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Civil War

Civil War

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Civil War Upload Civil War Upload Presentation Transcript

  • Civil War1861 - 1865
  • Difference Between North and South
    North
    Industries
    Large population
    Transportation-supplies
    Opposed slavery
    Ability to raise $$ (taxes)
    South
    Raw materials
    Knowledge of territory
    Leadership--generals
    Slave labor
    Cause—way of life
  • Missouri Compromise
    Missouri requested admission to Union
    11 Slave, 11 Free States
    Upset balance in Senate
    Missouri Compromise --
    Maine admitted as free state
    Missouri admitted as slave state
    Rest of Louisiana Territory split
    36 30’ north latitude (southern border of Missouri)
    North of line—free
    South of line–slavery legal
  • Nullification Crisis
    Tariffs on Imports 1824 & 1828
    Hurt Southern economy
    Loss of inexpensive British imports
    Forced to buy expensive Northern goods
    Felt North getting rich off South
    John Calhoun developed nullification theory
    Constitution established by sovereign states
    States still sovereign
    Have right to determine Congressional acts unconstitutional
    South Carolina declares tariffs null and void within state
    Couldn’t get support from other Southern states
    South Carolina did get tariffs lowered
    Proved a single state could force its will on Congress
  • Statehood for California
    Gold Rush caused California population to grow
    Applied for statehood as free state
    Compromise of 1850
    California admitted as free
    No slavery restrictions on rest of Mexican cession
    Slave trade abolished D.C., not slavery
    New fugitive slave law passed
    Threats of southern secession became more frequent
  • Fugitive Slave Act
    Allowed owners to hunt down runaways
    Accused runaways sent back to South
    Hurt Southern cause
    Newspaper accounts changed attitudes
    Previously indifferent Northerners now hostile
    Northerners actions increased
    Led to Underground Railroad
  • Conflicts Lead to Secession
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Settling the Great Plains
    Sen. Stephen Douglas wanted to settle Nebraska Territory allowing slavery issue based on popular sovereignty
    Problem: Kansas and Nebraska territory lay north of Missouri Compromise line
    Solution: divide territory
    Nebraska in north next to free state Illinois
    Kansas in south just west of slave state Missouri
    Significance of Act – repealed Missouri Compromise
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford
    Dred Scott
    slave living in Missouri
    taken by owner to free states to live for a while
    returned to Missouri
    1854 sued in federal court for
    believed since had lived in free territory, should be free
    federal court ruled against him
    Appealed to Supreme Court
    ruled against him
    since not a citizen, did not have right to use court system
    living in free state does not make him free
  • Dred_Scott_Case_1min19sec
  • Harpers Ferry
    Abolitionist John Brown planned insurrection
    Help slaves break free from masters
    Needed weapons to give to slaves
    Oct. 16, 1859 led a band of men into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    goal to seize the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising
    Federal troops put down rebellion
    authorities tried Brown and sentenced to death by hanging
  • Harpers Ferry cont’d
    Effects:
    Strengthened abolitionists feeling in North
    Boosted abolitionist movement
    Turning point for South
    Viewed as proof Northerners were plotting to murder slave holders
    Caused South to plan for war
  • Lincoln Elected President
    1860 Presidential election
    Abraham Lincoln, Republican candidate
    pledge to halt the further spread of slavery
    reassured the Southerners that he would not “interfere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves”
    Viewed as enemy by many Southerners
    Lincoln’s victory leads to Southern secession
    less than half the popular votes
    no electoral votes from the South
    saw his victory as a loss of political voice in national gov’t
  • Secession
    South Carolina seceded Dec. 20, 1860
    Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
    Formed the Confederate States of America
    Jefferson Davis elected President
    Fort Sumter, South Carolina
    Confederacy demanded Union troops leave fort
    Confederates attacked fort April 1861
    forced Union to surrender
    marks beginning of Civil War
  • Significant Battles
    First Battle of Bull Run
    Significance
    Made it clear North needed large, well-trained army to defeat the South
  • Significant Battles
    Antietam
    Significance
    Bloodiest 1-day battle in American History; convinced Lincoln time had come to end slavery
  • Significant Battles
    Vicksburg
    Significance
    Cut the Confederacy in two
  • Significant Battles
    Gettysburg
    Significance
    Turning point in East; Union victory ensured Britain not recognize Confederacy as nation
  • Emancipation Proclamation
    Sept 1862 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
    Freed all enslaved persons in states still at war with the Union after Jan 1, 1863
    Only applied to those states within Confederacy
    Border states could still have slaves
    Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware were slave states that remained in the Union
    Proclamation gave war moral purpose
    Moving away from secession issues to a war to free slaves
  • The War Ends
    April 9, 1865
    Confederate General Robert E. Lee
    surrendered to
    Union General Ulysses S. Grant
    at Appomattox Courthouse
  • Civil War Amendments(Civil Rights Amendments)
    Thirteenth Amendment - abolished slavery
    Fourteenth Amendment – granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”
    Fifteenth Amendment – granted suffrage (voting rights) to African American males
  • Reconstruction
    Rebuilding of the South
    Physically, economically, politically
    Military districts were created to help bring order to South
    Southern states had to write new constitution and ratify 14th Amendment before allowed back in Union
    South could never return to pre-Civil War status
  • Cause and Effects of Civil War
    Conflicts over slavery issues
    Economic differences between North and South
    Election of Lincoln
    Secession of Southern states
    Attack on Ft. Sumter
    Abolishment of slavery
    Reconstruction of the South
    Nation reunited
    Civil Rights laws passed