6 twentieth century-to_wwii-6


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6 twentieth century-to_wwii-6

  2. 2. THE PROGRESSIVE ERA AND WORLD WAR I H/O(1900-1920)Two handouts
  3. 3. Populists successes inboth local andnational electionsencouraged others toseek change throughpolitical action
  4. 4. Poor farmers’ dailystruggle to make aliving made politicalactivity difficult, so …Progressives cameto dominate
  5. 5. Progressives achievedgreater success in partbecause theirs was anurban, middle-classmovement
  6. 6. Started with moreeconomic andpolitical clout thanthe Populists
  7. 7. Progressivescould devotemore time tothe causes
  8. 8. Progressives wereNorthern and middleclass, so the Progressivemovement did notintensify regional andclass differences
  9. 9. Roots ofProgressivism lay inthe growing numberof associations andorganizations
  10. 10. e.g.National Woman SuffrageAssociation, the AmericanBar Association, and theNational MunicipalLeague are some of themany groups
  11. 11. Members wereeducated and middleclassfurther boost from agroup of journalistsdubbed "muckrakers"
  12. 12. Revealed widespreadcorruption in urbanmanagementProgressives achievedgreat successes
  13. 13. Du Bois headed the NationalAssociation for theAdvancement of ColoredPeople (NAACP)After a lifelong struggle, DuBois abandoned the UnitedStates and moved to Africa
  14. 14. Robert LaFollette ledthe way for manyProgressivesMost prominentProgressive: TheodoreRoosevelt
  15. 15. Presidents Taft andWilson continuedto promoteProgressive ideals
  16. 16. Progressivismlasted until the endof World War I
  17. 17. War had torn apartthe Progressivecoalition; pacifistProgressives opposedthe war while otherssupported it
  18. 18. Red Scare, heightened bythe Russian Revolutionfurther split theProgressive coalition bydividing the leftists fromthe moderates
  19. 19. achieved many of its goalsProgressive movementwas brought to anend, at least in part, byits own success.
  21. 21. Roosevelt was aneven more devoutimperialist thanMcKinley had been
  22. 22. strong-armedCuba intoaccepting thePlatt Amendment
  23. 23. Roosevelts actionswere equallyinterventionistthroughout CentralAmerica
  24. 24. Country set its sights onbuilding a canal throughthe Central Americanisthmus
  25. 25. American foreignpolicy continued toadhere to theMonroe Doctrine
  26. 26. Wilson won the election of1912, a three way race inwhich the third partycandidate, TheodoreRoosevelt, outpolledTaft, the Republicanincumbent
  27. 27. When war broke out inEurope in August 1914,Wilson immediatelydeclared the U.S. policyof neutrality H/O WW I
  28. 28. Owing to Americas closerelationship with England andrelatively distant relationshipwith Germany and Austria-Hungary a number of Wilsonsadvisors openly favored theAllies
  29. 29. Englands superior navyallowed it to impose ablockade on shipmentsheaded for Germany(namely, Americanshipments).
  30. 30. The British governmentconfiscated American ships.They then paid for the cargo,reducing the pressure thatAmerican merchants wouldotherwise have put on the U.S.government to take action
  31. 31. Germanyattempted tocounter theblockade withsubmarines
  32. 32. When the Germansattacked civilianships, it was usuallybecause those shipswere carrying militarysupplies
  33. 33. Germansubmarines sankthe passenger shipLusitania in 1915
  34. 34. In 1916, while Wilsonwas campaigning forreelection on the slogan"He kept us out ofwar," Germany sankanother passenger liner
  35. 35. Popular supportfor entry into warwas beginning togrow. H/O Home Front
  36. 36. 1917 the Britishintercepted atelegram fromGerman ForeignMinister Zimmerman
  37. 37. Telegram convincedmany Americansthat Germany wastrying to take overthe world
  39. 39. Governmentspower expandedgreatly
  40. 40. Government tookcontrol of thetelephone, telegraph, and rail industries
  41. 41. Curtailedindividual civil liberties
  42. 42. Still -sizableopposition to U.S.involvement
  43. 43. Espionage Act in1917 and theSedition Act in1918
  44. 44. Americans beganto fear aCommunisttakeover
  45. 45. Radical laborunions, such as theInternational Workersof the World, werebranded enemies of thestate
  46. 46. Unions lostpower
  47. 47. Eugene Debs, theSocialist leader,was alsoimprisoned forcriticizing the war.
  48. 48. Federal Bureau ofInvestigation, wascreated to preventradicals from takingover
  49. 49. Palmer Raids in early 1920:the government abandonedall pretext of respecting civilliberties as its agents raidedunion halls, pool halls, socialclubs, and residences toarrest 4,000 suspectedradicals
  50. 50. Committee on PublicInformation created theimage of the Germans ascold-blooded, baby-killing, power-hungryHuns
  51. 51. Americans rejected allthings German; forexample, they changedthe name ofsauerkraut to "libertycabbage."
