BUCHANAN, DRED SCOTT,AND THE ELECTION OF 1860 Buchanan tried to maintain the status quoHe opposed abolitionistactivism in ...
The crisis over slavery escalatedwhen the Supreme Court ruledin the Dred Scott caseA former slave whose master hadtaken hi...
The case finally wound upin the Supreme Court,where Scott lostChief Justice Roger Taneywho wrote the majoritydecision
Taneys proslavery decisiondeclared that slaves were property,not citizens and further, that noblack person could ever be a...
Moreover, he ruled thatCongress could notregulate slavery in theterritories, as it had in theMissouri Compromise
Taney essentially toldRepublicans that theirgoal -freedom forslaves in theterritories- was illegal.
In the North, the Supreme Courtdecision was viciously denounced.Meanwhile, the Democratic partywas dividing along regional...
When it came time for theDemocrats to choose their 1860presidential candidate, theirconvention split.Northern Democratsbac...
A new party centered in theUpper South, the ConstitutionalUnion party, nominated John BellThe RepublicansnominatedAbraham ...
Lincoln attracted 40percent of the voteand won the electionin the House of H/O                 Political andRepresentative...
Southern leaders who wanted tomaintain the Union tried tonegotiate a compromiseLincoln refused to softenthe Republican dem...
In December 1860,three months beforeLincolnsinauguration, SouthCarolina seceded
Within months, seven stateshad joined South CarolinaThey chose JeffersonDavis to lead theConfederacy
Lincoln decided to maintain controlof federal forts in the South whilewaiting for the Confederacy to makea moveConfederacy...
Lincoln sent ship with“medicines and supplies” torun blockade and force theissue.Confederate assault wasgood propaganda fo...
No one died in thisfirst battle ofAmericas bloodiestwar, the Civil War.
THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION   (1860-1877)Civil War was not solely(or even primarily)about slavery
Northerners believed they were fighting to preserve the UnionSoutherners felt they werefighting for their statesrights to ...
… As columnist Charley Reese puts it,The North was fighting topreserve the UnionThe South was fightingto preserve theConst...
As late as 1862, Lincolnstated: "If I could save theUnion without freeing anyslaves I would do it …”
Ironically, as the Southernstates fought to maintain theright to govern themselveslocally, the Confederategovernment broug...
Jefferson Davis understood theNorths considerable advantagesHe took control of the Southerneconomy, imposing taxes andusin...
He created a large governmentbureaucracy to overseeeconomic developmentsDavis, in short, forced theSouth to compensate qui...
The Confederacy lagged too farbehind in industrialization tocatch up to the UnionRapid economic growth,furthermore, brough...
In 1862 the Confederacyimposed conscription.“Surrogates” could be hiredby the wealthy.As a result, class tensionsincreased...
The Northern economyreceived a boost from the waras the demand for war-relatedgoods, such as uniforms andweapons, spurredm...
A number of entrepreneurs became extremely wealthy.Some sold the Uniongovernment worthless food andclothing while governme...
Corruption was fairlywidespreadNorth experienced a period ofaccelerated inflation, althoughNorthern inflation was nowherea...
Workers, worried about jobsecurity (in the face ofmechanization) and thedecreasing value of their wages,formed unionsBusin...
The Republican Party,believing that governmentshould help businesses butregulate them as little aspossible, supportedbusin...
Lincoln, like Davis, oversaw atremendous increase in the power ofthe central government during thewar. He implemented econ...
He also suspended the writ ofhabeas corpus in the borderstates, mainly to preventMaryland from seceding.During the war, Li...
EMANCIPATIONOF THE SLAVESThe Radical Republicanwing of Congress wantedimmediate emancipation
Radicals introducedconfiscation acts in Congress.The first (1861) gave thegovernment the right toseize any slaves used for...
The second confiscation act, ineffect, gave the Union the rightto liberate all slavesLincoln refusedto enforce it.
Note that the EmancipationProclamation did not free allthe slaves. Instead, it statedthat on January 1, 1863, thegovernmen...
The proclamation did notliberate the slaves in theborder states such asMaryland, nor did it liberateslaves in Southern cou...
The proclamation alsoallowed southern states torejoin the Union withoutgiving up slaveryThe EmancipationProclamation did h...
Escaped slaves and freeblacks enlisted in theUnion Army in substantialnumbers (a total of nearly200,000), greatly tippingt...
Further, it discouragedEuropean nations fromrecognizing and tradingwith the Confederategovernment
Not until two years later, whilecampaigning for reelection, did Lincolngive his support to complete emancipationAfter his ...
Lincoln also offered a five-yeardelay on implementing theamendment if it passed, as well as$400 million in compensation to...
THE ELECTION OF1864 AND END OF THE CIVIL WAR
Lincolns opponent, GeneralGeorge McClellan, campaignedon a peace platformIn the South, citizens openly defiedthe civil aut...
Victories throughout thesummer of 1864 played a largepart in helping Lincoln gainreelectionIn April 1865 theConfederate le...
John Wilkes Boothassassinated Lincolnjust weeks before thefinal surrender tookplace
More than 3 million menfought in the war, and ofthem, more than 500,000died.Both governmentsran up huge debts
The South wasdecimated byUnion soldiers
During ShermansMarch from Atlanta tothe sea in the fall of1864, the Union Armyburned everything inits wake.
