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    5 1860 to-t._roosevelt-5 5 1860 to-t._roosevelt-5 Presentation Transcript

    • BUCHANAN, DRED SCOTT,AND THE ELECTION OF 1860 Buchanan tried to maintain the status quoHe opposed abolitionistactivism in the South andWest
    • The crisis over slavery escalatedwhen the Supreme Court ruledin the Dred Scott caseA former slave whose master hadtaken him to territories whereslavery was illegal, declaredhimself a free man and sued forhis freedom
    • The case finally wound upin the Supreme Court,where Scott lostChief Justice Roger Taneywho wrote the majoritydecision
    • Taneys proslavery decisiondeclared that slaves were property,not citizens and further, that noblack person could ever be a citizenof the United StatesTaney argued they couldnot sue in federal courts, asScott had done
    • Moreover, he ruled thatCongress could notregulate slavery in theterritories, as it had in theMissouri Compromise
    • Taney essentially toldRepublicans that theirgoal -freedom forslaves in theterritories- was illegal.
    • In the North, the Supreme Courtdecision was viciously denounced.Meanwhile, the Democratic partywas dividing along regional lines,raising the possibility that theRepublicans might soon controlthe national government
    • When it came time for theDemocrats to choose their 1860presidential candidate, theirconvention split.Northern Democratsbacked Stephen Douglas,Southerners backed JohnBreckinridge
    • A new party centered in theUpper South, the ConstitutionalUnion party, nominated John BellThe RepublicansnominatedAbraham Lincoln
    • Lincoln attracted 40percent of the voteand won the electionin the House of H/O Political andRepresentatives military developments
    • Southern leaders who wanted tomaintain the Union tried tonegotiate a compromiseLincoln refused to softenthe Republican demandthat all territories bedeclared free
    • In December 1860,three months beforeLincolnsinauguration, SouthCarolina seceded
    • Within months, seven stateshad joined South CarolinaThey chose JeffersonDavis to lead theConfederacy
    • Lincoln decided to maintain controlof federal forts in the South whilewaiting for the Confederacy to makea moveConfederacy put blockadearound Ft. Sumter to forceUnion out.
    • Lincoln sent ship with“medicines and supplies” torun blockade and force theissue.Confederate assault wasgood propaganda for Union.
    • No one died in thisfirst battle ofAmericas bloodiestwar, the Civil War.
    • THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1860-1877)Civil War was not solely(or even primarily)about slavery
    • Northerners believed they were fighting to preserve the UnionSoutherners felt they werefighting for their statesrights to govern themselves
    • … As columnist Charley Reese puts it,The North was fighting topreserve the UnionThe South was fightingto preserve theConstitution.
    • As late as 1862, Lincolnstated: "If I could save theUnion without freeing anyslaves I would do it …”
    • Ironically, as the Southernstates fought to maintain theright to govern themselveslocally, the Confederategovernment brought themunder greater central controlthan they had ever experienced
    • Jefferson Davis understood theNorths considerable advantagesHe took control of the Southerneconomy, imposing taxes andusing the revenues to spurindustrial and urban growth; hetook control of the railroads andcommercial shipping
    • He created a large governmentbureaucracy to overseeeconomic developmentsDavis, in short, forced theSouth to compensate quicklyfor what it had lost when itcut itself off from Northerncommerce
    • The Confederacy lagged too farbehind in industrialization tocatch up to the UnionRapid economic growth,furthermore, broughtwith it rapid inflation
    • In 1862 the Confederacyimposed conscription.“Surrogates” could be hiredby the wealthy.As a result, class tensionsincreased, leading ultimately towidespread desertions from theConfederate Army
    • The Northern economyreceived a boost from the waras the demand for war-relatedgoods, such as uniforms andweapons, spurredmanufacturing
    • A number of entrepreneurs became extremely wealthy.Some sold the Uniongovernment worthless food andclothing while governmentbureaucrats looked the otherway (for the price of a bribe).
    • Corruption was fairlywidespreadNorth experienced a period ofaccelerated inflation, althoughNorthern inflation was nowhereas extreme as its Southerncounterpart
    • Workers, worried about jobsecurity (in the face ofmechanization) and thedecreasing value of their wages,formed unionsBusinesses, in return, blacklistedunion members
    • The Republican Party,believing that governmentshould help businesses butregulate them as little aspossible, supportedbusiness in its oppositionto unions.
    • Lincoln, like Davis, oversaw atremendous increase in the power ofthe central government during thewar. He implemented economicdevelopment programs withoutwaiting for Congressional approval,championed numerous governmentloans and grants to businesses, andraised tariffs.
