Imperialism….how the U.S. acquired territoriesImperialism: the economic andpolitical domination by a strong nation OVER a weaker nation
The Need for More MarketsProductivity created surpluses Export to foreign markets Spurring of US expansionismAcquisition of new lands Increase American glory and prestige Led to growing involvement in Latin America and Hawaii and Samoa
Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Commercial Business InterestsAmerican Foreign Trade: 1870-1914
2. Military/Strategic Interests Have a two ocean navy Modernize our navy, from wood to Steel. Acquire possessions in the Pacific for use as coaling and resupplying stations. Acquire islands in the Caribbean. Build a canal in Central America. Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
Henry Cabot Lodge“Our BlunderingForeign Policy,”(March 1895) “Small states are of the past and have no future. . . . The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth. It is a movement which makes for civilization and the advancement o the race. As one of the great nations of the world, the United states must not fall out of the line of march.”
Hawaiian Queen LiliuokalaniHawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff 1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898Annex: To incorporateinto country/state
Annexation of Alaska:“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
CubaCuba under harsh Spanish ruleSeen as natural expansion for US territoryUS imposed sugar tariff caused economicchaosCuban rebels launched revolution againstSpain Caused economy to fall apart Massive destruction of countrysideAmerican concerns rose $50 million invested in sugar industry Exports to US plummeted
Spanish-American War 1898 REMEMBER USS Maine in Havana Harbor THE Exploded February 1898 MAINE!!! Spanish blamed, although was determined an accident (YELLOW JOURNALISM: exaggeration of conditions by the U.S. press in order to sell more newspapers) US troops sent in Battle of San Juan Hill Theodore Roosevelt and Rough Riders First and last major battle Treaty of Paris Cuba gained independence US acquired Guam and Puerto Rico and purchased Philippines
“Yellow Journalism” & JingoismJoseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!William Randolph Hearst
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
The Treaty of Paris: 1898Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.The U. S. paid Spain$20 mil. for thePhilippines.The U. S. becomesan imperial power!
Cuban Independence?Started as Teller Amendment (1898) Senator Orville PlattPlatt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905“Speak softly and carry a bigstick”Roosevelt Corollary to theMonroe Doctrine Asserted right of US to act as international police power in Latin AmericaChronic wrongdoing… may in America, aselsewhere, ultimately require intervention bysome civilized nation, and in the WesternHemisphere the adherence of the UnitedStates to the Monroe Doctrine may forcethe United States, however reluctantly, inflagrant cases of such wrongdoing orimpotence, to the exercise of aninternational police power .
Panama Canal TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty signed with Great Britain gave US exclusive right to build and control any proposed canal through Central America
US assisted with presence-only inPanama’s fight for independenceUS recognized Panama as independentnation Signed treaty to build canalViewed construction of canal throughCentral America as vital to American worldpower**opened up Asia as efficient tradingmarket… MORE $$$**
William H. Taft’s Policy “Dollar Diplomacy” Encourage US businesses to invest in foreign regions Use dollars—not bullets—to advance US authority and prosperity while promoting worldwide economic stability
Woodrow Wilson US should champion democracy around globe and help maintain world peace “Moral Diplomacy”— self-determination Allowed US to meddle in Latin America and Asia
Understanding ImperialismIndustrial Revolution surplus products export goods foreign trade (expansion of economic markets)Cuba—area of expansionism for many US businesses;sought independence from Spain;Explosion of U.S.S. Maine led to Spanish-AmericanWar Cuban independence and US gained PuertoRico, Guam, Philippines thus becoming imperial nation