Characteristics of the Antebellum South1. Primarily agrarian.2. Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.”3. “Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports).4. Very slow development of industrialization.5. Rudimentary financial system.6. Inadequate transportation system.
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
Quilt Patterns as Secret MessagesThe Monkey Wrench pattern, on theleft, alerted escapees to gather up toolsand prepare to flee; the Drunkard Pathdesign, on the right, warned escapees notto follow a straight route.
Slave Rebellions in the•Nat TurnerRebellion Antebellum South:•lead by slave Nat Turner, 1831preacher NatTurner, a groupof 50-60 slavessystematicallyrevolted andkilled whites inVirginia•Fueled fears ofa slave uprising
The 2ndGreatAwakeningHowReligionlead to ashift insociety…
The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.R1-1 -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
Second Great Awake “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance *Abolitionism* Education Asylum & Women’s Penal Reform Rights
Second Great Awakening • As a result of the Second Great Awakening (a series of revivals starting in the 1790s-early 1800s), the dominant form of Christianity in America became evangelical Protestantism • Membership in the major Protestant churches— Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist— soared • By 1840 an estimated half of the adult population was connected to some church, with the Methodists emerging as the largest denomination in both the North and the South
•Anti-Alcohol movement•American Temperance Society formed at Boston-----1826 • sign pledges, pamphlets, anti-alcohol tract 10 nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There •stressed temperance and individual will to resist
The Temperance Movement• During the next decadeapproximately 5000 local temperance societies were founded• As the movement gained momentum, annual per capita consumption of alcohol dropped sharply
The Drunkard’s ProgressFrom the first glass to the grave, 1846
Educational ReformIn 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community funds Middle-class reformers called for tax- supported education, arguing to business leaders that the new economic order needed educated workers By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites. *US had one of the highest literacy rates*
Educational Reform “Father ofAmerican Education” Under Horace Mann’s leadership in the 1830s, Massachusetts created a state board of education and adopted a minimum- length school year. Provided for training of teachers, and expanded the curriculum to include subjects such as history and geography
The Asylum Movement• Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating state supported asylums for the mentally ill• She attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjected – being chained, kept in cages and closets, and beaten with rods• In response to her efforts, 28 states maintained mental institutions by 1860
The Asylum Movement (orphanages, jails, hospitals)• Asylums isolated and separated the criminal, the insane, the ill, and the dependent from outside society• “Rehabilitation” – The goal of care in asylums, which had focused on confinement, shifted to the reform of personal character
Abolitionism • William Lloyd Garrison, publisher of the The Liberator, first appeared in 1831 and sent shock waves across the entire country – He repudiated gradual emancipation and embraced immediate end to slavery at once – He advocated racial equality and argued that slaveholders should not be compensated for freeing slaves.
Abolitionism• Free blacks, such as Frederick Douglass, who had escaped from slavery in Maryland, also joined the abolitionist movement• To abolitionists, slavery was a moral, not an economic question• But most of all, abolitionists denounced slavery as contrary to Christian teaching• 1845 --> The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass• 1847 --> “The North Star”
Sojourner Truth (1787- 1883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 --> The Narrative of Sojourner Truth a former slave who lived in Florence, MA in the mid-1800′s, was a nationally known advocate for equality and justice.R2-10
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. • $40,000 bounty on her head. • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Conductor” ==== leader of the escape “Passengers” ==== escaping slaves “Tracks” ==== routes “Trains” ==== farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves “Moses” “Depots” ==== safe houses to rest/sleep
Antebellum Women-1. Unableearly 1800s to vote.2. Legal status of a minor.3. Single --> could own her own property.4. Married --> no control over her property or her children.5. Could not initiate divorce.6. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
“Separate Spheres” Concept Republican Motherhood evolved into the “Cult of Domesticity”• A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside).• Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family.• An 1830s MA minister:The power of woman is her dependence. A womanwho gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
Cult of Domesticity = The 2 Slavery nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Lucy Stone Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké American Women’s Suffrage Assoc. Southern Abolitionists who also edited Woman’s JournalR2-9 fought for women’s rights
Women’s Rights MovementWhen abolitionists divided over the issue of female participation, women found iteasy to identify with the situation of the slaves 1848: Feminist reform led to Seneca Falls Convention Significance: launched modern women’s rights movement Established the arguments and theprogram for the women’s rights movement for the remainder of the century
What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
Women’s Rights Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
The first Woman’s rights movement was in Seneca Falls, New York in 1849……•Educational and professional opportunities•Property rights•Legal equality•repeal of laws awarding the father custody ofthe children in divorce.•Suffrage rights
1830’s to 1900’s •Elizabeth Cady Stanton •Susan B. Anthony •Women’s rights reformers •citizenship •right to vote •education •Supported the abolition of slaveryPicture/Anthony & Stanton
Possible DBQ/FR:“Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals.” Assess (evaluate, judge or appraise) the validity (strength or soundness) of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825 to 1850.