    • He also suspended the writ ofhabeas corpus in the borderstates, mainly to preventMaryland from seceding.During the war, Lincolnstrengthened the national bankand initiated the printing ofnational currency.
    • EMANCIPATIONOF THE SLAVESThe Radical Republicanwing of Congress wantedimmediate emancipation
    • Radicals introducedconfiscation acts in Congress.The first (1861) gave thegovernment the right toseize any slaves used for"insurrectionarypurposes."
    • The second confiscation act, ineffect, gave the Union the rightto liberate all slavesLincoln refusedto enforce it.
    • Note that the EmancipationProclamation did not free allthe slaves. Instead, it statedthat on January 1, 1863, thegovernment would liberate allslaves residing in those statesstill in rebellion
    • The proclamation did notliberate the slaves in theborder states such asMaryland, nor did it liberateslaves in Southern countiesunder the control of the UnionArmy.
    • The proclamation alsoallowed southern states torejoin the Union withoutgiving up slaveryThe EmancipationProclamation did have animmediate effect on the war
    • Escaped slaves and freeblacks enlisted in theUnion Army in substantialnumbers (a total of nearly200,000), greatly tippingthe balance in the Unionsfavor.
    • Further, it discouragedEuropean nations fromrecognizing and tradingwith the Confederategovernment
    • Not until two years later, whilecampaigning for reelection, did Lincolngive his support to complete emancipationAfter his reelection, Lincolnconsidered allowing defeatedSouthern states to reenter theUnion and to vote on theThirteenth Amendment
    • Lincoln also offered a five-yeardelay on implementing theamendment if it passed, as well as$400 million in compensation toslave ownersJefferson Daviss commitment tocomplete Southern independencescuttled any chance ofcompromise.
    • THE ELECTION OF1864 AND END OF THE CIVIL WAR
    • Lincolns opponent, GeneralGeorge McClellan, campaignedon a peace platformIn the South, citizens openly defiedthe civil authorityAnd yet, both sides fought on
    • Victories throughout thesummer of 1864 played a largepart in helping Lincoln gainreelectionIn April 1865 theConfederate leaderssurrendered
    • John Wilkes Boothassassinated Lincolnjust weeks before thefinal surrender tookplace
    • More than 3 million menfought in the war, and ofthem, more than 500,000died.Both governmentsran up huge debts
    • The South wasdecimated byUnion soldiers
    • During ShermansMarch from Atlanta tothe sea in the fall of1864, the Union Armyburned everything inits wake.
    • After the war, thefederal governmentremained large H/O Reconstruction
    • RECONSTRUCTION ANDJOHNSONS IMPEACHMENTWith Lincolns assassination,vice-president Andrew Johnsonassumed the presidency
    • Johnson, a SouthernDemocrat, had opposedsecession and stronglysupported Lincoln duringhis first termLincoln rewarded Johnsonwith the vice-presidency
    • When the war ended,Congress was in recessThat left the early stagesof Reconstructionentirely in Johnsonshands.
    • Johnsons Reconstructionplan, which was based on aplan approved by Lincoln,called for the creation ofprovisional militarygovernments to run the statesuntil they were readmitted tothe Union
    • Required all Southern citizensto swear a loyalty oath beforereceiving amnesty. However,It barred many of the formerSouthern elite (includingplantation owners, Confederateofficers, and government officials)from taking that vow
    • … thus prohibiting theirparticipation in the newgovernments.States would have to write newconstitutions eliminatingslavery and renouncingsecession
    • Johnson pardoned many of the Southernelite who were supposed to have beenexcluded from the reunification processThe plan did not workMany of their newconstitutions were onlyslight revisions of previousconstitutions.
    • Southern legislators also passed a series of laws defining the status of freedmenBlack codes, limited freedmensrights to assemble and travel, andrestricted their access to publicinstitutions. The codes institutedcurfew laws and laws requiringblacks to carry special passes.