After the war, thefederal governmentremained large               H/O          Reconstruction
RECONSTRUCTION ANDJOHNSONS IMPEACHMENTWith Lincolns assassination,vice-president Andrew Johnsonassumed the presidency
Johnson, a SouthernDemocrat, had opposedsecession and stronglysupported Lincoln duringhis first termLincoln rewarded Johns...
When the war ended,Congress was in recessThat left the early stagesof Reconstructionentirely in Johnsonshands.
Johnsons Reconstructionplan, which was based on aplan approved by Lincoln,called for the creation ofprovisional militarygo...
Required all Southern citizensto swear a loyalty oath beforereceiving amnesty. However,It barred many of the formerSouther...
… thus prohibiting theirparticipation in the newgovernments.States would have to write newconstitutions eliminatingslavery...
Johnson pardoned many of the Southernelite who were supposed to have beenexcluded from the reunification processThe plan d...
Southern legislators also passed a series of laws defining the status of freedmenBlack codes, limited freedmensrights to a...
When Congressreconvened in December1865, the new Southernsenators included thevice-president of theConfederacy and otherCo...
NorthernCongressmenwere notpleased
Congress voted not toseat the new Southerndelegations. Then, it setabout examiningJohnsonsReconstruction plan
The radicals wanted aReconstruction that punished theSouth for seceding, confiscatedland from the rich andredistributed it...
Instead, he declaredReconstruction over and donewith.The radicals drew up the planthat came to be known asCongressional Re...
Its first component was the FourteenthAmendment to the Constitution. It(1) prohibited states from depriving anycitizen of ...
The new Congress quicklypassed the MilitaryReconstruction Act of 1867It imposed martial lawon the South
The act alsorequired each state   to ratify the   Fourteenth   Amendment
Congress then passed a numberof laws designed to limit thepresidents powerJohnson did everything inhis power to counteract...
House JudiciaryCommittee initiatedimpeachmentproceedings againstJohnson
Although impeachmentfailed (by one vote), thetrial rendered Johnsonpolitically impotent
New president,Ulysses S. Grant
The Fifteenth Amendment,proposed in 1869, finallyrequired states toenfranchise black men.
The Fifteenth Amendmentpassed only because Southernstates were required to ratify itas a condition of re-entry intothe Uni...
THE FAILURE OFRECONSTRUCTION
Southern governments directedHowever…mostly by transplantedNorthern Republicans, blacks,and Southern moderatescreated publ...
Although governmentindustrialization plans helpedrebuild the Southern economy,these plans also cost a lot ofmoney. High ta...
Opponents waged apropaganda war…calling Southerners whocooperated scalawagsand Northerners whoran the programscarpetbaggers
Many who participatedin Reconstruction wereindeed corrupt
Accompanying thepropaganda war was awar of intimidation,spearheaded by the KuKlux Klan
Klan targeted those whosupported Reconstruction; itattacked and oftenmurdered scalawags, blackand white Republicanleaders,...
President Grant enforcedthe law looselySupreme Court consistentlyrestricted the scope of theFourteenth and FifteenthAmendm...
Slaughter-House case, the courtruled that the FourteenthAmendment applied only to thefederal governmentan opinion the cour...
United States v. Reese, thecourt cleared the way for"grandfather clauses," polltaxes, propertyrequirements, and otherrestr...
Several Congressionalacts, among them theAmnesty Act of1872, pardoned many ofthe rebels, thus allowingthem to reenter publ...
By 1876 Southern Democratshad regained control of mostof the regions statelegislatures
SOUTHERN BLACKSDURING AND AFTERRECONSTRUCTION
Freedmans Bureau helpedthem find new jobs and housingalso helped establish schoolsat all levels for blacks,among them Fisk...
Freedmans Bureau attempted toestablish a system in which blackscontracted their labor to whites,but the system failed … bl...
system worked at first, butunscrupulous landownerseventually used the systemas a means of keeping poorfarmers in a state o...
led many freedmen to foundcommunities as far removed fromthe sphere of whites as possibleBlack churches sprang up asanothe...
Exodusters picked up andmoved to the Midwest(especially Kansas) wherethey attempted to startfresh in new blackcommunities
THE MACHINE AGE   (1877-1900)
1876 Thomas A. Edisonbuilt his workshop inMenlo Park, New Jersey…advances allowed for theextension of the work day (whichp...
Last quarter of thenineteenth century isoften called the age ofinvention
INDUSTRIALIZATION,CORPORATE CONSOLIDATION,        AND THE   GOSPEL OF WEALTH
As more and faster machinesbecame available tomanufacturers, businessmendiscovered that their cost perunit decreased as th...
The closer to capacity they kepttheir new, faster machinesrunning, the less the cost oflabor and electricity perproduct. T...
That, simply put,is the concept ofeconomies ofscale
Factories were dangerousmachine malfunctions andhuman error typicallyresulted in more than500,000 injuries toworkers per y...
Courts of the era (especiallythe Supreme Court) wereextremely pro-businessbusinesses followed the paththat led to greatere...
vertical integrationcentral organization called a holdingcompany owned the controllinginterest in the production of rawmat...
conclusion is amonopoly, or completecontrol of an entireindustry
Horizontal integrationOwning all of oneaspect of productionOne holding company, forexample, gained control of 98percent of...
