BUCHANAN, DRED SCOTT,AND THE ELECTION OF 1860 Buchanan tried to maintain the status quoHe opposed abolitionistactivism in the South andWest
The crisis over slavery escalatedwhen the Supreme Court ruledin the Dred Scott caseA former slave whose master hadtaken him to territories whereslavery was illegal, declaredhimself a free man and sued forhis freedom
The case finally wound upin the Supreme Court,where Scott lostChief Justice Roger Taneywho wrote the majoritydecision
Taneys proslavery decisiondeclared that slaves were property,not citizens and further, that noblack person could ever be a citizenof the United StatesTaney argued they couldnot sue in federal courts, asScott had done
Moreover, he ruled thatCongress could notregulate slavery in theterritories, as it had in theMissouri Compromise
Taney essentially toldRepublicans that theirgoal -freedom forslaves in theterritories- was illegal.
In the North, the Supreme Courtdecision was viciously denounced.Meanwhile, the Democratic partywas dividing along regional lines,raising the possibility that theRepublicans might soon controlthe national government
When it came time for theDemocrats to choose their 1860presidential candidate, theirconvention split.Northern Democratsbacked Stephen Douglas,Southerners backed JohnBreckinridge
A new party centered in theUpper South, the ConstitutionalUnion party, nominated John BellThe RepublicansnominatedAbraham Lincoln
Lincoln attracted 40percent of the voteand won the electionin the House of H/O Political andRepresentatives military developments
Southern leaders who wanted tomaintain the Union tried tonegotiate a compromiseLincoln refused to softenthe Republican demandthat all territories bedeclared free
In December 1860,three months beforeLincolnsinauguration, SouthCarolina seceded
Within months, seven stateshad joined South CarolinaThey chose JeffersonDavis to lead theConfederacy
Lincoln decided to maintain controlof federal forts in the South whilewaiting for the Confederacy to makea moveConfederacy put blockadearound Ft. Sumter to forceUnion out.
Lincoln sent ship with“medicines and supplies” torun blockade and force theissue.Confederate assault wasgood propaganda for Union.
No one died in thisfirst battle ofAmericas bloodiestwar, the Civil War.
THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1860-1877)Civil War was not solely(or even primarily)about slavery
Northerners believed they were fighting to preserve the UnionSoutherners felt they werefighting for their statesrights to govern themselves
… As columnist Charley Reese puts it,The North was fighting topreserve the UnionThe South was fightingto preserve theConstitution.
As late as 1862, Lincolnstated: "If I could save theUnion without freeing anyslaves I would do it …”
Ironically, as the Southernstates fought to maintain theright to govern themselveslocally, the Confederategovernment brought themunder greater central controlthan they had ever experienced
Jefferson Davis understood theNorths considerable advantagesHe took control of the Southerneconomy, imposing taxes andusing the revenues to spurindustrial and urban growth; hetook control of the railroads andcommercial shipping
He created a large governmentbureaucracy to overseeeconomic developmentsDavis, in short, forced theSouth to compensate quicklyfor what it had lost when itcut itself off from Northerncommerce
The Confederacy lagged too farbehind in industrialization tocatch up to the UnionRapid economic growth,furthermore, broughtwith it rapid inflation
In 1862 the Confederacyimposed conscription.“Surrogates” could be hiredby the wealthy.As a result, class tensionsincreased, leading ultimately towidespread desertions from theConfederate Army
The Northern economyreceived a boost from the waras the demand for war-relatedgoods, such as uniforms andweapons, spurredmanufacturing
A number of entrepreneurs became extremely wealthy.Some sold the Uniongovernment worthless food andclothing while governmentbureaucrats looked the otherway (for the price of a bribe).
Corruption was fairlywidespreadNorth experienced a period ofaccelerated inflation, althoughNorthern inflation was nowhereas extreme as its Southerncounterpart
Workers, worried about jobsecurity (in the face ofmechanization) and thedecreasing value of their wages,formed unionsBusinesses, in return, blacklistedunion members
The Republican Party,believing that governmentshould help businesses butregulate them as little aspossible, supportedbusiness in its oppositionto unions.
Lincoln, like Davis, oversaw atremendous increase in the power ofthe central government during thewar. He implemented economicdevelopment programs withoutwaiting for Congressional approval,championed numerous governmentloans and grants to businesses, andraised tariffs.