    • When Congressreconvened in December1865, the new Southernsenators included thevice-president of theConfederacy and otherConfederate officials
    • NorthernCongressmenwere notpleased
    • Congress voted not toseat the new Southerndelegations. Then, it setabout examiningJohnsonsReconstruction plan
    • The radicals wanted aReconstruction that punished theSouth for seceding, confiscatedland from the rich andredistributed it among the poor.Johnson refused tocompromise
    • Instead, he declaredReconstruction over and donewith.The radicals drew up the planthat came to be known asCongressional Reconstruction
    • Its first component was the FourteenthAmendment to the Constitution. It(1) prohibited states from depriving anycitizen of "life, liberty, or property,without due process"; (2) gave states thechoice either to give freedmen the right tovote or to stop counting them among theirvoting population; (3) barred prominentConfederates from holding politicaloffice; and (4) excused the Confederacyswar debt
    • The new Congress quicklypassed the MilitaryReconstruction Act of 1867It imposed martial lawon the South
    • The act alsorequired each state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
    • Congress then passed a numberof laws designed to limit thepresidents powerJohnson did everything inhis power to counteract theCongressional plan
    • House JudiciaryCommittee initiatedimpeachmentproceedings againstJohnson
    • Although impeachmentfailed (by one vote), thetrial rendered Johnsonpolitically impotent
    • New president,Ulysses S. Grant
    • The Fifteenth Amendment,proposed in 1869, finallyrequired states toenfranchise black men.
    • The Fifteenth Amendmentpassed only because Southernstates were required to ratify itas a condition of re-entry intothe UnionA number of Northern statesopposed the amendment.
    • THE FAILURE OFRECONSTRUCTION
    • Southern governments directedHowever…mostly by transplantedNorthern Republicans, blacks,and Southern moderatescreated public schoolsorphanages
    • Although governmentindustrialization plans helpedrebuild the Southern economy,these plans also cost a lot ofmoney. High tax rates turnedpublic opinion, alreadyantagonistic to Reconstruction,even more hostile
    • Opponents waged apropaganda war…calling Southerners whocooperated scalawagsand Northerners whoran the programscarpetbaggers
    • Many who participatedin Reconstruction wereindeed corrupt
    • Accompanying thepropaganda war was awar of intimidation,spearheaded by the KuKlux Klan
    • Klan targeted those whosupported Reconstruction; itattacked and oftenmurdered scalawags, blackand white Republicanleaders, communityactivists, and teachers
    • President Grant enforcedthe law looselySupreme Court consistentlyrestricted the scope of theFourteenth and FifteenthAmendments
    • Slaughter-House case, the courtruled that the FourteenthAmendment applied only to thefederal governmentan opinion the courtstrengthened in UnitedStates v. Cruikshank
    • United States v. Reese, thecourt cleared the way for"grandfather clauses," polltaxes, propertyrequirements, and otherrestrictions on votingprivileges
    • Several Congressionalacts, among them theAmnesty Act of1872, pardoned many ofthe rebels, thus allowingthem to reenter public life
    • By 1876 Southern Democratshad regained control of mostof the regions statelegislatures
    • SOUTHERN BLACKSDURING AND AFTERRECONSTRUCTION
    • Freedmans Bureau helpedthem find new jobs and housingalso helped establish schoolsat all levels for blacks,among them FiskUniversity and HowardUniversity
    • Freedmans Bureau attempted toestablish a system in which blackscontracted their labor to whites,but the system failed … blacks preferred sharecropping
    • system worked at first, butunscrupulous landownerseventually used the systemas a means of keeping poorfarmers in a state of nearslavery and debt
    • led many freedmen to foundcommunities as far removed fromthe sphere of whites as possibleBlack churches sprang up asanother means by which theblack community could bondand gain further autonomy
    • Exodusters picked up andmoved to the Midwest(especially Kansas) wherethey attempted to startfresh in new blackcommunities
    • THE MACHINE AGE (1877-1900)
    • 1876 Thomas A. Edisonbuilt his workshop inMenlo Park, New Jersey…advances allowed for theextension of the work day (whichpreviously ended at sundown)and the wider availability ofelectricity
    • Last quarter of thenineteenth century isoften called the age ofinvention
    • INDUSTRIALIZATION,CORPORATE CONSOLIDATION, AND THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH
    • As more and faster machinesbecame available tomanufacturers, businessmendiscovered that their cost perunit decreased as the number ofunits they produced increased.The more raw product theybought, the cheaper thesuppliers asking price.
    • The closer to capacity they kepttheir new, faster machinesrunning, the less the cost oflabor and electricity perproduct. The lower their costs,the cheaper they could sell theirproducts. The cheaper theproduct, the more they sold.
    • That, simply put,is the concept ofeconomies ofscale
    • Factories were dangerousmachine malfunctions andhuman error typicallyresulted in more than500,000 injuries toworkers per year.
