reform welfare & Social Security failed –He had no remedy for soaring inflation, interest rates, & bank failures that hurt the economy
A Declining Superpower■America’s international dominance declined sharply in 1970s due to: –Americans’ increasing desires to avoid “another Vietnam” –The War Powers Act forced the president to consult with Congress before sending troops –The escalating military costs & deficit spending made sustaining the Cold War impossible
Foreign Policy & Human Rights■Carter focused his foreign policy on a commitment to human rights: –Spoke out against repressive regimes in Latin America & apartheid in South Africa –Reformed the CIA to operate “within the law” (but only briefly) –Negotiated the return of the Panama Canal to Panamanians
Foreign Policy & Human Rights■In Nov 1977, Egyptian leader Sadat made an appeal with Israel to settle the October War of 1973■Carter invited Egyptian leader Sadat & Israeli leader Begin to the U.S. to negotiate terms■The Camp David accords in 1979 led to a peace treaty between Egypt & Israel, but alienated other Arab nations
Celebrating the Camp David Accords:Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, & Anwar Sadat
The Cold War Resumes■During the Carter years, the Cold War rivalry between the U.S. & USSR widened due to: –A new arms race as the U.S. adopted new MX missiles & Trident submarines –SALT II failed to make lasting arms reduction –Increased U.S.-Sino relations put the USSR on the defensive
The Cold War Resumes■Détente ended when the USSR invaded Afghanistan in 1979■The U.S. interpreted the attack as a move to take the Middle East & responded with: –Economic embargo of the USSR –Boycott of the limit nuclear arms Carter hoped to Moscow Olympics & advance human rights, but found –Aid to the a heightened Cold War himself in Afghani resistance
The Iranian Hostage Crisis■The Camp David victory was offset by the 1979 Iranian hostage crisis: –Exiled Islamic fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini led a coup against U.S.-backed the shah –When Carter allowed the shah to enter the U.S. for medical aid, irate mobs in Tehran took 52 hostages from the U.S. embassy
Quest for Peace in the Middle East■Carter’s attempts at diplomatic, military, & economic threats failed to bring a return of the hostages –In 1980, Carter approved a rescue mission that was aborted after 2 helicopters crashed –The perceived blunders & inability of Carter to end the hostage crisis hurt Carter in his re-election bid in 1980
A Failed Presidency■Carter’s failures with inflation, Iran, & Afghanistan overshadowed his foreign policy victories with the Panama Canal & the Middle East Carter’s 1980 approval rating was 23%■The failures of Johnson, Nixon, Ford, & Carter led to a desire among Americans for a strong leader who could face both domestic & foreign challenges
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