He also suspended the writ ofhabeas corpus in the borderstates, mainly to preventMaryland from seceding.During the war, Lincolnstrengthened the national bankand initiated the printing ofnational currency.
EMANCIPATIONOF THE SLAVESThe Radical Republicanwing of Congress wantedimmediate emancipation
Radicals introducedconfiscation acts in Congress.The first (1861) gave thegovernment the right toseize any slaves used for"insurrectionarypurposes."
The second confiscation act, ineffect, gave the Union the rightto liberate all slavesLincoln refusedto enforce it.
Note that the EmancipationProclamation did not free allthe slaves. Instead, it statedthat on January 1, 1863, thegovernment would liberate allslaves residing in those statesstill in rebellion
The proclamation did notliberate the slaves in theborder states such asMaryland, nor did it liberateslaves in Southern countiesunder the control of the UnionArmy.
The proclamation alsoallowed southern states torejoin the Union withoutgiving up slaveryThe EmancipationProclamation did have animmediate effect on the war
Escaped slaves and freeblacks enlisted in theUnion Army in substantialnumbers (a total of nearly200,000), greatly tippingthe balance in the Unionsfavor.
Further, it discouragedEuropean nations fromrecognizing and tradingwith the Confederategovernment
Not until two years later, whilecampaigning for reelection, did Lincolngive his support to complete emancipationAfter his reelection, Lincolnconsidered allowing defeatedSouthern states to reenter theUnion and to vote on theThirteenth Amendment
Lincoln also offered a five-yeardelay on implementing theamendment if it passed, as well as$400 million in compensation toslave ownersJefferson Daviss commitment tocomplete Southern independencescuttled any chance ofcompromise.
THE ELECTION OF1864 AND END OF THE CIVIL WAR
Lincolns opponent, GeneralGeorge McClellan, campaignedon a peace platformIn the South, citizens openly defiedthe civil authorityAnd yet, both sides fought on
Victories throughout thesummer of 1864 played a largepart in helping Lincoln gainreelectionIn April 1865 theConfederate leaderssurrendered
John Wilkes Boothassassinated Lincolnjust weeks before thefinal surrender tookplace
More than 3 million menfought in the war, and ofthem, more than 500,000died.Both governmentsran up huge debts
The South wasdecimated byUnion soldiers
During ShermansMarch from Atlanta tothe sea in the fall of1864, the Union Armyburned everything inits wake.
After the war, thefederal governmentremained large H/O Reconstruction
RECONSTRUCTION ANDJOHNSONS IMPEACHMENTWith Lincolns assassination,vice-president Andrew Johnsonassumed the presidency
Johnson, a SouthernDemocrat, had opposedsecession and stronglysupported Lincoln duringhis first termLincoln rewarded Johnsonwith the vice-presidency
When the war ended,Congress was in recessThat left the early stagesof Reconstructionentirely in Johnsonshands.
Johnsons Reconstructionplan, which was based on aplan approved by Lincoln,called for the creation ofprovisional militarygovernments to run the statesuntil they were readmitted tothe Union
Required all Southern citizensto swear a loyalty oath beforereceiving amnesty. However,It barred many of the formerSouthern elite (includingplantation owners, Confederateofficers, and government officials)from taking that vow
… thus prohibiting theirparticipation in the newgovernments.States would have to write newconstitutions eliminatingslavery and renouncingsecession
Johnson pardoned many of the Southernelite who were supposed to have beenexcluded from the reunification processThe plan did not workMany of their newconstitutions were onlyslight revisions of previousconstitutions.
Southern legislators also passed a series of laws defining the status of freedmenBlack codes, limited freedmensrights to assemble and travel, andrestricted their access to publicinstitutions. The codes institutedcurfew laws and laws requiringblacks to carry special passes.
