SouthernPopulation-   1820
Growhosa ry    t f l ve
Growhosa ry    t f l ve
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Characteristics of    the Antebellum         South1. Primarily agrarian.2. Economic power shifted from the   “upper South”...
Slaves Picking Cotton   on a Mississippi     Plantation
Slaves Using the Cotton          Gin
Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports    How does this foreshadow the    Civil War?
Slave Auction Notice, 1823
Slave Auction: Charleston,          SC-1856
Slave Accoutrements                            Slave                            leg                            irons      ...
Anti-Slave Pamphlet
Slave Resistance2. Refusal to work hard.3. Isolated acts of sabotage.4. Escape via the Underground Railroad.
Runaway Slave Ads
Quilt Patterns as Secret        MessagesThe Monkey Wrench pattern, on theleft, alerted escapees to gather up toolsand prep...
Slave Rebellions in the•Nat TurnerRebellion   Antebellum South:•lead by slave       Nat Turner,                   1831prea...
The 2ndGreatAwakeningHowReligionlead to ashift insociety…
Second Great Awakening    Revival Meeting
The Rise of Popular Religion       In France, I had almost always seen       the spirit of religion and the spirit of     ...
Second Great Awake               “Spiritual Reform From Within”                       [Religious Revivalism]          Soci...
Second Great Awakening • As a result of the Second Great Awakening (a series   of revivals starting in the 1790s-early 180...
•Anti-Alcohol movement•American Temperance Society formed at Boston-----1826      • sign pledges, pamphlets, anti-alcohol ...
The Temperance           Movement• During the next       decadeapproximately 5000 local temperance   societies were      f...
The Drunkard’s ProgressFrom the first glass to the grave, 1846
Educational ReformIn 1800 Massachusetts   was the only state requiring free public schools supported by   community funds ...
Educational Reform    “Father ofAmerican Education”   Under Horace Mann’s                      leadership in the 1830s,  ...
The Asylum     Movement• Dorothea Dix, a Boston  schoolteacher, took the lead  in advocating state supported asylums  for ...
The Asylum Movement (orphanages, jails, hospitals)• Asylums isolated and  separated the  criminal, the insane, the  ill, a...
Dorothea Dix Asylum -        1849
Abolitionism • William Lloyd   Garrison, publisher of the   The Liberator, first appeared   in 1831 and sent shock   waves...
The LiberatorPremiere issue  January 1, 1831
Abolitionism• Free blacks, such as Frederick  Douglass, who had escaped from slavery  in Maryland, also joined the aboliti...
Sojourner Truth (1787-            1883)         or Isabella Baumfree  1850 --> The Narrative of Sojourner Truth      a for...
Harriet Tubman  (1820-1913)    • Helped over 300 slaves      to freedom.    • $40,000 bounty on her      head.    • Served...
Antebellum Women-1. Unableearly 1800s          to vote.2. Legal status of a minor.3. Single --> could own her own   proper...
“Separate Spheres” Concept    Republican Motherhood evolved    into the “Cult of Domesticity”• A woman’s “sphere” was in t...
Cult of Domesticity =       The   2                       Slavery              nd Great Awakening inspired women       to ...
Women’s Rights MovementWhen abolitionists divided over the issue of female participation, women found iteasy to identify w...
What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own         Way!                           R2-8
Women’s Rights      Lucretia Mott        Elizabeth Cady Stanton1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
The first Woman’s rights   movement was in Seneca Falls,          New York in 1849……•Educational and professional opportun...
1830’s to 1900’s       •Elizabeth Cady Stanton       •Susan B. Anthony       •Women’s rights reformers           •citizens...
Possible DBQ/FR:“Reform movements in the United States   sought to expand democratic ideals.”   Assess (evaluate, judge or...
Ch5 6 antebellum age ap only
Ch5 6 antebellum age ap only
Ch5 6 antebellum age ap only
Ch5 6 antebellum age ap only
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Ch5 6 antebellum age ap only

  1. 1. SouthernPopulation- 1820
  2. 2. Growhosa ry t f l ve
  3. 3. Growhosa ry t f l ve
  4. 4. Missouri Compromise, 1820
  5. 5. Characteristics of the Antebellum South1. Primarily agrarian.2. Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.”3. “Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports).4. Very slow development of industrialization.5. Rudimentary financial system.6. Inadequate transportation system.
  6. 6. Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
  7. 7. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
  8. 8. Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports How does this foreshadow the Civil War?
  9. 9. Slave Auction Notice, 1823
  10. 10. Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
  11. 11. Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave Master BrandsSlave muzzle Slave tag, SC
  12. 12. Anti-Slave Pamphlet
  13. 13. Slave Resistance2. Refusal to work hard.3. Isolated acts of sabotage.4. Escape via the Underground Railroad.
  14. 14. Runaway Slave Ads
  15. 15. Quilt Patterns as Secret MessagesThe Monkey Wrench pattern, on theleft, alerted escapees to gather up toolsand prepare to flee; the Drunkard Pathdesign, on the right, warned escapees notto follow a straight route.