Businessmen borrowed hugesums, and when theirbusinesses occasionally failed,bank failures could resultDuring the last quar...
monopolies created a class ofextremely powerful menpublic resentment increasedgovernment responded withlaws to restrict mo...
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of         1890forbade any "combination... or conspiracy in therestraint of trade."
The Supreme Court thenruled (1) that a company thatcontrolled 98 percent of thenations sugar refiningbusiness did not viol...
Social DarwinismCarnegie argued that inbusiness, as in nature,unrestricted competitionallowed only the "fittest" tosurvive...
Carnegie also assertedthat great wealth broughtwith it socialresponsibility, andconsequently, he gavegenerously to charities
FACTORIES AND   CITY LIFE
Manufacturers cut costs andmaximized profits …hiring women and childrenhired the many newlyarrived immigrants whowere anxi...
Because manufacturerspaid as little as possible,the cities in which theiremployees lived sufferedmany of the problemsassoc...
… crime, disease,and the lack oflivable housing
Insurance and workmenscompensation did not existthen …poverty level in cities alsorose because those whocould afford it mo...
Cities became dirtier andgenerally less healthymass transportationallowed the middle classto live in nicerneighborhoods an...
immigrants andmigrants made upthe majority of citypopulations
Around 1880, the majority ofimmigrants arrived fromsouthern and eastern EuropePrior to 1880, most immigrantsto America cam...
New immigrants settled inethnic neighborhoods Most Americans expectedchurches, private charities,and ethnic communities to...
However, many of thoseservices were providedinstead by a group ofcorrupt men calledpolitical bosses
In return, they expectedcommunity members to vote asthey were instructedOccasionally they alsorequired "donations" tohelp ...
Political machinesrendered services thatcommunities would nototherwise have received …But the cost of theirservices was high
Labor unions formed… were consideredradical organizations
Haymarket Square Riot1886 labor demonstration … abomb went off, killing policeMany blamed the incident onthe influence of ...
Many early unions didsubscribe to utopianand/or socialist philosophies
AmericanFederation of Laborled by SamuelGompers
concentrated instead on suchissues as higher wages andshorter work daysexcluded unskilledworkers
Most unions refused toaccept immigrants andblacks among theirmemberships.
Charitable middle-classorganizations also madeefforts at urban reform…also foundedsettlement houses
In Chicago Jane Addamsfounded Hull HouseShe was awarded theNobel Peace Prize forher lifes work in 1931
Life improved for both thewealthy and the middle classgreater access to luxuriesand more leisure timeentertainment industr...
Large segments of the publicbegan to read popular novelsand newspapersJoseph Pulitzer and WilliamRandolph Hearst becamepow...
They understood thecommercial value of bold,screaming headlines and luridtales of scandalsensational reportingbecame known...
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOUTH
Postwar economics forced manyfarmers to sell their land towealthy landowners whoconsolidated into larger farmsfarmers were...
Landlords kept thepoor, both black andwhite, in a state ofvirtual slavery.
JIM CROW LAWSSouthern states, towns and citiespassed numerous discriminatorylawsSupreme Court ruled that theFourteenth Ame...
1883 the Court also reversedthe Civil Rights Act of 18751896 the Supreme Courtruled in Plessy v. Fergusonthat "separate bu...
Booker T. Washington… “accommodationist”more militant rivalW.E.B. DuBois      See handout
THE RAILROADS ANDDEVELOPMENTS IN THE        WEST
The railroads, although owned privately,were built largely at the publics expenserailroads would typicallyovercharge where...
Rails transformed depot townsinto vital cities by connectingthem to civilizationFaster travel meant morecontact with ideas...
… accelerated the industrialrevolution… first standardized methodof timetellingNew farm machinery and accessto mail (and m...
Morrill Land Grant Actprovided money foragricultural colleges
big losers in this expansionistera were Native AmericansDawes Severalty Actgave tracts of land to those wholeft the reserv...
NATIONAL POLITICSMark Twain dubbed theera between Reconstructionand 1900 the Gilded Age
politics looked good, but justbeneath the surface lay crasscorruption and patronagePolitical machines ran the citiesBig bu...
In response to the outcry overwidespread corruption, thegovernment made its first stabs atregulating itself and businessTh...
Pendleton Act created the CivilService Commission to overseeexaminations for potentialgovernment employeesSusan B. Anthony...
The bill was introduced every year andrarely got out of committeeAmerican Suffrage Associationfought for womens suffrageam...
THE SILVER ISSUE AND   THE POPULIST     MOVEMENTYou may find a PPT on this disk labeled WOOIf so, It would fit here
after the Civil War, productionon all fronts, industrial andagricultural, increasedGreater supply accordinglyled to a drop...
Farmers were locked intolong-term debts with fixedpaymentsAn increase in availablemoney, they correctlyfigured, would make...
It would also causeinflation, which would make thefarmers debts (held by Northernbanks) worth lessbanks opposed the plan -...
The "silver vs. gold" debateprovided an issue around whichfarmers could organizeGrange Movement
started out as cooperativesSoon, the Grangesendorsed politicalcandidates and lobbiedfor legislation
…replaced by FarmersAlliancesgrew into a politicalparty called thePeoples Party
Aside from supporting thegenerous coinage of silver, thePopulists called forgovernment ownership ofrailroads and telegraph...