When Congressreconvened in December1865, the new Southernsenators included thevice-president of theConfederacy and otherConfederate officials
Congress voted not toseat the new Southerndelegations. Then, it setabout examiningJohnsonsReconstruction plan
The radicals wanted aReconstruction that punished theSouth for seceding, confiscatedland from the rich andredistributed it among the poor.Johnson refused tocompromise
Instead, he declaredReconstruction over and donewith.The radicals drew up the planthat came to be known asCongressional Reconstruction
Its first component was the FourteenthAmendment to the Constitution. It(1) prohibited states from depriving anycitizen of "life, liberty, or property,without due process"; (2) gave states thechoice either to give freedmen the right tovote or to stop counting them among theirvoting population; (3) barred prominentConfederates from holding politicaloffice; and (4) excused the Confederacyswar debt
The new Congress quicklypassed the MilitaryReconstruction Act of 1867It imposed martial lawon the South
The act alsorequired each state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
Congress then passed a numberof laws designed to limit thepresidents powerJohnson did everything inhis power to counteract theCongressional plan
House JudiciaryCommittee initiatedimpeachmentproceedings againstJohnson
Although impeachmentfailed (by one vote), thetrial rendered Johnsonpolitically impotent
New president,Ulysses S. Grant
The Fifteenth Amendment,proposed in 1869, finallyrequired states toenfranchise black men.
The Fifteenth Amendmentpassed only because Southernstates were required to ratify itas a condition of re-entry intothe UnionA number of Northern statesopposed the amendment.
THE FAILURE OFRECONSTRUCTION
Southern governments directedHowever…mostly by transplantedNorthern Republicans, blacks,and Southern moderatescreated public schoolsorphanages
Although governmentindustrialization plans helpedrebuild the Southern economy,these plans also cost a lot ofmoney. High tax rates turnedpublic opinion, alreadyantagonistic to Reconstruction,even more hostile
Many who participatedin Reconstruction wereindeed corrupt
Accompanying thepropaganda war was awar of intimidation,spearheaded by the KuKlux Klan
Klan targeted those whosupported Reconstruction; itattacked and oftenmurdered scalawags, blackand white Republicanleaders, communityactivists, and teachers
President Grant enforcedthe law looselySupreme Court consistentlyrestricted the scope of theFourteenth and FifteenthAmendments
Slaughter-House case, the courtruled that the FourteenthAmendment applied only to thefederal governmentan opinion the courtstrengthened in UnitedStates v. Cruikshank
United States v. Reese, thecourt cleared the way for"grandfather clauses," polltaxes, propertyrequirements, and otherrestrictions on votingprivileges
Several Congressionalacts, among them theAmnesty Act of1872, pardoned many ofthe rebels, thus allowingthem to reenter public life
By 1876 Southern Democratshad regained control of mostof the regions statelegislatures
SOUTHERN BLACKSDURING AND AFTERRECONSTRUCTION
Freedmans Bureau helpedthem find new jobs and housingalso helped establish schoolsat all levels for blacks,among them FiskUniversity and HowardUniversity
Freedmans Bureau attempted toestablish a system in which blackscontracted their labor to whites,but the system failed … blacks preferred sharecropping
system worked at first, butunscrupulous landownerseventually used the systemas a means of keeping poorfarmers in a state of nearslavery and debt
led many freedmen to foundcommunities as far removed fromthe sphere of whites as possibleBlack churches sprang up asanother means by which theblack community could bondand gain further autonomy
Exodusters picked up andmoved to the Midwest(especially Kansas) wherethey attempted to startfresh in new blackcommunities
THE MACHINE AGE (1877-1900)
1876 Thomas A. Edisonbuilt his workshop inMenlo Park, New Jersey…advances allowed for theextension of the work day (whichpreviously ended at sundown)and the wider availability ofelectricity
Last quarter of thenineteenth century isoften called the age ofinvention
INDUSTRIALIZATION,CORPORATE CONSOLIDATION, AND THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH
As more and faster machinesbecame available tomanufacturers, businessmendiscovered that their cost perunit decreased as the number ofunits they produced increased.The more raw product theybought, the cheaper thesuppliers asking price.
The closer to capacity they kepttheir new, faster machinesrunning, the less the cost oflabor and electricity perproduct. The lower their costs,the cheaper they could sell theirproducts. The cheaper theproduct, the more they sold.
That, simply put,is the concept ofeconomies ofscale
Factories were dangerousmachine malfunctions andhuman error typicallyresulted in more than500,000 injuries toworkers per year.