  52. 52. New opportunities for womenSouthern blacks, realizingthat wartimemanufacturing wascreating jobs in the North,migrated to the big cities
  53. 53. H/OWinning the peacehandout
  54. 54. Two years after Americasentry, the Germans were ready tonegotiate a peace treatyWilson wanted thewar treaty to beguided by hisFourteen Points
  55. 55. The EuropeanAllies wanted apeace settlementthat punishedGermany
  56. 56. The Senate rejectedthe treaty andAmericanparticipation in theLeague of Nations
  57. 57. America wasreceding into aperiod ofisolationism
  58. 58. TheRoaringTwenties
  59. 59. coincided with the"return tonormalcy" promisedin the 1920 electionby Warren G.Harding
  60. 60. Normalcy in businessmeant a laissez-faireattitudepro-businessattitude
  61. 61. (1)passing the Fordney-McCumberTariff, (2) in promoting foreigntrade through providing huge loansto the postwar Allied governmentswho returned the favor by buyingU.S.-produced goods andfoodstuffs, and (3) by crackingdown on strikes
  62. 62. Once the war was over,farmers were left with surplusgoods… lobbied for the federalgovernment to buy theexcess
  63. 63. Coolidge vetoed the bill twice1929, Congress establishedthe Farm Board to buysurpluses and maintainprices, but farmerscontinued to grow as muchas they wanted
  64. 64. Harding administration isremembered for its scandalsTeapot Dome Scandalreserve land with rich oildeposits had been set asideunder the jurisdiction of theNavy Department
  65. 65. … involved a memberof Hardings cabinet,two oil speculators,and large bribes toopen the reserve fordrilling.
  66. 66. Twenties was also knownas the Jazz AgeThe Great Migration hadtransformed parts ofsome Northern citiesinto all-blackneighborhoods
  67. 67. flowering of African-American culture calledthe Harlem RenaissanceHarlem attracted African-Americanwriters, artists, andmusicians from around thenation to what was knownas the New Negro Movement.
  68. 68. Henry Ford perfected the assemblyline and mass production, whichlowered the cost of automobilesallowed those who workedin the cities to move fartheraway from citycenters, thus giving birth tothe suburbs
  69. 69. radio followed automobiles inchanging the nations cultureAs more houses gainedaccess to electricpower, householdappliance sales boomed
  70. 70. advertisingindustry grewup during thedecade
  71. 71. Temperance MovementBy 1917, two thirds ofthe states had passedlaws prohibiting theconsumption of alcohol
  72. 72. With the entrance ofthe United States intoWorld War Iprohibitionist forcescloaked themselves inthe mantle ofpatriotism
  73. 73. (1) prohibition would shiftthousands of tons of grainfrom liquor manufacture towar uses; (2) alcoholism ledto drunkenness, and adrunken man was of no useto the war effort;
  74. 74. and (3) most breweries andwhiskey distilleries wereowned by Germans. In1917, Congress passed theEighteenthAmendment, and thestates ratified it by 1919.
  75. 75. The large-scale manufactureand smuggling of alcoholbecame the business oforganized crimeProhibition wasrepealed in 1933.
  76. 76. red scare at the end of waralso resulted in legislationrestricting immigration1921, the ImmigrationRestriction Act waspassed and in 1924, theNational Origins Act
  77. 77. aimed at restrictingimmigrants fromsouthern andcentral Europe andAsia
  78. 78. resurgence of the KuKlux KlanAnti-Catholic sentimentwas a factor in the 1928election Al Smith lost.
  79. 79. Smith had other liabilities. Hewas a product of the New YorkCity machineHoover ran on his recordof public service and onRepublican prosperity
  81. 81. Check your notesfor handout re.The GreatDepression andnew deal
  82. 82. Herbert Hoover tookoffice in 1928Lots of speculation inthe stock market.But that was just oneof a number ofproblems.
  83. 83. Among the weaknessesin the U.S. economy(1) the amount of stockbeing bought on margin;(2) depressedagricultural prices
  84. 84. (3) the unequaldistribution of wealth5 percent of thepopulation provided thenations invest-mentcapital and the majorityof its purchasing power
  85. 85. (4) the tax policies thatcontributed to theunequal distribution ofwealth;(5) the expansion ofbusinesses
  86. 86. (6) easy-to-getinstallment credit(7) the size andinfluence on segmentsof the economy ofholding companies
  87. 87. (8) the weakness of thebanking system because ofmany small and mismanagedbanks(9) high tariffs that closedoff foreign markets
  88. 88. (10) the Alliesinsistence on collectingwar debts thatdepressed foreigntrade, especially forU.S. foodstuffs
  89. 89. Overproduction andunderconsumption joinedto create financialproblems for businessesthat now foundthemselves with surplusinventory and their ownloans to meet.