    • Courts of the era (especiallythe Supreme Court) wereextremely pro-businessbusinesses followed the paththat led to greatereconomies of scale, whichmeant larger and largerbusinesses
    • vertical integrationcentral organization called a holdingcompany owned the controllinginterest in the production of rawmaterial, the means of transportingthat material to a factory, the factoryitself, and the distribution network forselling the product
    • conclusion is amonopoly, or completecontrol of an entireindustry
    • Horizontal integrationOwning all of oneaspect of productionOne holding company, forexample, gained control of 98percent of the sugar refiningplants in the United States
    • Businessmen borrowed hugesums, and when theirbusinesses occasionally failed,bank failures could resultDuring the last quarter of thenineteenth century, the UnitedStates endured one majorfinancial panic per decade
    • monopolies created a class ofextremely powerful menpublic resentment increasedgovernment responded withlaws to restrict monopolies
    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890forbade any "combination... or conspiracy in therestraint of trade."
    • The Supreme Court thenruled (1) that a company thatcontrolled 98 percent of thenations sugar refiningbusiness did not violate thelaw, but that (2) trade unionsdid.
    • Social DarwinismCarnegie argued that inbusiness, as in nature,unrestricted competitionallowed only the "fittest" tosurvive, to the benefit ofeveryone
    • Carnegie also assertedthat great wealth broughtwith it socialresponsibility, andconsequently, he gavegenerously to charities
    • FACTORIES AND CITY LIFE
    • Manufacturers cut costs andmaximized profits …hiring women and childrenhired the many newlyarrived immigrants whowere anxious for work
    • Because manufacturerspaid as little as possible,the cities in which theiremployees lived sufferedmany of the problemsassociated with poverty
    • … crime, disease,and the lack oflivable housing
    • Insurance and workmenscompensation did not existthen …poverty level in cities alsorose because those whocould afford it moved away
    • Cities became dirtier andgenerally less healthymass transportationallowed the middle classto live in nicerneighborhoods andcommute
    • immigrants andmigrants made upthe majority of citypopulations
    • Around 1880, the majority ofimmigrants arrived fromsouthern and eastern EuropePrior to 1880, most immigrantsto America came from northernand western Europe
    • New immigrants settled inethnic neighborhoods Most Americans expectedchurches, private charities,and ethnic communities toprovide services for thepoor
    • However, many of thoseservices were providedinstead by a group ofcorrupt men calledpolitical bosses
    • In return, they expectedcommunity members to vote asthey were instructedOccasionally they alsorequired "donations" tohelp fund communityprojects
    • Political machinesrendered services thatcommunities would nototherwise have received …But the cost of theirservices was high
    • Labor unions formed… were consideredradical organizations
    • Haymarket Square Riot1886 labor demonstration … abomb went off, killing policeMany blamed the incident onthe influence of radicals withinthe union movement
    • Many early unions didsubscribe to utopianand/or socialist philosophies
    • AmericanFederation of Laborled by SamuelGompers
    • concentrated instead on suchissues as higher wages andshorter work daysexcluded unskilledworkers
    • Most unions refused toaccept immigrants andblacks among theirmemberships.
    • Charitable middle-classorganizations also madeefforts at urban reform…also foundedsettlement houses
    • In Chicago Jane Addamsfounded Hull HouseShe was awarded theNobel Peace Prize forher lifes work in 1931
    • Life improved for both thewealthy and the middle classgreater access to luxuriesand more leisure timeentertainment industrygrew
    • Large segments of the publicbegan to read popular novelsand newspapersJoseph Pulitzer and WilliamRandolph Hearst becamepowerful newspaperpublishers
    • They understood thecommercial value of bold,screaming headlines and luridtales of scandalsensational reportingbecame known as yellowjournalism
    • DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOUTH
    • Postwar economics forced manyfarmers to sell their land towealthy landowners whoconsolidated into larger farmsfarmers were forced intosharecropping
    • Landlords kept thepoor, both black andwhite, in a state ofvirtual slavery.