Courts of the era (especiallythe Supreme Court) wereextremely pro-businessbusinesses followed the paththat led to greatereconomies of scale, whichmeant larger and largerbusinesses
vertical integrationcentral organization called a holdingcompany owned the controllinginterest in the production of rawmaterial, the means of transportingthat material to a factory, the factoryitself, and the distribution network forselling the product
conclusion is amonopoly, or completecontrol of an entireindustry
Horizontal integrationOwning all of oneaspect of productionOne holding company, forexample, gained control of 98percent of the sugar refiningplants in the United States
Businessmen borrowed hugesums, and when theirbusinesses occasionally failed,bank failures could resultDuring the last quarter of thenineteenth century, the UnitedStates endured one majorfinancial panic per decade
monopolies created a class ofextremely powerful menpublic resentment increasedgovernment responded withlaws to restrict monopolies
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890forbade any "combination... or conspiracy in therestraint of trade."
The Supreme Court thenruled (1) that a company thatcontrolled 98 percent of thenations sugar refiningbusiness did not violate thelaw, but that (2) trade unionsdid.
Social DarwinismCarnegie argued that inbusiness, as in nature,unrestricted competitionallowed only the "fittest" tosurvive, to the benefit ofeveryone
Carnegie also assertedthat great wealth broughtwith it socialresponsibility, andconsequently, he gavegenerously to charities
FACTORIES AND CITY LIFE
Manufacturers cut costs andmaximized profits …hiring women and childrenhired the many newlyarrived immigrants whowere anxious for work
Because manufacturerspaid as little as possible,the cities in which theiremployees lived sufferedmany of the problemsassociated with poverty
… crime, disease,and the lack oflivable housing
Insurance and workmenscompensation did not existthen …poverty level in cities alsorose because those whocould afford it moved away
Cities became dirtier andgenerally less healthymass transportationallowed the middle classto live in nicerneighborhoods andcommute
immigrants andmigrants made upthe majority of citypopulations
Around 1880, the majority ofimmigrants arrived fromsouthern and eastern EuropePrior to 1880, most immigrantsto America came from northernand western Europe
New immigrants settled inethnic neighborhoods Most Americans expectedchurches, private charities,and ethnic communities toprovide services for thepoor
However, many of thoseservices were providedinstead by a group ofcorrupt men calledpolitical bosses
In return, they expectedcommunity members to vote asthey were instructedOccasionally they alsorequired "donations" tohelp fund communityprojects
Political machinesrendered services thatcommunities would nototherwise have received …But the cost of theirservices was high
Labor unions formed… were consideredradical organizations
Haymarket Square Riot1886 labor demonstration … abomb went off, killing policeMany blamed the incident onthe influence of radicals withinthe union movement
Many early unions didsubscribe to utopianand/or socialist philosophies
AmericanFederation of Laborled by SamuelGompers
concentrated instead on suchissues as higher wages andshorter work daysexcluded unskilledworkers
Most unions refused toaccept immigrants andblacks among theirmemberships.
Charitable middle-classorganizations also madeefforts at urban reform…also foundedsettlement houses
In Chicago Jane Addamsfounded Hull HouseShe was awarded theNobel Peace Prize forher lifes work in 1931
Life improved for both thewealthy and the middle classgreater access to luxuriesand more leisure timeentertainment industrygrew
Large segments of the publicbegan to read popular novelsand newspapersJoseph Pulitzer and WilliamRandolph Hearst becamepowerful newspaperpublishers
They understood thecommercial value of bold,screaming headlines and luridtales of scandalsensational reportingbecame known as yellowjournalism
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOUTH
Postwar economics forced manyfarmers to sell their land towealthy landowners whoconsolidated into larger farmsfarmers were forced intosharecropping
Landlords kept thepoor, both black andwhite, in a state ofvirtual slavery.