  90. 90. By the fall of 1929, morethan $7 billion had beenborrowed to buy stocks onmarginmany stocks werehugely overvalued
  91. 91. Professionalspeculators beganto cash out of themarket inSeptember
  92. 92. After the Crashmany stocks were worthlessPeople lost their life savingsBanks foreclosed onloans and mortgages
  93. 93. When theirborrowers could notrepay their loans, thebanks went under
  94. 94. Businesses wentbankrupt as inventoriespiled up
  95. 95. Hoover believedthe Depressionwould be short-lived
  96. 96. He authorized the fundingof the Home Loan BankAct and the ReconstructionFinance CorporationHoover believed …
  97. 97. (1)helping the unemployed wasthe responsibility ofchurches, private agencies, andlocal and state governments(2) that giving a handout to theunemployed would destroytheir self-respect andindividual initiative
  98. 98. (3) that a federal reliefprogram would bankrupt thenation(4) that a federal relief programwould dangerously enlarge thepower of the federalgovernment and create abloated bureaucracy
  99. 99. Farmers organized farmcommittees to preventcreditors from foreclosingon their neighbors1932, some twenty thousandunemployed veterans descendedon Washington, D.C., demandingpayment of bonus not due until1945
  100. 100. Shots werethe capitalHoover dispatched firedpolice to remove the veteransGeneral DouglasMacArthur, who had beentold to stand ready in case oftrouble, ordered troops andtanks into the fray
  101. 101. KEY PEOPLE and termsRomare Bearden,Sargent Johnson,Augusta Savage
  102. 102. expatriates, "lostgeneration,"alienation, ErnestHeminway, F. ScottFitzgerald, GertrudeStein
  103. 103. Billie Holiday,Duke Ellington,Jelly Roll Morton,Bessie Smith,William Grant Still
  104. 104. LangstonHughes, CounteeCullen, Zora NealeHurston, JamesWeldon Johnson
  105. 105. Andrew Mellon, cutexcess profitstax, tax the poorrather than therich to stimulateinvestment
  106. 106. KEY TERMS/IDEASanti-Semitism,consumer culture:theautomobile, radio,movies, sports
  107. 107. Sacco-Vanzetti case,Scopes trial,evolution, WilliamJennings Bryan,religiousfundamentalism
  108. 108. H/OHandout for the GreatDepression and NewDeal
  109. 109. THE NEW DEAL "The only thing we haveto fear is fear itself-nameless, unreasoning,unjustified fear."
  110. 110. Roosevelt summoned anemergency session of CongressThe period thatfollowed is often calledthe First Hundred Days
  111. 111. It was during this timethat the governmentimplemented most of themajor programs associatedwith the First New DealConsult your text and notes forprogram details
  112. 112. The First New Deal was an immediate success In the midterm elections of1934, the Democratsincreased their majorities inboth houses.
  113. 113. Emergency BankingRelief Billfireside chatsAmerican banks, onceon the verge of ruin,were again healthy
  114. 114. Banking Act of1933, which createdthe Federal DepositInsuranceCorporation (FDIC)
  115. 115. Agricultural Adjustment ActPaid farmers to cut productionFarm Credit Act Provided loans
  116. 116. New Deal programsestablishedgovernment controlover industry
  117. 117. National IndustrialRecovery Act (NIRA)consolidated businesses andcoordinated their activities
  118. 118. Public WorksAdministration (PWA)created jobs buildingroads, sewers, publichousing units, etc.
  119. 119. Civilian ConservationCorps (CCC)provided grants to thestates to manage their ownPWA-like projects
  120. 120. Tennessee ValleyAuthority (TVA)provided energy to theTennessee Valley region
  121. 121. Conservatives opposed thehigher tax rates that theNew Dealdisliked the increase ingovernment power overbusiness
  122. 122. deficit spending wasalso anathema toconservatives
  123. 123. Leftists complained that theAAA policy of paying farmersnot to grow was immoralfelt that governmentpolicy toward businesseswas too favorable
  124. 124. the left blamedcorporate greedfor the Depression
  125. 125. Socialists and theCommunist Party of Americawere gaining popularityCalled for thenationalization ofbusiness
  126. 126. 1935, the SupremeCourt started todismantle some of theprograms
  127. 127. declared the NIRA illegal invalidated the AAARoosevelt respondedwith a package oflegislation called theSecond New Deal
  128. 128. THE SECOND NEW DEALH/O You should have a handout
  129. 129. created the Works Progress Administration (WPA)broadened the powers ofthe NLRBcreated the SocialSecurity Administration
  131. 131. Consult your“alphabet soup”worksheet
  133. 133. After World WarI, American foreignpolicy objectives aimedprimarily at promotingand maintaining peace
  134. 134. Washington Conference(1921-22) gathered eightof the worlds greatpowers; the resultingtreaty set limits onstockpiling armaments
  135. 135. 1928, 62 nationssigned theKellogg-BriandPact
  136. 136. In Latin America, the U.S. triedin the 1920s to back away fromits previous interventionistpolicy and replace it with theGood Neighbor policy
  137. 137. the United Statescontinued to activelypromote its interests inLatin America, oftento the detriment ofthose who lived there
  138. 138. U.S. mainly achieved itsforeign policy objectivesthrough economic coercionand support of pro-American leaders (some ofwhom were corrupt andbrutal).
  139. 139. H/O Consult your handout re. the drift toward WWII