    • JIM CROW LAWSSouthern states, towns and citiespassed numerous discriminatorylawsSupreme Court ruled that theFourteenth Amendment did notprotect blacks from discriminationby privately owned businesses
    • 1883 the Court also reversedthe Civil Rights Act of 18751896 the Supreme Courtruled in Plessy v. Fergusonthat "separate but equal"facilities for the differentraces was legal
    • Booker T. Washington… “accommodationist”more militant rivalW.E.B. DuBois See handout
    • THE RAILROADS ANDDEVELOPMENTS IN THE WEST
    • The railroads, although owned privately,were built largely at the publics expenserailroads would typicallyovercharge wherever they owneda monopoly and undercharge incompetitive and heavilytrafficked markets
    • Rails transformed depot townsinto vital cities by connectingthem to civilizationFaster travel meant morecontact with ideas andtechnological advancesfrom the East
    • … accelerated the industrialrevolution… first standardized methodof timetellingNew farm machinery and accessto mail (and mail-order retail)made life on the plains easier
    • Morrill Land Grant Actprovided money foragricultural colleges
    • big losers in this expansionistera were Native AmericansDawes Severalty Actgave tracts of land to those wholeft the reservations … goal wasto accelerate assimilation
    • NATIONAL POLITICSMark Twain dubbed theera between Reconstructionand 1900 the Gilded Age
    • politics looked good, but justbeneath the surface lay crasscorruption and patronagePolitical machines ran the citiesBig business bought votes inCongressWorkers had little protection fromthe greed of their employers
    • In response to the outcry overwidespread corruption, thegovernment made its first stabs atregulating itself and businessThe Interstate Commerce Actcreated a federal InterstateCommerce Commission toregulate unfair railroad practices
    • Pendleton Act created the CivilService Commission to overseeexaminations for potentialgovernment employeesSusan B. Anthony convincedCongress to introduce asuffrage amendment to theConstitution
    • The bill was introduced every year andrarely got out of committeeAmerican Suffrage Associationfought for womens suffrageamendments to stateconstitutionsBy 1890 they had achieved somepartial successes, gaining thevote on school issues
    • THE SILVER ISSUE AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENTYou may find a PPT on this disk labeled WOOIf so, It would fit here
    • after the Civil War, productionon all fronts, industrial andagricultural, increasedGreater supply accordinglyled to a drop in prices
    • Farmers were locked intolong-term debts with fixedpaymentsAn increase in availablemoney, they correctlyfigured, would makepayments easier.
    • It would also causeinflation, which would make thefarmers debts (held by Northernbanks) worth lessbanks opposed the plan -said use only gold toback its money supply.
    • The "silver vs. gold" debateprovided an issue around whichfarmers could organizeGrange Movement
    • started out as cooperativesSoon, the Grangesendorsed politicalcandidates and lobbiedfor legislation
    • …replaced by FarmersAlliancesgrew into a politicalparty called thePeoples Party
    • Aside from supporting thegenerous coinage of silver, thePopulists called forgovernment ownership ofrailroads and telegraphs, agraduated income tax, directelection of U.S. senators, andshorter work days
    • Hard economic times madePopulist goals more popular,particularly the call for easymoneyEven more radicalmovements gainedpopularity
    • 1894 the Socialists, led byEugene V. Debs, gainedsupportDemocratic candidate WilliamJennings Bryan ran againstRepublican nominee WilliamMcKinley (1896). Bryan ran on astrictly Populist platform.
    • He lost the campaign; this,coupled with an improvedeconomy, ended the Populistmovement.
    • AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: FOREIGN POLICYAmerica began lookingoverseas to find newmarkets
    • Centennial celebration in 1876heightened national prideWilliam H. Seward, secretary ofstate under Lincoln and Johnson,set the precedent for increasedAmerican participation in anyand all doings in the westernhemisphere
    • He engineered thepurchase of Alaska andinvoked the MonroeDoctrine to force Franceout of Mexico
    • American businessesbegan developingmarkets and productionfacilities in LatinAmerica
    • Captain Alfred T. Mahan,in The Influence of SeaPower Upon History(1890), argued thatsuccessful foreign traderelied on access to foreignports
    • …which requiredoverseas colonies,and colonies in turnrequired a strongnavy
    • United States had beeninvolved in Hawaii since the1870sDue in large part toAmerican interference, theHawaiian economycollapsed in the 1890s
    • The white minorityoverthrew the nativegovernment, and,eventually, the U.S.annexed Hawaii
    • Gratuitous Aside:Do you have difficultyremembering when touse “good” and whento use “well”?
    • Just remember the missionaries whowent to Hawaii to do good and did well.
    • The revolution in Cuba, like theHawaiian revolution, was instigatedby U.S. tampering with the CubaneconomyCuban civil war followed
    • When an American warship, theMaine, exploded in theHavana harbor U.S. blamedSpain.U.S. not only drove Spain out ofCuba, but also sent a fleet to theSpanish-controlled Philippinesand drove the Spanish out of theretoo
    • Treaty of Paris, Spaingranted Cubaindependence and cededthe Philippines, PuertoRico, and Guam to theUnited States
    • America hoped to gain entryinto Asian marketsMcKinley sought an opendoor policy for all westernnations hoping to tradewith Asia
    • Americanimperialism wouldcontinue throughTheodore Rooseveltsadministration
    • H/OThe age of Theodore Roosevelt