Hard economic times madePopulist goals more popular,particularly the call for easymoneyEven more radicalmovements gainedpo...
1894 the Socialists, led byEugene V. Debs, gainedsupportDemocratic candidate WilliamJennings Bryan ran againstRepublican n...
He lost the campaign; this,coupled with an improvedeconomy, ended the Populistmovement.
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM:   FOREIGN POLICYAmerica began lookingoverseas to find newmarkets
Centennial celebration in 1876heightened national prideWilliam H. Seward, secretary ofstate under Lincoln and Johnson,set ...
He engineered thepurchase of Alaska andinvoked the MonroeDoctrine to force Franceout of Mexico
American businessesbegan developingmarkets and productionfacilities in LatinAmerica
Captain Alfred T. Mahan,in The Influence of SeaPower Upon History(1890), argued thatsuccessful foreign traderelied on acce...
…which requiredoverseas colonies,and colonies in turnrequired a strongnavy
United States had beeninvolved in Hawaii since the1870sDue in large part toAmerican interference, theHawaiian economycolla...
The white minorityoverthrew the nativegovernment, and,eventually, the U.S.annexed Hawaii
Gratuitous Aside:Do you have difficultyremembering when touse “good” and whento use “well”?
Just remember the  missionaries whowent to Hawaii to do good and did well.
The revolution in Cuba, like theHawaiian revolution, was instigatedby U.S. tampering with the CubaneconomyCuban civil war ...
When an American warship, theMaine, exploded in theHavana harbor U.S. blamedSpain.U.S. not only drove Spain out ofCuba, bu...
Treaty of Paris, Spaingranted Cubaindependence and cededthe Philippines, PuertoRico, and Guam to theUnited States
America hoped to gain entryinto Asian marketsMcKinley sought an opendoor policy for all westernnations hoping to tradewith...
Americanimperialism wouldcontinue throughTheodore Rooseveltsadministration
H/OThe age of Theodore Roosevelt
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5 1860 to-t._roosevelt-5

  1. 1. BUCHANAN, DRED SCOTT,AND THE ELECTION OF 1860 Buchanan tried to maintain the status quoHe opposed abolitionistactivism in the South andWest
  2. 2. The crisis over slavery escalatedwhen the Supreme Court ruledin the Dred Scott caseA former slave whose master hadtaken him to territories whereslavery was illegal, declaredhimself a free man and sued forhis freedom
  3. 3. The case finally wound upin the Supreme Court,where Scott lostChief Justice Roger Taneywho wrote the majoritydecision
  4. 4. Taneys proslavery decisiondeclared that slaves were property,not citizens and further, that noblack person could ever be a citizenof the United StatesTaney argued they couldnot sue in federal courts, asScott had done
  5. 5. Moreover, he ruled thatCongress could notregulate slavery in theterritories, as it had in theMissouri Compromise
  6. 6. Taney essentially toldRepublicans that theirgoal -freedom forslaves in theterritories- was illegal.
  7. 7. In the North, the Supreme Courtdecision was viciously denounced.Meanwhile, the Democratic partywas dividing along regional lines,raising the possibility that theRepublicans might soon controlthe national government
  8. 8. When it came time for theDemocrats to choose their 1860presidential candidate, theirconvention split.Northern Democratsbacked Stephen Douglas,Southerners backed JohnBreckinridge
  9. 9. A new party centered in theUpper South, the ConstitutionalUnion party, nominated John BellThe RepublicansnominatedAbraham Lincoln
  10. 10. Lincoln attracted 40percent of the voteand won the electionin the House of H/O Political andRepresentatives military developments
  11. 11. Southern leaders who wanted tomaintain the Union tried tonegotiate a compromiseLincoln refused to softenthe Republican demandthat all territories bedeclared free
  12. 12. In December 1860,three months beforeLincolnsinauguration, SouthCarolina seceded
  13. 13. Within months, seven stateshad joined South CarolinaThey chose JeffersonDavis to lead theConfederacy
  14. 14. Lincoln decided to maintain controlof federal forts in the South whilewaiting for the Confederacy to makea moveConfederacy put blockadearound Ft. Sumter to forceUnion out.
  15. 15. Lincoln sent ship with“medicines and supplies” torun blockade and force theissue.Confederate assault wasgood propaganda for Union.
  16. 16. No one died in thisfirst battle ofAmericas bloodiestwar, the Civil War.
  17. 17. THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1860-1877)Civil War was not solely(or even primarily)about slavery
  18. 18. Northerners believed they were fighting to preserve the UnionSoutherners felt they werefighting for their statesrights to govern themselves
  19. 19. … As columnist Charley Reese puts it,The North was fighting topreserve the UnionThe South was fightingto preserve theConstitution.