  16. 16. Slave Rebellions in the•Nat TurnerRebellion Antebellum South:•lead by slave Nat Turner, 1831preacher NatTurner, a groupof 50-60 slavessystematicallyrevolted andkilled whites inVirginia•Fueled fears ofa slave uprising
  17. 17. The 2ndGreatAwakeningHowReligionlead to ashift insociety…
  18. 18. Second Great Awakening Revival Meeting
  19. 19. The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.R1-1 -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
  20. 20. Second Great Awake “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance *Abolitionism* Education Asylum & Women’s Penal Reform Rights
  21. 21. Second Great Awakening • As a result of the Second Great Awakening (a series of revivals starting in the 1790s-early 1800s), the dominant form of Christianity in America became evangelical Protestantism • Membership in the major Protestant churches— Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist— soared • By 1840 an estimated half of the adult population was connected to some church, with the Methodists emerging as the largest denomination in both the North and the South
  22. 22. •Anti-Alcohol movement•American Temperance Society formed at Boston-----1826 • sign pledges, pamphlets, anti-alcohol tract 10 nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There •stressed temperance and individual will to resist
  23. 23. The Temperance Movement• During the next decadeapproximately 5000 local temperance societies were founded• As the movement gained momentum, annual per capita consumption of alcohol dropped sharply
  24. 24. The Drunkard’s ProgressFrom the first glass to the grave, 1846
  25. 25. Educational ReformIn 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community funds Middle-class reformers called for tax- supported education, arguing to business leaders that the new economic order needed educated workers By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites. *US had one of the highest literacy rates*
  26. 26. Educational Reform “Father ofAmerican Education” Under Horace Mann’s leadership in the 1830s, Massachusetts created a state board of education and adopted a minimum- length school year. Provided for training of teachers, and expanded the curriculum to include subjects such as history and geography
  27. 27. The Asylum Movement• Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating state supported asylums for the mentally ill• She attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjected – being chained, kept in cages and closets, and beaten with rods• In response to her efforts, 28 states maintained mental institutions by 1860
  28. 28. The Asylum Movement (orphanages, jails, hospitals)• Asylums isolated and separated the criminal, the insane, the ill, and the dependent from outside society• “Rehabilitation” – The goal of care in asylums, which had focused on confinement, shifted to the reform of personal character
  29. 29. Dorothea Dix Asylum - 1849
  30. 30. Abolitionism • William Lloyd Garrison, publisher of the The Liberator, first appeared in 1831 and sent shock waves across the entire country – He repudiated gradual emancipation and embraced immediate end to slavery at once – He advocated racial equality and argued that slaveholders should not be compensated for freeing slaves.
  31. 31. The LiberatorPremiere issue  January 1, 1831
  32. 32. Abolitionism• Free blacks, such as Frederick Douglass, who had escaped from slavery in Maryland, also joined the abolitionist movement• To abolitionists, slavery was a moral, not an economic question• But most of all, abolitionists denounced slavery as contrary to Christian teaching• 1845 --> The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass• 1847 --> “The North Star”
  33. 33. Sojourner Truth (1787- 1883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 --> The Narrative of Sojourner Truth a former slave who lived in Florence, MA in the mid-1800′s, was a nationally known advocate for equality and justice.R2-10
  34. 34. Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom. • $40,000 bounty on her head. • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Conductor” ==== leader of the escape “Passengers” ==== escaping slaves “Tracks” ==== routes “Trains” ==== farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves “Moses” “Depots” ==== safe houses to rest/sleep
  35. 35. Antebellum Women-1. Unableearly 1800s to vote.2. Legal status of a minor.3. Single --> could own her own property.4. Married --> no control over her property or her children.5. Could not initiate divorce.6. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
  36. 36. “Separate Spheres” Concept Republican Motherhood evolved into the “Cult of Domesticity”• A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside).• Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family.• An 1830s MA minister:The power of woman is her dependence. A womanwho gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
  37. 37. Cult of Domesticity = The 2 Slavery nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Lucy Stone Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké  American Women’s Suffrage Assoc.  Southern Abolitionists who also  edited Woman’s JournalR2-9 fought for women’s rights
  38. 38. Women’s Rights MovementWhen abolitionists divided over the issue of female participation, women found iteasy to identify with the situation of the slaves 1848: Feminist reform led to Seneca Falls Convention Significance: launched modern women’s rights movement Established the arguments and theprogram for the women’s rights movement for the remainder of the century
  39. 39. What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
  40. 40. Women’s Rights Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton1848 --> Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
  41. 41. The first Woman’s rights movement was in Seneca Falls, New York in 1849……•Educational and professional opportunities•Property rights•Legal equality•repeal of laws awarding the father custody ofthe children in divorce.•Suffrage rights
  42. 42. 1830’s to 1900’s •Elizabeth Cady Stanton •Susan B. Anthony •Women’s rights reformers •citizenship •right to vote •education •Supported the abolition of slaveryPicture/Anthony & Stanton
  43. 43. Possible DBQ/FR:“Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals.” Assess (evaluate, judge or appraise) the validity (strength or soundness) of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825 to 1850.

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