JIM CROW LAWSSouthern states, towns and citiespassed numerous discriminatorylawsSupreme Court ruled that theFourteenth Amendment did notprotect blacks from discriminationby privately owned businesses
1883 the Court also reversedthe Civil Rights Act of 18751896 the Supreme Courtruled in Plessy v. Fergusonthat "separate but equal"facilities for the differentraces was legal
Booker T. Washington… “accommodationist”more militant rivalW.E.B. DuBois See handout
THE RAILROADS ANDDEVELOPMENTS IN THE WEST
The railroads, although owned privately,were built largely at the publics expenserailroads would typicallyovercharge wherever they owneda monopoly and undercharge incompetitive and heavilytrafficked markets
Rails transformed depot townsinto vital cities by connectingthem to civilizationFaster travel meant morecontact with ideas andtechnological advancesfrom the East
… accelerated the industrialrevolution… first standardized methodof timetellingNew farm machinery and accessto mail (and mail-order retail)made life on the plains easier
Morrill Land Grant Actprovided money foragricultural colleges
big losers in this expansionistera were Native AmericansDawes Severalty Actgave tracts of land to those wholeft the reservations … goal wasto accelerate assimilation
NATIONAL POLITICSMark Twain dubbed theera between Reconstructionand 1900 the Gilded Age
politics looked good, but justbeneath the surface lay crasscorruption and patronagePolitical machines ran the citiesBig business bought votes inCongressWorkers had little protection fromthe greed of their employers
In response to the outcry overwidespread corruption, thegovernment made its first stabs atregulating itself and businessThe Interstate Commerce Actcreated a federal InterstateCommerce Commission toregulate unfair railroad practices
Pendleton Act created the CivilService Commission to overseeexaminations for potentialgovernment employeesSusan B. Anthony convincedCongress to introduce asuffrage amendment to theConstitution
The bill was introduced every year andrarely got out of committeeAmerican Suffrage Associationfought for womens suffrageamendments to stateconstitutionsBy 1890 they had achieved somepartial successes, gaining thevote on school issues
THE SILVER ISSUE AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENTYou may find a PPT on this disk labeled WOOIf so, It would fit here
after the Civil War, productionon all fronts, industrial andagricultural, increasedGreater supply accordinglyled to a drop in prices
Farmers were locked intolong-term debts with fixedpaymentsAn increase in availablemoney, they correctlyfigured, would makepayments easier.
It would also causeinflation, which would make thefarmers debts (held by Northernbanks) worth lessbanks opposed the plan -said use only gold toback its money supply.
The "silver vs. gold" debateprovided an issue around whichfarmers could organizeGrange Movement
started out as cooperativesSoon, the Grangesendorsed politicalcandidates and lobbiedfor legislation
…replaced by FarmersAlliancesgrew into a politicalparty called thePeoples Party
Aside from supporting thegenerous coinage of silver, thePopulists called forgovernment ownership ofrailroads and telegraphs, agraduated income tax, directelection of U.S. senators, andshorter work days
Hard economic times madePopulist goals more popular,particularly the call for easymoneyEven more radicalmovements gainedpopularity
1894 the Socialists, led byEugene V. Debs, gainedsupportDemocratic candidate WilliamJennings Bryan ran againstRepublican nominee WilliamMcKinley (1896). Bryan ran on astrictly Populist platform.
He lost the campaign; this,coupled with an improvedeconomy, ended the Populistmovement.
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: FOREIGN POLICYAmerica began lookingoverseas to find newmarkets
Centennial celebration in 1876heightened national prideWilliam H. Seward, secretary ofstate under Lincoln and Johnson,set the precedent for increasedAmerican participation in anyand all doings in the westernhemisphere
He engineered thepurchase of Alaska andinvoked the MonroeDoctrine to force Franceout of Mexico
American businessesbegan developingmarkets and productionfacilities in LatinAmerica
Captain Alfred T. Mahan,in The Influence of SeaPower Upon History(1890), argued thatsuccessful foreign traderelied on access to foreignports
…which requiredoverseas colonies,and colonies in turnrequired a strongnavy
United States had beeninvolved in Hawaii since the1870sDue in large part toAmerican interference, theHawaiian economycollapsed in the 1890s
The white minorityoverthrew the nativegovernment, and,eventually, the U.S.annexed Hawaii
Gratuitous Aside:Do you have difficultyremembering when touse “good” and whento use “well”?
Just remember the missionaries whowent to Hawaii to do good and did well.
The revolution in Cuba, like theHawaiian revolution, was instigatedby U.S. tampering with the CubaneconomyCuban civil war followed
When an American warship, theMaine, exploded in theHavana harbor U.S. blamedSpain.U.S. not only drove Spain out ofCuba, but also sent a fleet to theSpanish-controlled Philippinesand drove the Spanish out of theretoo
Treaty of Paris, Spaingranted Cubaindependence and cededthe Philippines, PuertoRico, and Guam to theUnited States
America hoped to gain entryinto Asian marketsMcKinley sought an opendoor policy for all westernnations hoping to tradewith Asia