  20. 20. As late as 1862, Lincolnstated: "If I could save theUnion without freeing anyslaves I would do it …”
  21. 21. Ironically, as the Southernstates fought to maintain theright to govern themselveslocally, the Confederategovernment brought themunder greater central controlthan they had ever experienced
  22. 22. Jefferson Davis understood theNorths considerable advantagesHe took control of the Southerneconomy, imposing taxes andusing the revenues to spurindustrial and urban growth; hetook control of the railroads andcommercial shipping
  23. 23. He created a large governmentbureaucracy to overseeeconomic developmentsDavis, in short, forced theSouth to compensate quicklyfor what it had lost when itcut itself off from Northerncommerce
  24. 24. The Confederacy lagged too farbehind in industrialization tocatch up to the UnionRapid economic growth,furthermore, broughtwith it rapid inflation
  25. 25. In 1862 the Confederacyimposed conscription.“Surrogates” could be hiredby the wealthy.As a result, class tensionsincreased, leading ultimately towidespread desertions from theConfederate Army
  26. 26. The Northern economyreceived a boost from the waras the demand for war-relatedgoods, such as uniforms andweapons, spurredmanufacturing
  27. 27. A number of entrepreneurs became extremely wealthy.Some sold the Uniongovernment worthless food andclothing while governmentbureaucrats looked the otherway (for the price of a bribe).
  28. 28. Corruption was fairlywidespreadNorth experienced a period ofaccelerated inflation, althoughNorthern inflation was nowhereas extreme as its Southerncounterpart
  29. 29. Workers, worried about jobsecurity (in the face ofmechanization) and thedecreasing value of their wages,formed unionsBusinesses, in return, blacklistedunion members
  30. 30. The Republican Party,believing that governmentshould help businesses butregulate them as little aspossible, supportedbusiness in its oppositionto unions.
  31. 31. Lincoln, like Davis, oversaw atremendous increase in the power ofthe central government during thewar. He implemented economicdevelopment programs withoutwaiting for Congressional approval,championed numerous governmentloans and grants to businesses, andraised tariffs.
  32. 32. He also suspended the writ ofhabeas corpus in the borderstates, mainly to preventMaryland from seceding.During the war, Lincolnstrengthened the national bankand initiated the printing ofnational currency.
  33. 33. EMANCIPATIONOF THE SLAVESThe Radical Republicanwing of Congress wantedimmediate emancipation
  34. 34. Radicals introducedconfiscation acts in Congress.The first (1861) gave thegovernment the right toseize any slaves used for"insurrectionarypurposes."
  35. 35. The second confiscation act, ineffect, gave the Union the rightto liberate all slavesLincoln refusedto enforce it.
  36. 36. Note that the EmancipationProclamation did not free allthe slaves. Instead, it statedthat on January 1, 1863, thegovernment would liberate allslaves residing in those statesstill in rebellion
  37. 37. The proclamation did notliberate the slaves in theborder states such asMaryland, nor did it liberateslaves in Southern countiesunder the control of the UnionArmy.
  38. 38. The proclamation alsoallowed southern states torejoin the Union withoutgiving up slaveryThe EmancipationProclamation did have animmediate effect on the war
  39. 39. Escaped slaves and freeblacks enlisted in theUnion Army in substantialnumbers (a total of nearly200,000), greatly tippingthe balance in the Unionsfavor.
  40. 40. Further, it discouragedEuropean nations fromrecognizing and tradingwith the Confederategovernment
  41. 41. Not until two years later, whilecampaigning for reelection, did Lincolngive his support to complete emancipationAfter his reelection, Lincolnconsidered allowing defeatedSouthern states to reenter theUnion and to vote on theThirteenth Amendment
  42. 42. Lincoln also offered a five-yeardelay on implementing theamendment if it passed, as well as$400 million in compensation toslave ownersJefferson Daviss commitment tocomplete Southern independencescuttled any chance ofcompromise.
  43. 43. THE ELECTION OF1864 AND END OF THE CIVIL WAR
  44. 44. Lincolns opponent, GeneralGeorge McClellan, campaignedon a peace platformIn the South, citizens openly defiedthe civil authorityAnd yet, both sides fought on
  45. 45. Victories throughout thesummer of 1864 played a largepart in helping Lincoln gainreelectionIn April 1865 theConfederate leaderssurrendered
  46. 46. John Wilkes Boothassassinated Lincolnjust weeks before thefinal surrender tookplace
  47. 47. More than 3 million menfought in the war, and ofthem, more than 500,000died.Both governmentsran up huge debts
  48. 48. The South wasdecimated byUnion soldiers
  49. 49. During ShermansMarch from Atlanta tothe sea in the fall of1864, the Union Armyburned everything inits wake.
  50. 50. After the war, thefederal governmentremained large H/O Reconstruction
  51. 51. RECONSTRUCTION ANDJOHNSONS IMPEACHMENTWith Lincolns assassination,vice-president Andrew Johnsonassumed the presidency
  52. 52. Johnson, a SouthernDemocrat, had opposedsecession and stronglysupported Lincoln duringhis first termLincoln rewarded Johnsonwith the vice-presidency
  53. 53. When the war ended,Congress was in recessThat left the early stagesof Reconstructionentirely in Johnsonshands.
  54. 54. Johnsons Reconstructionplan, which was based on aplan approved by Lincoln,called for the creation ofprovisional militarygovernments to run the statesuntil they were readmitted tothe Union
  55. 55. Required all Southern citizensto swear a loyalty oath beforereceiving amnesty. However,It barred many of the formerSouthern elite (includingplantation owners, Confederateofficers, and government officials)from taking that vow
  56. 56. … thus prohibiting theirparticipation in the newgovernments.States would have to write newconstitutions eliminatingslavery and renouncingsecession
  57. 57. Johnson pardoned many of the Southernelite who were supposed to have beenexcluded from the reunification processThe plan did not workMany of their newconstitutions were onlyslight revisions of previousconstitutions.
