Eugene Debs, theSocialist leader,was alsoimprisoned forcriticizing the war.
Federal Bureau ofInvestigation, wascreated to preventradicals from takingover
Palmer Raids in early 1920:the government abandonedall pretext of respecting civilliberties as its agents raidedunion halls, pool halls, socialclubs, and residences toarrest 4,000 suspectedradicals
Committee on PublicInformation created theimage of the Germans ascold-blooded, baby-killing, power-hungryHuns
Americans rejected allthings German; forexample, they changedthe name ofsauerkraut to "libertycabbage."
New opportunities for womenSouthern blacks, realizingthat wartimemanufacturing wascreating jobs in the North,migrated to the big cities
coincided with the"return tonormalcy" promisedin the 1920 electionby Warren G.Harding
Normalcy in businessmeant a laissez-faireattitudepro-businessattitude
(1)passing the Fordney-McCumberTariff, (2) in promoting foreigntrade through providing huge loansto the postwar Allied governmentswho returned the favor by buyingU.S.-produced goods andfoodstuffs, and (3) by crackingdown on strikes
Once the war was over,farmers were left with surplusgoods… lobbied for the federalgovernment to buy theexcess
Coolidge vetoed the bill twice1929, Congress establishedthe Farm Board to buysurpluses and maintainprices, but farmerscontinued to grow as muchas they wanted
Harding administration isremembered for its scandalsTeapot Dome Scandalreserve land with rich oildeposits had been set asideunder the jurisdiction of theNavy Department
… involved a memberof Hardings cabinet,two oil speculators,and large bribes toopen the reserve fordrilling.
Twenties was also knownas the Jazz AgeThe Great Migration hadtransformed parts ofsome Northern citiesinto all-blackneighborhoods
flowering of African-American culture calledthe Harlem RenaissanceHarlem attracted African-Americanwriters, artists, andmusicians from around thenation to what was knownas the New Negro Movement.
Henry Ford perfected the assemblyline and mass production, whichlowered the cost of automobilesallowed those who workedin the cities to move fartheraway from citycenters, thus giving birth tothe suburbs
radio followed automobiles inchanging the nations cultureAs more houses gainedaccess to electricpower, householdappliance sales boomed
Check your notesfor handout re.The GreatDepression andnew deal
Herbert Hoover tookoffice in 1928Lots of speculation inthe stock market.But that was just oneof a number ofproblems.
Among the weaknessesin the U.S. economy(1) the amount of stockbeing bought on margin;(2) depressedagricultural prices
(3) the unequaldistribution of wealth5 percent of thepopulation provided thenations invest-mentcapital and the majorityof its purchasing power
(4) the tax policies thatcontributed to theunequal distribution ofwealth;(5) the expansion ofbusinesses
(6) easy-to-getinstallment credit(7) the size andinfluence on segmentsof the economy ofholding companies
(8) the weakness of thebanking system because ofmany small and mismanagedbanks(9) high tariffs that closedoff foreign markets
(10) the Alliesinsistence on collectingwar debts thatdepressed foreigntrade, especially forU.S. foodstuffs
Overproduction andunderconsumption joinedto create financialproblems for businessesthat now foundthemselves with surplusinventory and their ownloans to meet.
By the fall of 1929, morethan $7 billion had beenborrowed to buy stocks onmarginmany stocks werehugely overvalued
Professionalspeculators beganto cash out of themarket inSeptember
After the Crashmany stocks were worthlessPeople lost their life savingsBanks foreclosed onloans and mortgages
When theirborrowers could notrepay their loans, thebanks went under
Businesses wentbankrupt as inventoriespiled up
Hoover believedthe Depressionwould be short-lived
He authorized the fundingof the Home Loan BankAct and the ReconstructionFinance CorporationHoover believed …
(1)helping the unemployed wasthe responsibility ofchurches, private agencies, andlocal and state governments(2) that giving a handout to theunemployed would destroytheir self-respect andindividual initiative
(3) that a federal reliefprogram would bankrupt thenation(4) that a federal relief programwould dangerously enlarge thepower of the federalgovernment and create abloated bureaucracy
Farmers organized farmcommittees to preventcreditors from foreclosingon their neighbors1932, some twenty thousandunemployed veterans descendedon Washington, D.C., demandingpayment of bonus not due until1945
Shots werethe capitalHoover dispatched firedpolice to remove the veteransGeneral DouglasMacArthur, who had beentold to stand ready in case oftrouble, ordered troops andtanks into the fray
KEY PEOPLE and termsRomare Bearden,Sargent Johnson,Augusta Savage
expatriates, "lostgeneration,"alienation, ErnestHeminway, F. ScottFitzgerald, GertrudeStein
Billie Holiday,Duke Ellington,Jelly Roll Morton,Bessie Smith,William Grant Still
LangstonHughes, CounteeCullen, Zora NealeHurston, JamesWeldon Johnson
Andrew Mellon, cutexcess profitstax, tax the poorrather than therich to stimulateinvestment