  58. 58. Southern legislators also passed a series of laws defining the status of freedmenBlack codes, limited freedmensrights to assemble and travel, andrestricted their access to publicinstitutions. The codes institutedcurfew laws and laws requiringblacks to carry special passes.
  59. 59. When Congressreconvened in December1865, the new Southernsenators included thevice-president of theConfederacy and otherConfederate officials
  60. 60. NorthernCongressmenwere notpleased
  61. 61. Congress voted not toseat the new Southerndelegations. Then, it setabout examiningJohnsonsReconstruction plan
  62. 62. The radicals wanted aReconstruction that punished theSouth for seceding, confiscatedland from the rich andredistributed it among the poor.Johnson refused tocompromise
  63. 63. Instead, he declaredReconstruction over and donewith.The radicals drew up the planthat came to be known asCongressional Reconstruction
  64. 64. Its first component was the FourteenthAmendment to the Constitution. It(1) prohibited states from depriving anycitizen of "life, liberty, or property,without due process"; (2) gave states thechoice either to give freedmen the right tovote or to stop counting them among theirvoting population; (3) barred prominentConfederates from holding politicaloffice; and (4) excused the Confederacyswar debt
  65. 65. The new Congress quicklypassed the MilitaryReconstruction Act of 1867It imposed martial lawon the South
  66. 66. The act alsorequired each state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
  67. 67. Congress then passed a numberof laws designed to limit thepresidents powerJohnson did everything inhis power to counteract theCongressional plan
  68. 68. House JudiciaryCommittee initiatedimpeachmentproceedings againstJohnson
  69. 69. Although impeachmentfailed (by one vote), thetrial rendered Johnsonpolitically impotent
  70. 70. New president,Ulysses S. Grant
  71. 71. The Fifteenth Amendment,proposed in 1869, finallyrequired states toenfranchise black men.
  72. 72. The Fifteenth Amendmentpassed only because Southernstates were required to ratify itas a condition of re-entry intothe UnionA number of Northern statesopposed the amendment.
  73. 73. THE FAILURE OFRECONSTRUCTION
  74. 74. Southern governments directedHowever…mostly by transplantedNorthern Republicans, blacks,and Southern moderatescreated public schoolsorphanages
  75. 75. Although governmentindustrialization plans helpedrebuild the Southern economy,these plans also cost a lot ofmoney. High tax rates turnedpublic opinion, alreadyantagonistic to Reconstruction,even more hostile
  76. 76. Opponents waged apropaganda war…calling Southerners whocooperated scalawagsand Northerners whoran the programscarpetbaggers
  77. 77. Many who participatedin Reconstruction wereindeed corrupt
  78. 78. Accompanying thepropaganda war was awar of intimidation,spearheaded by the KuKlux Klan
  79. 79. Klan targeted those whosupported Reconstruction; itattacked and oftenmurdered scalawags, blackand white Republicanleaders, communityactivists, and teachers
  80. 80. President Grant enforcedthe law looselySupreme Court consistentlyrestricted the scope of theFourteenth and FifteenthAmendments
  81. 81. Slaughter-House case, the courtruled that the FourteenthAmendment applied only to thefederal governmentan opinion the courtstrengthened in UnitedStates v. Cruikshank
  82. 82. United States v. Reese, thecourt cleared the way for"grandfather clauses," polltaxes, propertyrequirements, and otherrestrictions on votingprivileges
  83. 83. Several Congressionalacts, among them theAmnesty Act of1872, pardoned many ofthe rebels, thus allowingthem to reenter public life
  84. 84. By 1876 Southern Democratshad regained control of mostof the regions statelegislatures
  85. 85. SOUTHERN BLACKSDURING AND AFTERRECONSTRUCTION
  86. 86. Freedmans Bureau helpedthem find new jobs and housingalso helped establish schoolsat all levels for blacks,among them FiskUniversity and HowardUniversity
  87. 87. Freedmans Bureau attempted toestablish a system in which blackscontracted their labor to whites,but the system failed … blacks preferred sharecropping
  88. 88. system worked at first, butunscrupulous landownerseventually used the systemas a means of keeping poorfarmers in a state of nearslavery and debt
  89. 89. led many freedmen to foundcommunities as far removed fromthe sphere of whites as possibleBlack churches sprang up asanother means by which theblack community could bondand gain further autonomy
  90. 90. Exodusters picked up andmoved to the Midwest(especially Kansas) wherethey attempted to startfresh in new blackcommunities
  91. 91. THE MACHINE AGE (1877-1900)
  92. 92. 1876 Thomas A. Edisonbuilt his workshop inMenlo Park, New Jersey…advances allowed for theextension of the work day (whichpreviously ended at sundown)and the wider availability ofelectricity
  93. 93. Last quarter of thenineteenth century isoften called the age ofinvention
  94. 94. INDUSTRIALIZATION,CORPORATE CONSOLIDATION, AND THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH
  95. 95. As more and faster machinesbecame available tomanufacturers, businessmendiscovered that their cost perunit decreased as the number ofunits they produced increased.The more raw product theybought, the cheaper thesuppliers asking price.
  96. 96. The closer to capacity they kepttheir new, faster machinesrunning, the less the cost oflabor and electricity perproduct. The lower their costs,the cheaper they could sell theirproducts. The cheaper theproduct, the more they sold.
  97. 97. That, simply put,is the concept ofeconomies ofscale
  98. 98. Factories were dangerousmachine malfunctions andhuman error typicallyresulted in more than500,000 injuries toworkers per year.
  99. 99. Courts of the era (especiallythe Supreme Court) wereextremely pro-businessbusinesses followed the paththat led to greatereconomies of scale, whichmeant larger and largerbusinesses
  100. 100. vertical integrationcentral organization called a holdingcompany owned the controllinginterest in the production of rawmaterial, the means of transportingthat material to a factory, the factoryitself, and the distribution network forselling the product
  101. 101. conclusion is amonopoly, or completecontrol of an entireindustry
  102. 102. Horizontal integrationOwning all of oneaspect of productionOne holding company, forexample, gained control of 98percent of the sugar refiningplants in the United States
  103. 103. Businessmen borrowed hugesums, and when theirbusinesses occasionally failed,bank failures could resultDuring the last quarter of thenineteenth century, the UnitedStates endured one majorfinancial panic per decade
  104. 104. monopolies created a class ofextremely powerful menpublic resentment increasedgovernment responded withlaws to restrict monopolies
  105. 105. Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890forbade any "combination... or conspiracy in therestraint of trade."
  106. 106. The Supreme Court thenruled (1) that a company thatcontrolled 98 percent of thenations sugar refiningbusiness did not violate thelaw, but that (2) trade unionsdid.
  107. 107. Social DarwinismCarnegie argued that inbusiness, as in nature,unrestricted competitionallowed only the "fittest" tosurvive, to the benefit ofeveryone
  108. 108. Carnegie also assertedthat great wealth broughtwith it socialresponsibility, andconsequently, he gavegenerously to charities
  109. 109. FACTORIES AND CITY LIFE
  110. 110. Manufacturers cut costs andmaximized profits …hiring women and childrenhired the many newlyarrived immigrants whowere anxious for work
  111. 111. Because manufacturerspaid as little as possible,the cities in which theiremployees lived sufferedmany of the problemsassociated with poverty
  112. 112. … crime, disease,and the lack oflivable housing
  113. 113. Insurance and workmenscompensation did not existthen …poverty level in cities alsorose because those whocould afford it moved away
  114. 114. Cities became dirtier andgenerally less healthymass transportationallowed the middle classto live in nicerneighborhoods andcommute
  115. 115. immigrants andmigrants made upthe majority of citypopulations
  116. 116. Around 1880, the majority ofimmigrants arrived fromsouthern and eastern EuropePrior to 1880, most immigrantsto America came from northernand western Europe
  117. 117. New immigrants settled inethnic neighborhoods Most Americans expectedchurches, private charities,and ethnic communities toprovide services for thepoor
  118. 118. However, many of thoseservices were providedinstead by a group ofcorrupt men calledpolitical bosses
  119. 119. In return, they expectedcommunity members to vote asthey were instructedOccasionally they alsorequired "donations" tohelp fund communityprojects
  120. 120. Political machinesrendered services thatcommunities would nototherwise have received …But the cost of theirservices was high
  121. 121. Labor unions formed… were consideredradical organizations
  122. 122. Haymarket Square Riot1886 labor demonstration … abomb went off, killing policeMany blamed the incident onthe influence of radicals withinthe union movement
  123. 123. Many early unions didsubscribe to utopianand/or socialist philosophies
  124. 124. AmericanFederation of Laborled by SamuelGompers
  125. 125. concentrated instead on suchissues as higher wages andshorter work daysexcluded unskilledworkers
  126. 126. Most unions refused toaccept immigrants andblacks among theirmemberships.
  127. 127. Charitable middle-classorganizations also madeefforts at urban reform…also foundedsettlement houses
  128. 128. In Chicago Jane Addamsfounded Hull HouseShe was awarded theNobel Peace Prize forher lifes work in 1931
  129. 129. Life improved for both thewealthy and the middle classgreater access to luxuriesand more leisure timeentertainment industrygrew
  130. 130. Large segments of the publicbegan to read popular novelsand newspapersJoseph Pulitzer and WilliamRandolph Hearst becamepowerful newspaperpublishers
  131. 131. They understood thecommercial value of bold,screaming headlines and luridtales of scandalsensational reportingbecame known as yellowjournalism
  132. 132. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOUTH
  133. 133. Postwar economics forced manyfarmers to sell their land towealthy landowners whoconsolidated into larger farmsfarmers were forced intosharecropping
  134. 134. Landlords kept thepoor, both black andwhite, in a state ofvirtual slavery.
  135. 135. JIM CROW LAWSSouthern states, towns and citiespassed numerous discriminatorylawsSupreme Court ruled that theFourteenth Amendment did notprotect blacks from discriminationby privately owned businesses
  136. 136. 1883 the Court also reversedthe Civil Rights Act of 18751896 the Supreme Courtruled in Plessy v. Fergusonthat "separate but equal"facilities for the differentraces was legal
  137. 137. Booker T. Washington… “accommodationist”more militant rivalW.E.B. DuBois See handout
  138. 138. THE RAILROADS ANDDEVELOPMENTS IN THE WEST
  139. 139. The railroads, although owned privately,were built largely at the publics expenserailroads would typicallyovercharge wherever they owneda monopoly and undercharge incompetitive and heavilytrafficked markets
  140. 140. Rails transformed depot townsinto vital cities by connectingthem to civilizationFaster travel meant morecontact with ideas andtechnological advancesfrom the East
  141. 141. … accelerated the industrialrevolution… first standardized methodof timetellingNew farm machinery and accessto mail (and mail-order retail)made life on the plains easier
  142. 142. Morrill Land Grant Actprovided money foragricultural colleges
  143. 143. big losers in this expansionistera were Native AmericansDawes Severalty Actgave tracts of land to those wholeft the reservations … goal wasto accelerate assimilation
  144. 144. NATIONAL POLITICSMark Twain dubbed theera between Reconstructionand 1900 the Gilded Age
  145. 145. politics looked good, but justbeneath the surface lay crasscorruption and patronagePolitical machines ran the citiesBig business bought votes inCongressWorkers had little protection fromthe greed of their employers
  146. 146. In response to the outcry overwidespread corruption, thegovernment made its first stabs atregulating itself and businessThe Interstate Commerce Actcreated a federal InterstateCommerce Commission toregulate unfair railroad practices
  147. 147. Pendleton Act created the CivilService Commission to overseeexaminations for potentialgovernment employeesSusan B. Anthony convincedCongress to introduce asuffrage amendment to theConstitution
  148. 148. The bill was introduced every year andrarely got out of committeeAmerican Suffrage Associationfought for womens suffrageamendments to stateconstitutionsBy 1890 they had achieved somepartial successes, gaining thevote on school issues
  149. 149. THE SILVER ISSUE AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENTYou may find a PPT on this disk labeled WOOIf so, It would fit here
  150. 150. after the Civil War, productionon all fronts, industrial andagricultural, increasedGreater supply accordinglyled to a drop in prices
  151. 151. Farmers were locked intolong-term debts with fixedpaymentsAn increase in availablemoney, they correctlyfigured, would makepayments easier.
  152. 152. It would also causeinflation, which would make thefarmers debts (held by Northernbanks) worth lessbanks opposed the plan -said use only gold toback its money supply.
  153. 153. The "silver vs. gold" debateprovided an issue around whichfarmers could organizeGrange Movement
  154. 154. started out as cooperativesSoon, the Grangesendorsed politicalcandidates and lobbiedfor legislation
  155. 155. …replaced by FarmersAlliancesgrew into a politicalparty called thePeoples Party
  156. 156. Aside from supporting thegenerous coinage of silver, thePopulists called forgovernment ownership ofrailroads and telegraphs, agraduated income tax, directelection of U.S. senators, andshorter work days
  157. 157. Hard economic times madePopulist goals more popular,particularly the call for easymoneyEven more radicalmovements gainedpopularity
  158. 158. 1894 the Socialists, led byEugene V. Debs, gainedsupportDemocratic candidate WilliamJennings Bryan ran againstRepublican nominee WilliamMcKinley (1896). Bryan ran on astrictly Populist platform.
  159. 159. He lost the campaign; this,coupled with an improvedeconomy, ended the Populistmovement.
  160. 160. AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: FOREIGN POLICYAmerica began lookingoverseas to find newmarkets
  161. 161. Centennial celebration in 1876heightened national prideWilliam H. Seward, secretary ofstate under Lincoln and Johnson,set the precedent for increasedAmerican participation in anyand all doings in the westernhemisphere
  162. 162. He engineered thepurchase of Alaska andinvoked the MonroeDoctrine to force Franceout of Mexico
  163. 163. American businessesbegan developingmarkets and productionfacilities in LatinAmerica
  164. 164. Captain Alfred T. Mahan,in The Influence of SeaPower Upon History(1890), argued thatsuccessful foreign traderelied on access to foreignports
  165. 165. …which requiredoverseas colonies,and colonies in turnrequired a strongnavy
  166. 166. United States had beeninvolved in Hawaii since the1870sDue in large part toAmerican interference, theHawaiian economycollapsed in the 1890s
  167. 167. The white minorityoverthrew the nativegovernment, and,eventually, the U.S.annexed Hawaii
  168. 168. Gratuitous Aside:Do you have difficultyremembering when touse “good” and whento use “well”?
  169. 169. Just remember the missionaries whowent to Hawaii to do good and did well.
  170. 170. The revolution in Cuba, like theHawaiian revolution, was instigatedby U.S. tampering with the CubaneconomyCuban civil war followed
  171. 171. When an American warship, theMaine, exploded in theHavana harbor U.S. blamedSpain.U.S. not only drove Spain out ofCuba, but also sent a fleet to theSpanish-controlled Philippinesand drove the Spanish out of theretoo
  172. 172. Treaty of Paris, Spaingranted Cubaindependence and cededthe Philippines, PuertoRico, and Guam to theUnited States
  173. 173. America hoped to gain entryinto Asian marketsMcKinley sought an opendoor policy for all westernnations hoping to tradewith Asia
  174. 174. Americanimperialism wouldcontinue throughTheodore Rooseveltsadministration
  175. 175. H/OThe age of Theodore Roosevelt

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